Free Essay

Organization Citizenship Behaviour

In: People

Submitted By geetika1988
Words 3044
Pages 13
Organization Citizenship Behaviour


HsiuJu Rebecca Yen
Department of Business Administration
College of Management
Yuan Ze University
135 Far East Rd.
Chung Li, Taiwan


Brian P. Niehoff
Department of Management
101 Calvin Hall
Kansas State University
Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-4359
FAX: (785) 532-7024 e-mail:

Running Head: OCB and Effectiveness

OB/OT Track



Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) describe actions in which employees are willing to go above and beyond their prescribed role requirements. Prior theory suggests and some research supports the belief that these behaviors are correlated with indicators of organizational effectiveness. Studies have yet to explore whether relationships between OCB and organizational effectiveness are generalizable to non-U.S. samples. The present study examined relationships between OCB and two indicators of organizational effectiveness -- the efficient use of human resources and perceived service quality – for bank branches in Taiwan. The results supported a relationship between the OCB dimension of altruism and the efficient use of human resources. Implications of these results are discussed.

Key Words: citizenship behaviors, organizational effectiveness, service quality
The effective functioning of an organization depends on employee efforts that extend beyond formal role requirements (Barnard, 1938; Katz & Kahn, 1966; Organ, 1988). Organ (1988) termed these extra efforts “organizational citizenship behaviors” (OCB), and defined them to include activities that target other individuals in the workplace (e.g., helping coworkers or communicating changes that affect others) and the organization itself (e.g., actively participating in group meetings or representing the organization positively to outsiders). A few studies have shown that OCB are positively related to indicators of individual, unit, and organizational performance (George & Bettenhausen, 1990; Karambayya, 1990; MacKenzie, Podsakoff, & Fetter, 1991, 1993; Podsakoff, Ahearne, & MacKenzie, 1997; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994; Walz & Niehoff, 2000; Werner, 1994). These findings, however, have not yet been replicated with samples outside of the U.S. While there have been a number of studies applying the construct of OCB to Eastern cultures (e.g., Farh, Early, & Lin, 1997; Farh, Podsakoff, & Organ, 1990), none have examined whether OCB in such cultures show similar relationships with indicators of organizational performance. If these behaviors are significant antecedents to real firm performance, then managers will need to pay close attention to them and learn to reinforce them appropriately. If their effect is generalizable to other cultures outside the U.S., then appropriate managerial actions that increase OCB should be brought to such cultures. With the globalization of business opportunities, it is critical that U.S. researchers seek to understand the international generalizability of relationships found in U.S. samples.

In addition to the lack of cross-cultural replications, researchers have not determined which indicators of organizational effectiveness should be influenced by employee extra efforts. Organ’s initial assertion simply noted that OCB should impact the effective functioning of the organization. Theorists have noted that “organizational effectiveness” may be assessed using internal or external measures, and that these indicators often do not correlate with each other (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). For example, an internal measure such as efficiency, or outputs produced relative to inputs utilized, may have little relationship with customer satisfaction, an external assessment of effectiveness.

In his later work, Organ (1988) suggested that high levels of OCB should lead to a more efficient organization and help bring new resources into the organization. In Organ’s explanation, securing needed resources refers not only to the attraction of new members or raw materials, but also to such intangible factors as company good will, or the external image and reputation of the organization. Thus, customer perceptions of the organization’s products or services could be an external assessment of effectiveness that is influenced by OCB. Walz and Niehoff (2000) tested this interpretation and found that dimensions of OCB were indeed significantly related to measures of restaurant efficiency and customer satisfaction in a study of fast food restaurant workers. These findings concerning efficiency and customer satisfaction are compelling, suggesting that as employees help each other and go beyond their prescribed roles for the organization, the organization experiences both internal and external gains. Operations will be smoother and customers will perceive enhanced service.

The present study had two goals. First, the study specifically targeted measures of operational efficiency and customer perceptions of service quality. Walz and Niehoff (2000) examined a broad array of performance measures, and their most significant findings surrounded indicators of efficiency and service quality. The present study will provide some theory base for these effects and test them. Second, the study examined relationships between OCB and indicators of organizational performance in a different cultural setting, namely Taiwan. This replication was needed so that previous findings could be generalized beyond the U.S. Taiwan serves as an excellent starting point for such work since researchers have already developed an indigenous measure of OCB for the Chinese culture.

A Model of OCB and Organizational Effectiveness

Organ (1988) defined OCB as behaviors that are “discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promote the effective functioning of the organization” (p. 4). He identified five categories of OCB: (1) altruism -- the helping of an individual coworker on a task, (2) courtesy -- alerting others in the organization about changes that may affect their work, (3) conscientiousness -- carrying out one’s duties beyond the minimum requirements, (4) sportsmanship -- refraining from complaining about trivial matters, and (5) civic virtue -- participating in the governance of the organization. More recent conceptualizations of OCB offer slightly different categorizations. For example, Podsakoff and MacKenzie (1994) combined aspects of altruism and courtesy and termed it “helping.”

Research on the relationship between OCB and organizational effectiveness has progressed through a variety of interpretations of effectiveness beyond Organ’s (1988) notions of efficiency and the ability to secure needed resources. These studies have generally supported relationships between OCB and individual employee-level performance (MacKenzie et al., 1991, 1993; Werner, 1994), aggregated individual performance (George & Bettenhausen, 1990; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994), and group-level measures of performance (Karambayya, 1990; Podsakoff et al., 1997). Walz and Niehoff (2000) studied the relationship between aggregated levels of OCB and a number of store-level performance measures -- including profitability, operating efficiency, revenue-to-full-time-equivalent, and customer assessments of service quality -- in a chain of 30 fast food restaurants. They found the OCB dimension of helping to be positively related to operating efficiency, revenue-per-employee, quality performance, and customer satisfaction. They also found that all three measured dimensions of OCB (helping, sportsmanship, and civic virtue) were negatively related to customer complaints, while helping and sportsmanship were negatively associated with a measure of food waste. These findings thus supported Organ’s assertion that OCB should be related to some general categories of organizational effectiveness.

Why should OCB influence operational efficiency? Each dimension of OCB offers a different rationale for this relationship. Altruism or helping coworkers makes the work system more productive because one worker can utilize his or her slack time to assist another on a more urgent task. Acts of civic virtue may include offering suggestions for cost improvement or other resource saving ideas, which may directly influencing efficiency. To a lesser extent, conscientiousness employees, as well as those who avoid personal gain or other negative behaviors, demonstrate compliance with company policies and maintain predictable, consistent work schedules, increasing the reliability of the service. As reliability increases, the costs of rework are reduced, making the unit more efficient (Berry & Parasuraman, 1991).

Why should the dimensions of OCB impact customer perceptions of service quality? Altruism encourages teamwork and cooperation, allowing employees to increase the pool of available knowledge. Such teamwork should facilitate the more complex customer service tasks to be accomplished more quickly. Altruism promotes teamwork and cooperation among the employees. Fast service is a valued component in the minds of customers (Stuart, 1994). Case studies in retail and service organizations have found customer satisfaction to be directly affected by employee cooperation behaviors (Davis, 1994; Ferrero, 1994). Excellent customer service also depends on employees being informed with up-to-date knowledge about changes in products or services offered. When employees act on out-dated information, or provide customers with the wrong information, the image of the organization is tarnished. In order to keep all employees knowledgeable and current on products and services, formal training may be necessary (Berry & Parasuraman, 1991), but in addition, all employees must be willing to share, on a timely basis, any information regarding changes in procedures, services, or products. Employees who strongly identify with the company should be interested in maintaining their own and others’ base of knowledge. As stated earlier, conscientious employees who maintain predictable work schedules increase the reliability of the service. Such reliability will help retain customers and increase word-of-mouth marketing (Berry & Parasuraman, 1991). Finally, taking part in unit meetings or providing ideas that enhance customer service would qualify as acts of civic virtue, as long as they are not part of employees' official duties. The quality literature is filled with case examples of employee involvement enhancing customer perceptions of service (e.g., Banas, 1988; Ciampa, 1992; Hammer & Champy, 1993). Thus the linkage between OCB and customer service seems reasonable.
OCB and the Taiwanese Culture The study of OCB in Eastern cultures focused initially on leadership and task antecedents (Farh et al., 1990). This study found that leader fairness was associated with employee exhibition of OCB. Other studies in the U.S. supported OCB as being strongly related to perceptions of procedural and distributive justice (Folger & Konovksy, 1989; Moorman, 1991), suggesting that OCB was a response to a fair exchange between the employee and the supervisor or organization. Farh, Earley, and Lin (1997) commented that concepts of justice vary by people’s cultural values. They hypothesized that, for employees who held traditional Chinese collectivistic values, employees’ perceptions of justice would not be associated with OCB. In this tradition, a person’s feelings of justice or injustice do not enter into their choice to perform citizenship behaviors. Such employees would perform OCB as a matter of culture. Their study supported their hypothesis that traditional values would moderate the relationship between justice perceptions and OCB. To test their hypotheses, they developed a Chinese version of the OCB measure. The Chinese version included the dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue, but replaced sportsmanship and courtesy with two factors more closely related to the Chinese culture. Interpersonal harmony was one of the new factors, and was described as the avoidance of pursuing personal power and gain in the organization. The second new factor was termed protecting company resources, defined as the avoidance of negative behaviors that abuse company policies and resources for personal use. This five-factor model of OCB was supported and reliabilities for the factors were all strong. Given this model of Chinese OCB, it is necessary to revisit the hypothesized relationships to determine whether they would still obtain in the Taiwanese work environment. It seems evident that OCB and efficiency would be even more closely linked in Taiwan. The collectivistic nature of the Taiwanese culture (Hofstede, 1980) suggests that workers will seek ways to help each other. One’s coworkers are part of the organizational family, and traditional values place great emphasis on such relationships. Similarly, employees who strongly identify with the organization (i.e., high civic virtue) and seek to protect company resources from abuse will do what it takes to improve efficiency. The relationship between OCB and customer service quality in Taiwan is not as clearly predictable as that with efficiency. There are no evident cultural characteristics suggesting that Taiwanese employees who engage in OCB would not be able to impact customer’s perceptions of quality in the same manner as U.S. employees. Many of the OCB activities across the five dimensions are “behind the scenes” activities. They may not be visible to the customer, and their influence on customer service quality is likely to be rather indirect. Thus, there is no clear reason to predict relationships between OCB and customer service quality would differ in a Taiwanese organization compared to those in a U.S. organization. Overall, it is predicted that findings in U.S. organizations concerning the relationships between OCB and organizational effectiveness will be replicated in Taiwan. In addition, the inclusion of COCB in the study of the relationship between OCB and organizational effectiveness represents a new overall direction. It is believed that this more complete model will help sort out the differential effects of OCB and COCB on indicators of effectiveness. The following hypotheses summarize the predictions of the present study:

Hypothesis 1: In a Taiwanese organization, dimensions of OCB will be positively associated with measures of the efficient use of human resources (or negatively associated with the cost of human resources).

Hypothesis 2: In a Taiwanese organization, dimensions of OCB will be positively associated with customer’s perceptions of service quality.

Sample and Data Collection Procedures

Data were gathered from supervisors, customers, and performance records of 26 branches of a retail bank in Taiwan. At each branch, approximately 10 employees were randomly selected from an employee list provided by the human resource department. A total of 251 employees were selected as participants in the study. The sample of employees were equally split between males (49%) and females (51%), 85% of the employees were between the ages of 25 and 39, 61% were single, and 49% had been with the bank for 1 to 3 years. For the present study, no data were gathered directly from the employees. The supervisor of each selected employee completed the measures of OCB for that employee. A total of 92 supervisors participated in the study (many supervisors completed surveys on more than one employee). Also at each branch, approximately 20 customers were randomly selected to complete the measures of customer service quality. A total of 530 customers completed information on service quality, but missing data resulted in a total of 515 valid customer surveys completed. Branch managers provided information on the cost of human resource usage and profitability for each branch.


Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The measure was comprised of the 22-item scale from Farh et al. (1997). This measure assesses 5 dimensions of OCB including altruism, conscientiousness, civic virtue (identification with the company), interpersonal harmony, and protecting company resources. This measure was specifically developed for use in Eastern cultures. Responses to all items were on a 5-point scale ranging from (1) strongly disagree to (7) strongly agree. Customer Perceptions of Service Quality. Three measures were used to assess different aspects of customer perceptions of service quality. First, the reliability of service was measured using the Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry (1988) 4-item dimension of reliability. Second, perceived support for customers, which reflects customers’ perceptions of the support they receive from employees, was measured using the 14 items adapted by Bettencourt (1997) from the measure of perceived organizational support developed by Eisenberger, Fasolo, & Davis-LaMastro (1990). Third, customers’ trust in the company was measured using a 9-item scale developed by Crosby, Evans, and Cowels (1990). All three scales were measured with 5-point scales. Efficient Use of Human Resources. Branch efficiency was assessed using the cost of human resources. This measure included the cost of employee salaries and additional pay for overtime. Since bank size could affect efficiency figures, calculations were made to obtain efficiency per employee.


Aggregation of OCB Measures Since Organ’s (1988) prediction of the impact of OCB on consequences implies that it is aggregated OCB that influences performance, and that the efficiency indicator was calculated at the branch level, it was decided that the branch level was the appropriate level for assessing hypothesized relationships. Thus it was necessary to aggregate the OCB data, as well as the customer perceptions of service quality in order to obtain one score for each variable per branch (cf. Podsakoff et al., 1997; Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1994). Rousseau (1985) suggested that data aggregation is appropriate when: (a) aggregation adds meaning to the individual-level data, (b) within-group variance is less than between group variance, and (c) the theory of interest supports aggregating the individual scores on the variable of interest. In response to the first criteria, there is empirical support for validity of the OCB construct at the individual-level of analysis (cf. MacKenzie et al., 1991; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990). Also, Organ (1988) clearly proposes that it is the aggregate actions of individuals exhibiting OCB that improve organizational functioning. Therefore, aggregation adds meaning to individual-level data, particularly for the relationships being investigated. Second, ANOVAs were calculated comparing the variance within the branches to the variance between the branches. For each of the aggregated variables (i.e., 5 dimension of OCB and the 3 service quality measures), there was significantly greater variance between branches than within branches (all F-values significant at p < .05). Empirically, it appears that aggregating the data at the branch level would be appropriate. Finally, as Organ has noted, one employee engaging in OCB will not likely make a dent in organizational effectiveness; it is only the actions of many employees that result in improvements. Thus, the theory suggests that it is the combined behaviors of the group of employees, rather than the individual behaviors, which are likely to influence the organizational effectiveness concepts of efficiency and customer perceptions. Based on these empirical and conceptual reasons, it was determined that data aggregation by branch was appropriate.

Hypothesis Testing

Table 1 shows the correlations among all measured variables, and reliability coefficients of those variables for which coefficient alpha could be computed. As shown, all reliabilities for measured variables are above the .70 level, with most above the .80 level.
Insert Table 1 about here
The two hypotheses were designed to test the OCB - efficiency and OCB - customer service quality linkages found in the U.S. would be replicable in a Taiwanese organization. Specifically, Hypothesis 1 predicted that OCB dimensions would be correlated negatively with the cost of human resources. As shown, altruism was significantly correlated with the cost of human resources (r = -.47, p

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Pdf, Doc,

...Communication, Job Stress and Citizenship Behaviour of IT Employees in Nigerian Universities Fidelis Aondoaseer Ayatse (PhD) Department of Business Administration College of Management Sciences University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria Darius Ngutor Ikyanyon (Corresponding Author) Department of Business Management Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria E-mail: Received: June 23, 2012 doi:10.5430/jbar.v1n1p99 Abstract The study examined the relationship among organizational communication, job stress, and citizenship behaviour of IT employees in Nigerian universities and investigated if differences existed in the rating of these variables between federal and state university employees. Data were collected from IT employees in University of Agriculture Makurdi and Benue State University Makurdi (n = 49). Using Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and regression model as tools of data analysis, the study found that there was no difference in organizational communication and stress levels between IT employees in federal and state universities. However, differences existed in citizenship behaviour between the two samples, with IT employees in the state university showing higher levels of citizenship behaviour. The study also found a significant positive relationship between organizational communication and citizenship behaviour while stress levels were not found to be related to either organizational communication or citizenship behaviour. The......

Words: 5000 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay


...Investigating the Impact of OJ & POS upon OCB: An Empirical Study Of LIC Employees In And Around Chandigarh. A SYNOPSIS SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY BUSINESS SCHOOL PANJAB UNIVERSITY CHANDIGARH ON SEPT 11, 2012 SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Dr. RUPINDER KAUR BIR PARMEEN MBA (HR) 3RD SEM ROLL NO: 18[pic] CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………..2 - Organisational citizenship behaviour……………………….........................2 - Organisational justice……………………………………………………......3 - Perceived organisational support…………………………………………...5 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE……………………………………………………6 - Literature review of OCB……………………………………………………7 • Dimensions of OCB…………………………………………………….....8 • OCB as latent construct……………………………………………….......11 - Literature review of OJ………………………………………………………12 • Organisational support theory……………………………………….......13 • Justice fosters employees OCB……………………………………….......14 • Justice builds customer satisfaction and loyalty……………………......14 • Justice builds trust and commitment…………………………………….15 ......

Words: 10790 - Pages: 44

Free Essay


...26-34 | | Hierarchical Regression | 35 | V | Findings | 36-38 | VI | Conclusion | 39 | VII | Reference | 40-45 | VIII | Annexure | 44-48 | ABSTRACT The study on Psychological Capital, Job Satisfaction & Organisational Citizenship Behaviour explores the association of employees psychological capital with there job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour in IT sector. The study also tries to examine the mediating role played by job satisfaction between psychological capital and Organisational citizenship behaviour. A self reported paper based questionnaire survey will be conducted on employees working in IT firms in Kochi. The study was conducted among employees who were team leaders and entry level engineers employed at IT firms in Kochi. The employee with positive psychological capital and job satisfaction will exhibit organisational citizenship behaviour. Many studies have been conducted previously to identify the relationship between the variables such as on Psychological Capital, Job Satisfaction & Organisational Citizenship Behaviour. The research showed positive relation among the three variables and job satisfaction having partial mediation between psychological capital and organisational citizenship behaviour. LITERATURE REVIEW I. LITERATURE REVIEW Information technology is playing a major role in India today and has transformed India's image from a slow moving bureaucratic economy to a land of innovation. The IT sector in India is......

Words: 9598 - Pages: 39

Free Essay

Wip Paper

...Cultural values and Workplace Attitudes and Behaviours: Examining the moderating effects of individual-level cultural values on social exchange relationships involving organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in Pakistani organizations Samina Quratulain* Abdul Karim Khan* CERGAM, Université Paul Cézanne Aix-Marseille-III, France ABSTRACT The relationships among employee’s work related variables, cultural variables and OCB are investigated in Pakistani work setting. Based on the review of literature it has been observed that perceived organizational justice (procedural, distributive & interactional justice) is an important antecedent of OCB. This study intends to extend the previous research by assessing the validity of social exchange theory within Pakistan where norms of reciprocity (social exchange ideology) may play a lesser role in social exchange relationships. The primary objective of the study will be to compare the influence of individual differences in values using Hofstede’s cultural value framework (collectivism-individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity, Power distance) as moderators of generally well established positive relationships between OCB & employee’s perception of organizational justice. The results will provide insights into the influences of employees value differences on relationships established in management literature. Keywords: Organizational citizenship behaviour; Individual-level cultural......

Words: 7023 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Miss of Organizational Citizenship Behaviours, Organizational Structures and Open Innovation M. Muzamil NAQSHBANDI* Dr. Sharan KAUR Deptt of Business Strategy and Policy Faculty of Business and Accountancy University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia- 50603 E-mail:* Abstract With increasing technological advances, the need to create not only innovations but faster innovation has become a part of sustaining or gaining competitive advantage. Open innovation paradigm answers this need by utilizing larger resources and expertise that firms involved in the open innovation process offer. Given the recency of the concept of open innovation, the factors that influence the creation of open innovation are hazy. Most of the research on open innovation looks at the “hard” aspects of organizations, while the soft issues stand less researched. This conceptual paper draws attention to two such aspects of organization: organizational citizenship behaviour and organizational structure. This paper proposes that practicing organizational citizenship behaviours by the employees enhances the chances of creation of open innovation while not doing so can botch up the whole exercise particularly during the infancy stage. It is also proposed that informal organizational structures favour creation of innovation in the open innovation paradigm more than the rigid formal structures. It is further argued that besides proper citizenship behaviours and......

Words: 9354 - Pages: 38

Free Essay

Ocb and Predicting Factors

...Organisational Citizenship Behaviours: A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Literature on Predicting Factors and Suggestions for Future Research. In today’s competitive business environment organisations constantly strives for achieving excellence by enhancing employee’s efficiency and effectiveness. One way, organisations can achieve this objective is through Organisational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) (Bolino & Turnley, 2003; Organ, 2006). Organ and colleagues first conceptualized OCB in 1988. Organ (1988, p.4) defined OCB as “individual behaviour that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognised by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization.” Researches have identified numerous dimensions of OCB (Podsakoff & MacKenzie, 1997). Organ (1988) suggested a five-factor model composed of five dimensions; altruism, courtesy, conscientiousness, civic virtue and sportsmanship, which most conceptualisations of OCB are based on. Altruism refers to behaviours that involve helping another person, such as helping a colleague with a heavy workload. Courtesy involves being polite and courteous to prevent work related problems, for example, informing a coworker or a change that may affect them introduced by you. Conscientiousness refers to doing more than just the minimum to prevent and minimize error, in terms of attendance and punctuality. Civic virtue refers to employees genuine concern and interest in......

Words: 4044 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

How Does Positive Affect Influence Organizational Citizenship Behaviours

...Work and Well-Being How and to what extent does positive affect influence organizational citizenship behaviours? January 2006 Introduction This essay is broken down into various sections to develop the ‘building blocks’ upon which we can provide an answer to the question. In section 1, we will look at the core constructs of ‘positive affect’ (PA) and ‘organizational citizenship behaviours’ (OCBs). In section 2, we will answer the question of how PA influences OCBs by looking at some of the main theories and models. In section 3, the extent to which PA influences OCBs will be considered by reviewing the empirical evidence. Finally, section 4 attempts to draw conclusions and provides an overall discussion. Section 1 - Definitions This section looks at the constructs of ‘positive affect’ and ‘organizational citizenship behaviours’. Positive Affect (PA) Between the 1930s, when it started to emerge as a construct of interest to organizational research, and the mid-1980s, affect at work was construed almost exclusively in terms of job satisfaction (Brief & Weiss, 2002). However, Organ & Near (1985) argued that job satisfaction has both a cognitive (belief, judgement, comparison) as well as an affective (emotional, feeling) dimension, whereas most measures of job satisfaction tended to focus on the cognitive element. This distinction is important: Weiss & Cropanzano (1996) see affective......

Words: 4423 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Organizational Behavior in the Context Incepta Pharmacuticles

...CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION * Background of the study This term paper is prepared as a requirement of the course curriculum of “organizational behaviour in the context of a local company” by studying organizational behaviour practice in INCEPTA PHARMACEUTICALS CO. LTD. After studying on this company, we came to know about various factors of employee’s organizational behaviour. * Objective The objective of our study is to find out the expected organizational behaviour on the basis of OB model. The company that we studied is INCEPTA PHARMACEUTICALS. The study is focused on the following aims: * To identify the specific goals of the company. * To achieve knowledge about the company profile. * To know about the present business scenario of the company. * To know the level of the employee’s organizational behaviour. By evaluating these topics we will identify the organizational behaviour on the context of this company. * Methodology There are two types of sources of methodology. One is primary and another is secondary sources while conducting the study both primary and secondary information were explored. But hardly any primary information could be found. In the absence of primary information the majority of the study has been based on secondary information. We went for the answers in the analytic point of view, which provides the mitigation of our requirements. For the procurement of data, we had to take support of some specific methods as follows: Sometimes......

Words: 4689 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

...Executive Summary The world is more concerned about organizations with high rate in their performance, effectiveness, employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, career development and etc. Thus, organizations want employees to go behind their day-to-day job duties and exceed expectations. Literatures suggest that these extra-voluntary behaviors, called organizational citizenship behaviors, are positively related to the indicators of organizational effectiveness. Katz and Kahn (1978) mentioned that organizational citizenship behaviors can be extremely valuable to organizations and can contribute to enhance better performance as well as competitive advantage (Jahangir & Akbar 2004). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and its impacts on organizational effectiveness. The first section will define organizational citizenship behaviors and reviews some standpoints from different authors. The second section will explain the main types of behaviors. However, many behavioral patterns are likely to fall into this category, but we focus on the most important ones. Furthermore, the antecedents of the OCBs as well as its consequences will be discussed. Finally the paper will propose HR practices that can help to encourage employees to exhibit favorable behaviors and enhance effective OCBs. An Introduction to Organizational Citizenship Behavior Katz, as far back as 1964, was the one who emphasized on the need for a......

Words: 4135 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Emlployee Behaviour and Motivation

...EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOUR AND MOTIVATION   CONTENTS Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 4 2.0 Employee Behaviour 5  Performance Behaviour 5  Organisational Citizenship 5  Counterproductive Behaviours 5 3.1 Motivation 6 3.1 Motivation Theories 6  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Teory 6  Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory 7  Achievement/Acquired Need Theory 8 4.0 Techniques of Motivation 9 5.0 Conclusion 10 6.0 Annexure 11 7.0 Refernces 12   1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this assignment is to understand the Employee behaviour and how the employee gets motivated. Furthermore, Employee behaviour has changed in many years, for an instance, there are different ways an individual handles and responds to a situation, One Individual can handle the stress situation in a calm and quiet way, but another individual would be having a very difficult time facing the challenge and the stress in a working environment. In this assignment the employee behaviour would be explained and the different types of employee behaviour be covered. With that the individual differences among employees such as personality and attitudes, how it affects their jobs would be explained as well. And in this assignment I will be also talking about the People who are suitable for the job, in other words matching people and jobs and with that how an individual is motivated and what can an organization do to motivate employees like providing attractive incentives, recognition,......

Words: 1837 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Study Case

...MGT1000 Organisational behaviour and management Marking criteria for assignment: CRITERIA | FAIL Less than 50% | PASS 50%–64% | CREDIT 65%–74% | DISTINCTION 75%–84% | HIGH DISTINCTION 85% and up | TOTAL | Content | No demonstrated understanding of question; not all issues relevant to question have been answered; inaccurate and irrelevant theory/content; obvious content missing | Borderline understanding of question; may not have answered all the issues relevant to the question but has dealt with the major ones; some minor inaccurate and or irrelevant theory/content | Sufficient understanding of question; answers all parts of the question, even if the content is a little uneven in quality; has attempted critique e.g. linked theories or evaluated theory; only very few very minor inaccuracies in content/theory evident | Good understanding of question; answers all parts of the question to a good standard– includes critical analysis of relevant issues pertaining to the question, even if a little of this critique is a little weak in parts; no inaccuracies in content/theory evident; may include some original content | Unequivocal understanding of question; answers all its parts comprehensively and accurately and excellent critical analysis of relevant issues pertaining to the question; usually includes some original content; no inaccuracies in the theory / content | | Mark out of 30 | <15 | 15-19.4 | 19.5-22.4 | 22.5-25.4 | 25.5 | 26 | Referencing and......

Words: 3296 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...Organizational Structures (Author’s name) (Institutional Affiliation) Date Introduction The organization of corporate structures is important in the allocation of duties and roles, supervision of employees at the workplace as well as the efficient coordination of workflow in an organization. These plans form the basis of effective operations of any company’s projects, and give accurate insights on the exploration of the minimal resources available to an organization’s disposal. Besides, it enables any company to manage the work force in the process of timely completion of projects and extension of the businesses longevity. Therefore, it is important to define the roles of each party in any project assigned to the organization. Analysis of the case: designing the authorities of a project manager The Beijing EAP Inc. is a company that provided EAPs to many customers. The nature of its operations required the employees to have strong academic backgrounds that qualified them to operate in this multinational service company. Being the largest market holder in the mainland China, the Company had a huge customer base that categorized it as a big corporation. Amongst some customers of BEC were IBM, Siemens, Samsung, Lenovo, Guadong Mobile and the China Development Bank. Consequently, the Company had many projects that prompted the management to subdivide the projects to different segment managers. In this case study, for instance, Mr. Yang represents a training......

Words: 1304 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Impact of Politics on Job Performance

...| Impact of Perceived Organizational Politics on Job Performance with Perceived Organizational Support as a Mediator | | Submitted in partial fulfillment of the course: Social Research Methods | | | Submitted By:- Chaitanya Peddi (P10076) Faiz Abdullah (P10081) Neeti Kumar (P10092) Raja Sameer (P10102) 3/23/2010 | ABSTRACT Purpose The purpose of this research paper is to measure the effect of perceived organisational politics on job performance, using perceived organisational support as a mediator. Further, this paper also aims to measure the moderating impact played by the respondents’ gender in the same. Design/Methodology/Approach A questionnaire was given to professionals working in the services industry through the internet asking about their opinions on the existence of politics in their company, the level of support that they receive from their organisation, and a self appraisal on their job performance. Findings Perceived organisational support fully mediated the relationship between perceived organisational support and job performance. Our study also concludes that perceived organisational politics has a greater impact on men than women. Research Limitations/Implications A self reported cross sectional questionnaire form was administered to collect all measures. The number of respondents to this survey was limited to the employees of the Service sector in India. Future scope in this area could focus on other sectors in India,......

Words: 6522 - Pages: 27

Free Essay


...Contents Executive Summary The project aims at the identification of the most important factors that are relevant to job performance for a professional employed as a trainer in the Adventure Sports sector. Through this, we plan to identify the relevant concepts of motivation, personality, leadership and team behavior etc which play a role in these organizations and the impact of these parameters on the performance of personnel employed in this sector. The study was divided into two phases. In the first phase, through extensive interviews, we identified three variables: passion for exploration, independence and recognition as having the maximum impact on the performance of an adventure sports professional. In the second phase, surveys were conducted on a larger sample of people and statistical analyses done to validate the hypotheses that were formed in the first phase. On the basis of this, it was found that the impact the variable passion for exploration has on job performance is completely explained by the three performance dimensions while the other two variables are partially supported. 1. Introduction Adventure Sports refers broadly to all those activities with a certain level of inherent danger and involves a lot of physical exertion from the part of the participants. It involves a wide variety of activities ranging from bungee jumping and water sports to trekking in the Himalayas. From being considered an activity that is aimed at having occasional fun,......

Words: 3738 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Organisational Culture Affect Organizational Citizenship Behavior

...How Supportive Organizational Culture Affect Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Towards Organization Through Affective Commitment? It is acknowledged that organizational culture behaviour (OCB) is important in companies. A considerable amount of previous journals examines different factors to bolster OCB. This essay would investigate whether supportive organizational culture would lead to more organizational citizenship behaviour towards organization (OCB-O) by the mediator, affective commitment. People perform OCB in the company just like good citizens who cherish the city and act to protect it voluntarily. Abundant studies find out OCB is beneficial to the organization through enhancing the effectiveness, efficiency and productivity....

Words: 994 - Pages: 4