Premium Essay

Optimistic / Pessimistic Attribution Theory

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By derrica01
Words 2859
Pages 12
Final Project

Optimistic / Pessimistic Attribution Theory

Introduction There are many theories in the field of social psychology that can be used to explain, predict, or forecast behavior. As events occur throughout history, patterns can be analyzed and attributed to known theories that were birthed by educated scholars in this field. However, no theory s absolute in its outcome. As society changes, the applicability of each theory also changes. “Social Darwinism” was coined by Richard Hofstadter to label theories created around 1870 and primarily addresses survival and creation, as it was known in that era (Leonard, 2009). It is well known that Charles Darwin theorized that only the fittest members of society would ultimately survive. Modern science and technology has expanded to depths far beyond that of the 1800s. Research and real-time information has provided an outlet which allows scholars access to information that was not available during this period. The result of this influx of data allows current day researchers – and students – the ability to expound and expand older theories to fit modern culture. Whereas Darwin’s theory may have specifically defines mortality and the ability to thrive as it pertains to life and death, survival of the fittest can now be applied to a plethora of modern day situations, such as the stock market (only those who are savvy in the art of trading will be successful), technology (on the applications with user-friendly interfaces or operating systems will be most useful), or vehicles (only those that are the most fuel-efficient and eco-friendly will saturate the market). Old theories are the basis of new theories. While there is nothing new under the sun (Prickett & Carroll, 2008), there are ever-changing additions that spawn from the old – which can be considered “new...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Attribution Theory

...ATTRIBUTION THEORY (Attribution - to explain by indicating a cause) ATTRIBUTION THEORY - motivational theory looking at how the average person constructs the meaning of an event based on his /her motives to find a cause and his/her knowledge of the environment. Att. Theory basically looks at how people make sense of their world; what cause and effect inferences they make about the behaviors of others and of themselves. Heider states that there is a strong need in individuals to understand transient events by attributing them to the actor's disposition or to stable characteristics of the environment. The purpose behind making attributions is to achieve COGNITIVE CONTROL over one's environment by explaining and understanding the causes behind behaviors and environmental occurrences. Making attributions gives order and predictability to our lives; helps us to cope. Imagine what it would be like if you felt that you had no control over the world. (talk about later) When you make attributions you analyze the situation by making inferences (going beyond the information given) about the dispositions of others and yourself as well as inferences about the environment and how it may be causing a person to behave. Two basic kinds of attributions made: INTERNAL and EXTERNAL INTERNAL - dispositional EXTERNAL - situational Consequences of making inferences: 1) gives order and predictability; 2) inferences lead to behavior - you......

Words: 2096 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Learned Optimisim

...argument. Although I have not read the whole book, we were assigned to read chapters 1, 2, 3, and 12 and by that I was supplied with enough information to construct my own opinion on his claims. Martin Seligman argues that learning to be optimistic can change your way of life and empower yourself through non-negative thinking and I agree because after reviewing everything that I’ve been though these past 5 years, I found that having a positive mindset has got me though some of the hardest times in my life. Summary: In Learned Optimism, Martin Seligman argues that how you explain events to yourself after they happen has a huge impact on your life. In chapter one, Seligman defines two different type of people, pessimists – people who believe in bad events are their own fault and the consequences of the event will last a long time and optimists – people who believe bad events are only temporary, the events are not their fault and can either be caused by bad luck or other people. He goes on to explain that after 25 years of research, he is sure that if we believe bad events are our fault, more of it will befall on us and that the point of his book is to teach us how to recognize out pessimistic tendencies, stop them, and practice an optimistic lifestyle. He believes that because of the negativity that surrounds a pessimist, they will be more likely to become sick, depressed, and less likely to accomplish their goals. He provides the example of a young woman he knew who was set...

Words: 3295 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Intercultural Communication Plan for a Multicultural Classroom

...Mattye Thomas A Reference Guide of Social Psychology PSY 301: Social Psychology Laura Majoch December 17, 2012 A Reference Guide of Social Psychology Most individuals do not have a complete understanding about their social being. They are unsure of themselves and the things they are capable of. This reference guide will provide information pertaining how individuals discover more about their selves being consider of others, having some influence on others, whether persuading or obedient and conformity and some type of group dynamics. This information may help individuals to see their way through certain situations that may occur unexpectedly in their lives. A good source of reference with well detailed insights, would guide a person to the path of figuring out “self.” “Discovering the Self” How does one discover their self? We must discover ourselves by completely vacating our minds of all erroneous purposes that have been taught, and think of all the positive, yet true purposes of life. You can acquire this by setting goals, establishing values, and deciding early on in life the things that are important to one self. You may surround yourself around people who do not like you as much. Over a period of time, you begin to think less of yourself and this will affect your self-esteem. When individuals see their selves in the mirror, they do not stop to think whether the person they see is truly them; not a person others see them as. Individuals have to use their......

Words: 2375 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Assignment 2

...July 29, 2012 Discuss why Joe’s employees need to understand the importance of how people form perceptions and make attributions: Great Northern American, according to (Hellriegel, 2011), is a telemarketing organization that sells office supplies, promotional products, arts-and-crafts, and computer supplies over the phone. This publication will study the importance of how people form perceptions and make attributions as well as well as which learning theory (either the operant conditioning, social learning theory or learning theory) would be most appropriate for Joe Salatino to apply to motivate his salespeople. This publication will also study how Joe Salatino can use the value of self-efficacy to ensure that he hires quality salespeople that have the potential to be highly successful in a telemarketing environment. According to (Hellriegel, 2011, p. 104), “Perception is the process by which the individual selects, organizes, interprets, and responds to information.” Based on information from (Duggan, 2012), perception also includes the gathering of sensory information through the body via sight, sound, touch, taste and smell. The Attribution Process, according to (Hellriegel, 2011, p. 119), “refers to the ways in which people come to understand the causes of their own and others’ behaviors.” The need to understand a person’s perceptions and attribution processes is due to the nature of the environment in which Joe Salatino’s employees find themselves with regard......

Words: 3269 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Importance of Understanding How People Form Perceptions

...looking to hire new people; he looks for them to have great communication skills, be highly motivated and considerate. Finally, Joe looks for workers that know their strengths and weakness and thrive to take the initiative without having to be direct all the time. In the workplace, perceptions quickly become formed whether accurate or artificial. Perceptions and inaccurate assumptions of work habits, personal relationships are mostly form over company gossip. Joe Salatino needs to explain to his employees that perceptions in the workplace can impact careers, promotions, and retention. Deliberately or not, everyone has a personal perception of others in the workplace. Rather optimistic or pessimistic, perceptions are created by observation, including the opinions of others. People’s perceptions and attributions persuade how they behave in the workplace. Perception describes the way people filter, categorize and understand sensory...

Words: 1930 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Welcome to the Table

...In social psychology there are many aspects of the things that we do in our daily lives that have been scientifically investigated through scientific method for the sake of getting to know human behavior and to put reasoning behind the thought, feeling and behavior of human beings as they are influence by our environment and others, basically why we do what we do. Social psychology looks at a wide range of social topics some of which are perception, behavior, conformity, aggression and prejudice to name a few. This paper will highlight a few of the terminologies and theories in this discipline also give overview to some of these afore mentioned topics. Starting with the terminology used in social psychology we look at the concept of self, it is stated in the text Introduction to Social Psychology self-concept “is the collection of things you know about yourself—such as your overall cognitive understanding (learned beliefs, attitudes, and opinions) about yourself” (Feenstra, 2011). Looking at this statement, it can be determined that the ideas learned throughout life about one’s self is a product self-concept. Self schema is what is understood and gathered from self-concept. Text defines self-schema as “organizing this information, affecting how we view the world and takes in information” (Feenstra, 2011). What are gathered from a person as far as the sports they may play, going to church and time spent with my family are all things that can attribute to ones self-concept...

Words: 3379 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...Quarter 2 (7th)‐ “Melting Pot” and “How I Learned English”  Stage 1 –......

Words: 11026 - Pages: 45

Free Essay

Herd Behavior

...psychology of investors. In this approach, security expected returns are determined by both risk and misvaluation. This survey sketches a framework for understanding decision biases, evaluates the a priori arguments and the capital market evidence bearing on the importance of investor psychology for security prices, and reviews recent models. The best plan is . . . to profit by the folly of others. — Pliny the Elder, from John Bartlett, comp. Familiar Quotations, 9th ed. 1901. IN THE MUDDLED DAYS BEFORE THE RISE of modern finance, some otherwisereputable economists, such as Adam Smith, Irving Fisher, John Maynard Keynes, and Harry Markowitz, thought that individual psychology affects prices.1 What if the creators of asset-pricing theory had followed this thread? Picture a school of sociologists at the University of Chicago proposing the Deficient Markets Hypothesis: that prices inaccurately ref lect all available information. A brilliant Stanford psychologist, call him Bill Blunte, invents the Deranged Anticipation and Perception Model ~or DAPM!, in which proxies for market misvaluation are used to predict security returns. Imagine the euphoria when researchers discovered that these mispricing proxies ~such * Hirshleifer is from the Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University. This survey was written for presentation at the American Finance Association Annual Meetings in New Orleans, January, 2001. I especially thank the editor, George......

Words: 33427 - Pages: 134

Premium Essay


...race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, and culture) has mostly evolved independently. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to examine each of these dimensions of diversity to describe common themes across dimensions and to develop an integrative model of diversity. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. While the term “workforce diversity” is commonly used in scholarly articles as well as in the popular press, the focus and scope of the research is both varied and broad. Until recently, most studies have focused on a single dimension of diversity (e.g., age, sex, race) in a domestic, typically U.S. context. In a world of globalization populated by boundaryless and virtual organizations, it is time to revisit the old theories of diversity and to create a new set of paradigms. Therefore, in this article we examine multiple dimensions of diversity to assess the current status of the...

Words: 17588 - Pages: 71

Premium Essay

Behavioural Finance and the Psychology of Investing

...CHAPTER 9 Behavioural Finance and the Psychology of Investing “The investor’s chief problem, and even his worst enemy, is likely to be himself.” —Benjamin Graham “There are three factors that influence the market: Fear, Greed, and Greed.” —Market folklore Be honest: Do you think of yourself as a better than average driver? If you do, you are not alone. About 80 percent of the people who are asked this question will say yes. Evidently, we tend to overestimate our abilities behind the wheel. Is the same thing true when it comes to making investment decisions?  You will probably not be surprised when we say that human beings sometimes make errors in judgment. How these errors, and other aspects of human behaviour, affect investors and asset prices falls under the general heading of “behavioural finance.” In the first part of this chapter, our goal is to acquaint you with some common types of mistakes investors make and their financial implications. As you will see, researchers have identified a wide variety of potentially damaging behaviours. In the second part of the chapter, we describe a trading strategy known as “technical analysis.” Some investors use technical analysis as a tool to try to exploit patterns in prices. These patterns are thought to exist (by advocates of technical analysis) because of predictable behaviour by investors. Chapter 9 Behavioural Finance and the Psychology of Investing 273 9.1 Introduction to Behavioural Finance Sooner...

Words: 17663 - Pages: 71

Premium Essay

Origin of Baptist

...time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes. It also predicts human reactions to other people, problems, and stress.[1][2] There is still no universal consensus on the definition of "personality" in psychology. Gordon Allport (1937) described two major ways to study personality: the nomothetic and the idiographic. Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual. The study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology with an abundance of theoretical traditions. The major theories include...

Words: 12161 - Pages: 49

Premium Essay

An Accounting Method of Business

...ARTICLE IN PRESS Journal of Accounting and Economics 39 (2005) 509–533 To blame or not to blame: Analysts’ reactions to external explanations for poor financial performance$ Jan Barton, Molly Mercerà Goizueta Business School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA Received 3 March 2003; received in revised form 17 March 2005; accepted 4 April 2005 Abstract Managers often provide self-serving disclosures that blame poor financial performance on temporary external factors. Results of an experiment conducted with 124 financial analysts suggest that when analysts perceive such disclosures as plausible, they provide higher earnings forecasts and stock valuations than if the explanation had not been provided. However, we also show that these disclosures can backfire if analysts find them implausible. Specifically, implausible explanations that blame poor performance on temporary external factors lead We appreciate the helpful comments of Holly Ashbaugh, Charlie Bailey, Sudipta Basu, Robert Bloomfield (the referee), Jennifer Joe, Jay Koehler, Mark Kohlbeck, Lisa Koonce, Bob Lipe, Stan Markov, Ella Mae Matsumura, Brian Mayhew, Jeff Miller, Pam Murphy, Lisa Sedor, Siew Hong Teoh, Kristy Towry, Terry Warfield, Greg Waymire, Jerry Zimmerman (the editor), and seminar participants at University of Georgia, Harvard University, University of Notre Dame, Ohio State University, Rice University, University of Wisconsin—Madison, the 2003 AAA Financial......

Words: 11466 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Breaugh & Starke (2000)

... Citations Downloaded from at Universiteit van Amsterdam SAGE on November 9, 2009 Journal of Management 2000, Vol. 26, No. 3, 405– 434 Research on Employee Recruitment: So Many Studies, So Many Remaining Questions James A. Breaugh and Mary Starke University of Missouri–St. Louis Over the last thirty years, the amount of research on recruitment topics has increased dramatically. Despite this increase, recent reviews of the recruitment literature often have had a somewhat pessimistic tone. Reviewers have concluded that we still do not know a great deal about why recruitment activities have the effects they do. In particular, recent reviews have criticized many of the studies conducted for being poorly designed, narrow in focus, and not grounded in theory. We believe that many of these criticisms are legitimate. We also believe that, in order for future studies to result in a better understanding of the recruitment process, such studies need to be designed with an appreciation of the complexity of the recruitment process (i.e., the number of variables involved and the...

Words: 15879 - Pages: 64

Premium Essay

Nogo Railroad

...THE EFFECT OF SELF-LEADERSHIP AND LOCUS OF CONTROL ON WORK STRESS AMONGST MANAGERS IN THE FINANCIAL SERVICES SECTOR By Agnes Akwa Nde Student number: 2009103587 A Dissertation submitted in Accordance with the Requirements for the Award of a MAGISTER COMMERCII Degree In Industrial Psychology Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences The University of the Free State Supervisor: Prof. Ebben Van Zyl Co-Supervisors: Dr Petrus Nel & Dr Estelle Boshoff Bloemfontein, 2015 DECLARATION I declare that this dissertation hereby submitted by me for a Masters of Commerce degree at the University of the Free State is my own independent work and has not been previously been submitted by me at another university/faculty. I furthermore cede copyright of the dissertation in favour of The University of the Free State. .............................................................................. Signature .............................................................................. Date [ii] ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS A project of this nature could not have been complete without the support of some people. At this juncture, I will like to recognize the assistance of such people who made indispensable contributions towards the realisation of this work. I received much technical support from my supervisor Prof Ebben Van Zyl and cosupervisors Dr Petrus Nel and Dr Estelle Boshoff. I appreciate all the efforts they made in seeing that this study...

Words: 58744 - Pages: 235

Premium Essay

Management Accounting Models

...CLASSIFICATION OF COSTS: Manufacturing We first classify costs according to the three elements of cost: a) Materials b) Labour c) Expenses Product and Period Costs: We also classify costs as either 1      Product costs: the costs of manufacturing our products; or 2      Period costs: these are the costs other than product costs that are charged to, debited to, or written off to the income statement each period. The classification of Product Costs: Direct costs: Direct costs are generally seen to be variable costs and they are called direct costs because they are directly associated with manufacturing. In turn, the direct costs can include: • Direct materials: plywood, wooden battens, fabric for the seat and the back, nails, screws, glue. • Direct labour: sawyers, drillers, assemblers, painters, polishers, upholsterers • Direct expense: this is a strange cost that many texts don't include; but (International Accounting Standard) IAS 2, for example, includes it.  Direct expenses can include the costs of special designs for one batch, or run, of a particular set of tables and/or chairs, the cost of buying or hiring special machinery to make a limited edition of a set of chairs. Total direct costs are collectively known as Prime Costs and we can see that Product Costs are the sum of Prime costs and Overheads. Indirect Costs: Indirect costs are those costs that are incurred in the factory but that......

Words: 17187 - Pages: 69