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Organisation

In: Business and Management

Submitted By kiruthi
Words 2993
Pages 12
SRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
2 Mark Questions
1. Define Network.
A network is a set of devices connected by physical media links. A network is recursively is a connection of two or more nodes by a physical link or two or more networks connected by one or more nodes.
2. What is a Link?
At the lowest level, a network can consist of two or more computers directly connected by some physical medium such as coaxial cable or optical fiber. Such a physical medium is called as
Link.
3. What is a node?
A network can consist of two or more computers directly connected by some physical medium such as coaxial cable or optical fiber. Such a physical medium is called as Links and the computer it connects is called as Nodes.
4. What is a gateway or Router?
A node that is connected to two or more networks is commonly called as router or Gateway. It generally forwards message from one network to another.
5. What is point-point link?
If the physical links are limited to a pair of nodes it is said to be point-point link.
6. What is Multiple Access?
If the physical links are shared by more than two nodes, it is said to be Multiple Access.
7. What are the advantages of Distributed Processing?
a. Security/Encapsulation
b. Distributed database
c. Faster Problem solving
d. Security through redundancy
e. Collaborative Processing
8. What are the criteria necessary for an effective and efficient network?
a. Performance
It can be measured in many ways, including transmit time and response time.
b. Reliability
It is measured by frequency of failure, the time it takes a link to recover from a failure, and the network’s robustness.
c. Security
Security issues includes protecting data from unauthorized access and virues.
9. Name the factors that affect the performance of the network.
a. Number of Users
b. Type of transmission mediumSRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
c. Hardware
d. Software
10. Name the factors that affect the reliability of the network.
a. Frequency of failure
b. Recovery time of a network after a failure
11. Name the factors that affect the security of the network.
a. Unauthorized Access
b. Viruses
12. What is Protocol?
A protocol is a set of rules that govern all aspects of information communication.
13. What are the key elements of protocols?
The key elements of protocols are
a. Syntax
It refers to the structure or format of the data, that is the order in which they are presented. b. Semantics
It refers to the meaning of each section of bits.
c. Timing
Timing refers to two characteristics: When data should be sent and how fast they can be sent. 14. What are the key design issues of a computer Network?
a. Connectivity
b. Cost-effective Resource Sharing
c. Support for common Services
d. Performance
15. Define Bandwidth and Latency
Network performance is measured in Bandwidth (throughput) and Latency (Delay). Bandwidth of a network is given by the number of bits that can be transmitted over the network in a certain period of time. Latency corresponds to how long it t5akes a message to travel from one end off a network to the other. It is strictly measured in terms of time.
16. Define Routing
The process of determining systematically hoe to forward messages toward the destination nodes based on its address is called routing.
17. What is a peer-peer process?
The processes on each machine that communicate at a given layer are called peer-peer process.
18. When a switch is said to be congested?SRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
It is possible that a switch receives packets faster than the shared link can accommodate and stores in its memory, for an extended period of time, then the switch will eventually run out of buffer space, and some packets will have to be dropped and in this state is said to congested state.
19. What is semantic gap?
Defining a useful channel involves both understanding the applications’ requirements and recognizing the limitations of the underlying technology. The gap between what applications expects and what the underlying technology can provide is called semantic gap.
20. What is Round Trip Time?
The duration of time it takes to send a message from one end of a network to the other and back, is called RTT.
21. Define the terms Unicasting, Multiccasting and Broadcasting.
If the message is sent from a source to a single destination node, it is called Unicasting.
If the message is sent to some subset of other nodes, it is called Multicasting.
If the message is sent to all the m nodes in the network it is called Broadcasting.
22. What is Multiplexing?
Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link.
23. Name the categories of Multiplexing.
a. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)
b. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)
i. Synchronous TDM ii. ASynchronous TDM Or Statistical TDM.
c. Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM)
24. What is FDM?
FDM is an analog technique that can be applied when the bandwidth of a link is greater than the combined bandwidths of the signals to be transmitted.
25. What is WDM?
WDM is conceptually the same as FDM, except that the multiplexing and demultiplexing involve light signals transmitted through fiber optics channel.SRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
26. What is TDM?
TDM is a digital process that can be applied when the data rate capacity of the transmission medium is greater than the data rate required by the sending and receiving devices.
27. What is Synchronous TDM?
In STDM, the multiplexer allocates exactly the same time slot to each device at all times, whether or not a device has anything to transmit.
28. List the layers of OSI
a. Physical Layer
b. Data Link Layer
c. Network Layer
d. Transport Layer
e. Session Layer
f. Presentation Layer
g. Application Layer
29. Which layers are network support layers?
a. Physical Layer
b. Data link Layer and
c. Network Layers
30. Which layers are user support layers?
a. Session Layer
b. Presentation Layer and
c. Application Layer
31. Which layer links the network support layers and user support layers?
The Transport layer links the network support layers and user support layers.
32. What are the concerns of the Physical Layer?
Physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium.
a. Physical characteristics of interfaces and media
b. Representation of bits
c. Data rate
d. Synchronization of bits
e. Line configuration
f. Physical topology
g. Transmission mode
33. What are the responsibilities of Data Link Layer?
The Data Link Layer transforms the physical layer, a raw transmission facility, to a reliable link and is responsible for node-node delivery.
a. Framing
b. Physical AddressingSRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
c. Flow Control
d. Error Control
e. Access Control
34. What are the responsibilities of Network Layer?
The Network Layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of packet possibly across multiple networks (links).
a. Logical Addressing
b. Routing
35. What are the responsibilities of Transport Layer?
The Transport Layer is responsible for source-to-destination delivery of the entire message.
a. Service-point Addressing
b. Segmentation and reassembly
c. Connection Control
d. Flow Control
e. Error Control
36. What are the responsibilities of Session Layer?
The Session layer is the network dialog Controller. It establishes, maintains and synchronizes the interaction between the communicating systems.
a. Dialog control
b. Synchronization
37. What are the responsibilities of Presentation Layer?
The Presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two systems.
a. Translation
b. Encryption
c. Compression
38. What are the responsibilities of Application Layer?
The Application Layer enables the user, whether human or software, to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as e-mail, shared database management and other types of distributed information services.
a. Network virtual Terminal
b. File transfer, access and Management (FTAM)
c. Mail services
d. Directory Services
39. What are the two classes of hardware building blocks?
Nodes and Links
40. What are the different link types used to build a computer network?
a. CablesSRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
b. Leased Lines
c. Last-Mile Links
d. Wireless Links
41. What are the categories of Transmission media?
a. Guided Media
i. Twisted –Pair cable
1. Shielded TP
2. Unshielded TP ii. Coaxial Cable iii. Fiber-optic cable
b. Unguided Media
i. Terrestrial microwave ii. Satellite Communication
42. What are the types of errors?
a. Single-Bit error
In a single-bit error, only one bit in the data unit has changed
b. Burst Error
A Burst error means that two or more bits in the data have changed.
43. What is Error Detection? What are its methods?
Data can be corrupted during transmission. For reliable communication errors must be deducted and Corrected. Error Detection uses the concept of redundancy, which means adding extra bits for detecting errors at the destination. The common Error Detection methods are
a. Vertical Redundancy Check (VRC)
b. Longitudinal Redundancy Check (VRC)
c. Cyclic Redundancy Check (VRC)
d. Checksum
44. What is Redundancy?
The concept of including extra information in the transmission solely for the purpose of comparison. This technique is called redundancy.
45. What is VRC?
It is the most common and least expensive mechanism for Error Detection. In VRC, a parity bit is added to every data unit so that the total number of 1s becomes even for even parity. It can detect all single-bit errors. It can detect burst errors only if the total number of errors in each data unit is odd.
46. What is LRC?
In LRC, a block of bits is divided into rows and a redundant row of bits is added to the whole block. It can detect burst errors. If two bits in one data unit are damaged and bits in exactly the same positions in another data unit are also damaged, the LRC checker will not detect an error. In LRC a redundant data unit follows n data units.SRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
47. What is CRC?
CRC, is the most powerful of the redundancy checking techniques, is based on binary division.
48. What is Checksum?
Checksum is used by the higher layer protocols (TCP/IP) for error detection
49. List the steps involved in creating the checksum.
a. Divide the data into sections
b. Add the sections together using 1’s complement arithmetic
c. Take the complement of the final sum, this is the checksum.
50. What are the Data link protocols? Data link protocols are sets of specifications used to implement the data link layer. The categories of Data Link protocols are
1. Asynchronous Protocols
2. Synchronous Protocols
a. Character Oriented Protocols
b. Bit Oriented protocols
51. Compare Error Detection and Error Correction:
The correction of errors is more difficult than the detection. In error detection, checks only any error has occurred. In error correction, the exact number of bits that are corrupted and location in the message are known. The number of the errors and the size of the message are important factors.
52. What is Forward Error Correction:
Forward error correction is the process in which the receiver tries to guess the message by using redundant bits.
53. Define Retransmission:
Retransmission is a technique in which the receiver detects the occurrence of an error and asks the sender to resend the message. Resending is repeated until a message arrives that the receiver believes is error-freed.
54. What are Data Words?
In block coding, we divide our message into blocks, each of k bits, called datawords. The block coding process is one-to-one. The same dataword is always encoded as the same codeword.
55. What are Code Words? “r” redundant bits are added to each block to make the length n = k + r. The resulting n-bit blocks are called codewords. 2n – 2k codewords that are not used. These codewords are invalid or illegal.
56. What is aLinear Block Code?SRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
A linear block code is a code in which the exclusive OR (addition modulo-2) of two valid codewords creates another valid codeword.
57. What are Cyclic Codes?
Cyclic codes are special linear block codes with one extra property. In a cyclic code, if a codeword is cyclically shifted (rotated), the result is another codeword.
58. Define Encoder:
A device or program that uses predefined algorithms to encode, or compress audio or video data for storage or transmission use. A circuit that is used to convert between digital video and analog video. 59. Define Decoder
A device or program that translates encoded data into its original format (e.g., it decodes the data). The term is often used in reference to MPEG-2 video and sound data, which must be decoded before it is output.
60. What is Framing?
Framing in the data link layer separates a message from one source to a destination, or from other messages to other destinations, by adding a sender address and a destination address. The destination address defines where the packet has to go and the sender address helps the recipient acknowledge the receipt. 61. What is Fixed –Size Framing?
In fixed-size framing, there is no need for defining the boundaries of the frames. The size itself can be used as a delimiter.
62. Define Character Stuffing.
In byte stuffing (or character stuffing), a special byte is added to the data section of the frame when there is a character with the same pattern as the flag. The data section is stuffed with an extra byte. This byte is usually called the escape character (ESC), which has a predefined bit pattern.
Whenever the receiver encounters the ESC character, it removes it from the data section and treats the next character as data, not a delimiting flag.
63. What is Bit Stuffing?
Bit stuffing is the process of adding one extra 0 whenever five consecutive Is follow a 0 in the data, so that the receiver does not mistake the pattern 0111110 for a flag.
64. What is Flow Control?
Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data that the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment.
65. What is Error Control ?SRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
Error control is both error detection and error correction. It allows the receiver to inform the sender of any frames lost or damaged in transmission and coordinates the retransmission of those frames by the sender. In the data link layer, the term error control refers primarily to methods of error detection and retransmission.
66. What Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)?
Error control is both error detection and error correction. It allows the receiver to inform the sender of any frames lost or damaged in transmission and coordinates the retransmission of those frames by the sender. In the data link layer, the term error control refers primarily to methods of error detection and retransmission. Error control in the data link layer is often implemented simply: Any time an error is detected in an exchange, specified frames are retransmitted. This process is called automatic repeat request (ARQ).
67. What is Stop-and-Wait Protocol?
In Stop and wait protocol, sender sends one frame, waits until it receives confirmation from the receiver (okay to go ahead), and then sends the next frame.
68. What is Stop-and-Wait Automatic Repeat Request?
Error correction in Stop-and-Wait ARQ is done by keeping a copy of the sent frame and retransmitting of the frame when the timer expires.
69. What is usage of Sequence Number in Relaible Transmission?
The protocol specifies that frames need to be numbered. This is done by using sequence numbers. A field is added to the data frame to hold the sequence number of that frame. Since we want to minimize the frame size, the smallest range that provides unambiguous communication. The sequence numbers can wrap around.
70. What is Pipelining ?
In networking and in other areas, a task is often begun before the previous task has ended. This is known as pipelining.
71. What is Sliding Window?
The sliding window is an abstract concept that defines the range of sequence numbers that is the concern of the sender and receiver. In other words, he sender and receiver need to deal with only part of the possible sequence numbers.
72. What is Piggy Backing?
A technique called piggybacking is used to improve the efficiency of the bidirectional protocols. When a frame is carrying data from A to B, it can also carry control information about arrived (or lost) frames from B; when a frame is carrying data from B to A, it can also carry control information about the arrived (or lost) frames from A.
Big QuestionsSRI SAI RAM ENGINEERIG COLLEGE, CHENNAI – 44.
DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
Subject Code: MC1701 Subject Name : Computer Networks
1. With neat diagram Explain the OSI Layers
2. Explain in detail about the Internet Architecture.
3. Explain the error Detection methods
4. Explain the Framing Protocols
5. Explain the protocols used for Reliable transmission in a Network.

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...to attain victory over the rival team. Similarly, in a one-man business, all the activities are performed by the owner himself. But when the owner employs someone to assist him, he has to determine the work to be done by the employee and give him the right to use materials, machinery, equipment, etc. This is the point when organising becomes necessary. As more people are appointed, there has to be further division and sub-division of work among them. When an organisation becomes large, separate departments are created to perform different functions. Each department has to be divided into a number of smaller units. Ultimately, the work of the organisation is divided into a number of positions of employees and managers. Relationships are then established among the different positions in the organisation. The outcome of the organising process is a set of formal relationships which is known as organisation structure. In this lesson, we shall study about the process of organising which leads to the setting up of an organisation structure. 13.2 OBJECTIVES After studying lesson, you will be able to : � state the meaning and the process of organising; � enumerate the steps in the organising process; � explain what is done in each step; � state the meaning of...

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Organisation

...an area of study whereby organizations serve as the phenomenon of interest for theorization and explanation. The modernist perspective views organizations as objectively real entities operating in a real world and takes a positivist approach to generating knowledge. When well-designed and managed, organisations are systems of decision and action driven by norms of rationality, efficiency and effectiveness for stated purposes. Organisations in a modernist perspective are free of human constructions and drives towards achieving common goals. The symbolic interpretivists view organizations as continually constructed and reconstructed by their members through symbolically mediated interaction. The symbolic interpretive perspective focuses on the organization as a community sustained by human relationships and uses a predominantly subjectivist ontology and an interpretive epistemology. Organizations are socially constructed realities where meanings promote and are promoted by understanding of the self and others that occurs within the organizational context. Symbolic interpretivism focus of organizations evolves around interpretation through language and people in organisations tend to objectify themselves. The postmodernists view organizations as sites for enacting power relations,...

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Organisation

...organisation -organisation is a person or group of people intentionally organized to accomplish an overall or set of goals. -organisation is primarily driven by set of goals and aims. -an organisation will have controlled performance with standards, its members identifying: goals, measurement and comparisons of actual versus plan, corrective action. -the most basic organisation will have function such as finance, production and sales. -organisations have a purpose whether it is a company producing and selling ice cream, a charity, a tennis club. -organisations are made up at least 2 people. They have purposes, they use resources, to achieve the purposes. They perform activities in a planned and controlled manner. -the common characteristics of organisations are as follow: -each has an identity_ such as name -each has a purpose or objective_ such as written constitution -each relies of people to achieve objectives -each has a form of structure co-ordinating the people in the achievement of their tasks. Types of organisations There are different types of organisations: 1-Sole traders 2-The partnership 3-Companies 4-Franchising The sole trader The sole trader is the most common form of business ownership and is found in a wide range of activities (e.g. window cleaning, plumbing, electrical work, busking). No complicated paperwork is required to set up a sole trader business. Decisions can be made quickly and close contact can be kept with customers and......

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Synopsis

...Chapter17 Organization designs In this chapter the textbook talks about organization designs, how to deal with effectiveness and improve organization’s innovation. The textbooks focus more on different kinds of construction and make distinguish of them. These make me think more about the SAS case in this field. Last week we discussed the unique organization design and human resource policy of SAS. This two maybe is the most significant factors on it’s way to success. However, after reading this chapter, I have some suggestion for SAS. As we know, most SAS’s training programs are operated by their own. In other words, it seldom hires experts to make training for their employee. The case said this can help the company to reduce the labor cost. Quite the opposite, in this chapter, the textbook thinks in the learning organization, people transfer knowledge and changes its behavior on the new knowledge. I think SAS, since its business is about software, is such organization. So they need to hire the professional trainer to operate the programs. These can help them update their knowledge and improve their effective. Another point related to this case is about span of control. Like the real world/real people, managers may have different view about span of control. In the SAS case, Dr. Goodnight is the lead of 27 different departments. It is really unique. In my opinion, the SAS’s success under this design is based on the extremely reputation of Dr. Goodnight, his outstanding......

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Organisation

...declining unemployment rate, which does not necessarily means opportunities for workers are increasing. It is understood that those leaving the workforce to retire are older, more highly skilled workers, while those entering the workforce are younger and unskilled. In Jamaica, job training and secondary education is generally poor, hence the younger workforce cannot expect high paying jobs. Unemployment is particularly high among women and younger workforce. Trade Unions Labour unions existed in Jamaica before political parties came into being: the Bustamante Industrial Trade Union was formed in 1938 to protect the rights of workers. The government of Jamaica supports workers rights convention supported by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and has set conditions governing industrial and human relations, established minimum wage standards, and protected low-wage workers from income tax. Additionally, these benefits are provided: social security benefits, which include a retirement pension, food stamps, employment injury, rehabilitation and training. Despite the protection offered by unions and government regulations, conditions for workers in Jamaica are not ideal. Labour actions, strikes, slowdowns and protest have frequently disturbed worked life. The education and training system is Jamaica is of such low quality that few workers have the skills to secure higher paying skilled jobs. The adult literacy rate is significantly higher in Jamaica than......

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Organisation

...How does personality influence employee job satisfaction and organizational commitment? Introduction Organisations over the years are facing one of the toughest challenges of having a committed workforce in order to feature in the worldwide economic competition. Besides that, the leading challenge in management is how to assign suitable working position for employees. An employee who is satisfied with their job would perform and commit to their job and organization. Schultz and Schultz (2001) define personality traits are unique; this is because it can be internal or external aspects of a person’s character that will influence behavior. Personality traits are an important construct that has been used to predict job commitment (Judge,Heller & Mount, 2002). Besides that, personality five-factor model is also correlated with overall level of job satisfaction experienced by employees (Judge et al, 2002). Early researches tend to focus on job satisfaction as the key attitude related to employee behaviour such as job commitment and turnover (Locke, 1976).The relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment has been investigated extensively (Okpara, 1996) found that overall job satisfaction is significantly positively correlated with organizational commitment. However, it does not mean job satisfaction and organizational commitment is same. The objective of this assignment is to discuss and explore how personality traits can influence Job Satisfaction and......

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Organization Theory Research Paper

...Compare, Contrast and Discuss Mechanistic vs. Organic Structures Vance Conyers Organizational Theory 360A 28 September 2012 Organization structure is “The formal system of task and authority relationships that control how people coordinate their actions and use resources to achieve goals”. (Jones 8) The structure that an organization forms can determine its ultimate success of failure. It sets the foundation for how the organization will function, make decisions, and respond to change. The two types of structures an organization can use are mechanic and organic. Mechanistic and organic structures both have advantages and disadvantages, and neither one is a perfect solution. Depending on the product, tasks to create the product, and people to create the product, make the decision very challenging. In most cases, elements of both types are implemented to ensure a successful business. The executive management is responsible for formulating the right mix in order to achieve success. They use organizational design to process information to select the best options. Every aspect of this decision will play out from how much power middle managers have, to the scope of responsibility direct supervisors encompass. The type of organization directly affects the culture and moral of employees. Implementation of the wrong type or mix of structure can cause mismanagement of resources (both human and physical), a toxic culture, and ultimately a failed institution. The mechanistic......

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