Free Essay

Organizational Behaviour

In: Business and Management

Submitted By ananna
Words 12540
Pages 51
1.1 Introduction:
We study organizational behavior, so it is very important in an organization. We choose a company which name is Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Popular develops several modern GMP standard production lines and are capable of producing a number of preparations separately in its different plants. Our capabilities and expertise in manufacturing finished formulations are exemplified by its wide range of dosage forms and packages.
1.2 Method :
Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd They follows the custodial model. They have an organization and they follow their rules and regulation. Manager follows their employees they soon recognized that although autocratically managed employees never talk back to their boss.
Employee wants to say many things and sometimes they did say them when they quit or lost their tempers. Employees were filled with insecurity, frustrations and aggressions toward their boss. So they could not vent these feelings directly sometimes they went home and vented them on their families and neighbors, so the entire communication might suffer from this relationship.
To satisfy the security needs of Employees Company have welfare programs. In this organization they extreme in order to show its emphasis on materials rewards, security and organizational dependence.
1.3 Limitation :
In our Pharmaceutical Company here limitation are very few. We can not develop or product at the perfect time of the market due to the shortage of our raw materials. We think that if we recover our shortage of the raw materials we can full fill our customer demand of the Pharmaceutical product and we can increase or company day by day and we complete our goal.
1.4 Scope :
Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (PPL) is exporting its high quality products to a number of countries in Asia and Africa and continuously exploring newer markets round the globe. PPL airlifted its first commercial consignment to Kenya during the first week of December, 2006 which is the quickest export for a pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh, within the 16th month of its commercial launching in local pharmaceutical market. Capitalizing on our strict compliance to WHO cGMP standards, we have initiated proceedings for exporting our products to the developed countries that demand stringent regulatory requirements.
Products from Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. are expected to become available soon in Singapore, Philippines, Myanmar, some African countries including Libya, Tanzania, Nigeria and Yemen and some other Latin countries also in future.
Management:
Management is a process of coordination of work activities to achieve goal efficiently and effectively.
Definition of organizational behavior:
Organizational behavior is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as groups act within organization.
It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively.
Fundamental concept of Organizational Behavior:
Organizational Behavior with a set of fundamental concept is two types –
a) The nature of people
b) The nature of organization
The nature of people The nature of organization
1. Individual difference 1) Social system
2. Perception 2) Mutual interest
3. A whole person 3) Ethics
4. Motivated behavior
5. Desire for involvement
6. Value of the person
Every where have some positive side and negative side, some opportunity and some limitation.
Limitation of organizational behavior –
a) Behavioral bias
b) The law of diminishing returns
c) Unethical manipulation of peopl
Organizations achieve their goals by creating, communication and operating an organizational behavior system. Five major elements of organizational behavioral Philosophies. * Autocratic * Custodial * Supportive * Collegial * System
Autocratic: The autocratic model depends on power. Those who are in command must have the power to demand to demand you do this – or else meaning that an employee who does not follow orders will be penalized.
Custodial model:
Employee’s behavior managed by offering welfare program like pension, Incentive etc. Application of this model depends on economics resources of organization.
Supportive model:
Depends on leadership instead of power and money. Manager help employee builds a relation with them, employees like self responsibilities.
Collegial model:
Manager’s builds a team create a feeling a partnership. Managers are seen as contribution rather then a boss.
System model:
Managers and employees both intend to work for community, environment protection etc.
Motivation:
Motivation is a process when incentive is provided to get extra out put. First we identified what employees need.
Needs are two parts –
Primary needs: Basic physical needs called primary needs. The physical needs include food, water, sex, sleep, air and reasonable comfortable temperature.
Secondary needs:
Social and psychological needs, called secondary needs. Secondary needs are vaguer because they represent needs of the mind and spirit rather than of the physical body. Status, self – esteem, recognition etc. Various between man to man, place to place.
Leadership:
Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting employees so that they work enthusiastically toward achieving objectives. Main issue is personal relationship of managers with employees.
Behavioral approaches to leadership style:- 1) Positive leader – depends on rewards. Negative leader – depends on punishment. 2) Autocratic leader – depends on power Consultative leader – discuss with employee Participative leader – employees take decision 3) Employee oriented and task oriented – Leader gives important to employee’s human needs first. Leader gives maximum important on production.
Participation:
Involvement of employee in decision making.
Three elements of participation-
a) Involvement of decision making.
b) Contribution
c) Responsibility
Empowerment:
Making employee knowledgeable about details information of organization.
Five broad approaches to empowerment:
a) Helping through coaching
b) Allowing more control
c) Providing successful role model
d) Using social reinforcement
e) Giving emotion support
Conflict:
Conflict is an interpersonal process that arises from disagreement over the goals to attain or the methods to be used to accomplish those goals.
Conflict can occur within an employee between individuals or groups and across organization as they conflict.
Managing change:
Change is any alteration occurring in the work environment that affects the ways in which employees must act.
To survive organization need to decided not whether to change.
Profile of Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. :
Year of Establishment: 1983
Commercial Production: 2006
Status: Public Limited Company
Business Lines: Manufacturing and marketing of pharmaceutical Finished Formulation Products, Large Volume Potentials and
Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs)
Overseas Offices & Associates: Bhutan, Cambodia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Yemen.
Authorized Capital (Taka): 350 Core.
Number of Employees: 1,200
With a vision to serve world-class healthcare service to the people, Founded in 2006, Popular Group started Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and Popular Infusions Ltd., which are already known for their outstanding quality &innovative product range. The latest venture of Popular Group is PopularSpecializedHospital which will fulfill the Group’s devoted commitment towards the health sector of Bangladesh providing the complete healthcare services.
Founded in 1983, Popular Group started with high Tec diagnostic facility. Popular came to believe that our Destiny lies with the people. We charted out a course of serving people with a mission – making ‘Popular’ a synonym of trust and confidence. As a diagnostic centre of high professional precision Poplar’s aim was to serve both hospital inpatients and referrals from the learned private practitioners to get their clinical and other available screenings done with utmost care and dedication. Within a short span of time ‘Popular’
Became a symbol of reliability. Popular Diagnostic Centre Ltd. itself is a referral Laboratory for any complicated test or ultimate screening. Besides, it carries out various research programs with global entities like JohnHopkinsUniversity, Nagasaki University of Japan. During last 25 years Popular Diagnostic Centre has diversified its areas landscapes of healthcare services.
Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (PPL) is exporting its high quality products to a number of Countries in Asia and Africa and continuously exploring newer markets round the globe. PPL airlifted its first commercial consignment to Kenya during the first week of December, 2006 which is the quickest export for a pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh, within the 16th Month of its commercial launching in local pharmaceutical market. Capitalizing on our strict Compliance to WHO GMP standards, we have initiated proceedings for exporting our Products to the developed countries that demand stringent regulatory requirements. Products from Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. are expected to become available soon in Singapore, Philippines, Myanmar, some African countries including Libya, Tanzania, Nigeria and Yemen and some other Latin countries also in future.
The mission of Popular Agrovet is to develop, manufacture and market Medicines, nutritional feed additives for animals, poultry, including antibiotics, hormone, vitamins, amino acids andenzymes. Animal nutrition and health supplements become essential components in the production of high quality, competitive and profitable livestock and poultry. Only a few major companies in Bangladesh have the technology, the large scale Manufacturing plants and research and development support to further enhance the development of these products.
Manufacturing Operations:
Popular develops several modern GMP standard production lines and are capable of Producing a number of preparations separately in its different plants. Our capabilities and expertise in manufacturing finished formulations are exemplified by its wide range of dosage forms and packages. * The plants’ floor surface is supplemented with self leveling epoxy coating that leaves no room even for slightest microbial growth. The plants’ inner wall are made of easy to clean, nonconductive, sound & damp proof insulated sandwich panel. * We maintain differential air pressure technology among production chambers and Corridors. * In the plants we have central HVAC system with air filtration, room pressure & humidity control mechanism. The double air lock safety doors prevent air borne particles from outside. * The world renowned high speed mixer, high speed tablet compression machine, PLC controlled tablet coating machine, encapsulation machine, complete online Micro dose line, high capacity lyophilizer, the offline printer for foil printing, the state of the art blister packing machine & many more such sophisticated pharmaceutical machineries. * Sophisticated automatic purified water and WFI plant of European origin ensures high quality USP standard purified water and WFI. * Captive electricity generation is available to guarantee uninterrupted power supply to the plant. * Dedicated facility for beta-lactams, non beta-lactams, Cephalosporins and Penicillins.
Quality Assurance:
Popular Pharma treats quality as the life of the company. The quality assurance team implements measures to assure the quality of its products in the process from production, testing to distribution and to improve persistently the internal controlling standards to promote the quality, safety and efficacy of the medicines produced. As the pioneer manufacturer of insulin, Popular has accumulated much experience in quality control, particularly for biological products. To assure constant good quality, Popular has employed a whole set of advanced testing system for quality control. With its efficient hardware and the values for quality assurance, Popular has the capability and confidence to provide products of high quality.
The in-process control where product parameters like weight, hardness, disintegration, friability, bulk density, thickness are checked at frequent intervals during production in order to ensure product quality.
Marketing & Sales:
Popular is committed to support healthcare professionals to meet the increased challenges and demands of today’s healthcare environment. Thereby, setting up professionally trained marketing & sales is the top priority of Popular. So far Popular has around 500 sales representatives, 120 sales leaders and 11 nationwide branches to offer professional services. Popular responds to customers’ needs to build their confidence in our company and our products. “Customers do not buy products, they seek to acquire benefits.” Popular keeps this as mindset to direct our daily marketing and services. Popular focuses on programs that are innovative, sustainable and bring real benefits to medical professionals. Meanwhile, Popular is committed to providing medicines to patients at rational price.
Popular actively participates in health and education programs and partnerships with medical professionals that aim to bring sustainable improvements to quality medical care.
Popular believes all these activities create value for doctors & patients.
With the efforts as described above, popular aims to differentiate themselves with competitors and build distinguished image to customers. Popular also believes that these efforts will impact positively improving our commitment to the society and customers.
Special Promotional Activities:
CME (Continuing Medical Education) Program: Popular Pharma arranges CMEs in different units of hospital & clinics to update the doctors with new developments in the medical field.
ABM (Advisory Board Meeting) & SPM (Specialist Panel Meeting): In ABM/SPM, opinion leader doctors are invited to take part in discussion on medical treatment problem and their solution.
Academic Release & Journal Reprint Service: Popular regularly provides latest books, guidelines and renowned medical journals on doctor’s request as an academic service to the medical professionals.
Key Opinion Leaders Contact: Popular always gives special emphasis to the key opinion leader doctors of different therapeutic areas through close contact and regular interaction with top management as well as field force. The suggestion of KOLs is always incorporated in promotional strategies and new product launching plan.
GP Training Program: The General Practitioners have to solve critical cases as patients first visit them in any medical complications. To update and upgrade the knowledge of the GPs, Popular arranges training program for GPs in diversified subjects such as Stroke Management, Use of Anti-biotics etc., alone and in collaboration with different departments of renowned medical institutions.
Scientific partnership with Medical Associations: Popular has developed partnership and technical collaboration with organizations such as BSM (Bangladesh Society of Medicine), APB (Association of Physicians of Bangladesh), OGSB (The Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society of Bangladesh), BSA (Bangladesh society of Anesthesiologists), OSB (Ophthalmological Society of Bangladesh) etc. & provides continuous support to organize scientific programs.
Global Presence:
Pharmaceutical industry is one of the areas where Bangladesh has achieved remarkable advancement. Being one of the 39 LDCs, Bangladesh is allowed to manufacture patented drugs till 2016 as per directives of WTO-Trips. Among the LDCs, Bangladesh has the best infrastructure to manufacture pharmaceutical finished formulations. Keeping the enormous potential of the market in mind, Popular Pharma is established in compliance to all the norms to become a Global Company.
Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (PPL) is exporting its high quality products to a number of countries in Asia and Africa and continuously exploring newer markets round the globe. PPL airlifted its first commercial consignment to Kenya during the first week of December, 2006 which is the quickest export for a pharmaceutical company in Bangladesh, within the 16th month of its commercial launching in local pharmaceutical market. Capitalizing on our strict compliance to WHO cGMP standards, we have initiated proceedings for exporting our products to the developed countries that demand stringent regulatory requirements.
Products from Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. are expected to become available soon in Singapore, Philippines, Myanmar, some African countries including Libya, Tanzania, Nigeria and Yemen and some other Latin countries also in future.
Core Values:
The core values of Popular must be reflected in our work style while dealing with the following group of people: * Doctors * Patients * Stakeholders * Employees * Society at large
HONESTY & INTEGRITY
We must perform with highest level of honesty, integrity, sincerity and commitment and establish highest professional standards within the organization ensuring transparency at all level.
OWNERSHIP
Popular is our company, thus we must be accountable to the patients and to the doctors with an ultimate goal to achieve excellence in performance, ensuring a congenial, threat-free, learning work environment. Thereby we can all perform and develop to our highest level of potential, so that we can put highest quality of products to the disposal of medical community and to the patients who need it.
RESPECT
We must respect others irrespective of their race, religion, gender and hierarchical level and value peoples’ opinion, ability and creativity and demonstrate through our behavior and action.
QUALITY
We must ensure highest standard of quality in our products and services, striving for continuous improvement to be the 0-defect company, serving humanity and enhancing human life.
ENVIRONMENT
We must conserve resources and energy and our activities, products and services must be environment safe.
FULFILLMENT
We will work in a way so that all POPULAR employees can fulfill their career dream.
Findings of Study :
Name of the Manager: Mr. Shahen Shah
Designation: Head of Agrovet Division Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Date of Interview:18 October, 2009
Place of Interview: Head Office of PPL
Question-1: What are the vision and mission of your company?
Manager:
Vision: With a vision to serve world-class healthcare service to the people, Popular Group started Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. and Popular Infusions Ltd., which are already known for their outstanding quality &innovative product range. The latest venture of Popular Group is PopularSpecializedHospital which will fulfill the Group’s devoted commitment towards the health sector of Bangladesh providing the complete healthcare services.
Mission:
“Popular Pharmaceuticals Ltd. will be the leading pharmaceutical company of the country within 2015. As manufacturer of high tech, high quality, affordable medicines.”
We offer a range of pre-formulation and formulation development Services on new active substances, generics and upgrades of existing Formulations- from pilot batches for stability testing and validations to Technology transfer and from development support for scale-up to Commercial production.
Question-2: Are you following any organizational behavior and which model follows?
Manager:
Every organization follows their rule. We have an organizational rule. We follow the custodial model that means managed the employee’s behavior. Here we offer different kinds incentive, pension, welfare etc. Employee need security, they aspect the good things in future. We have insurance policy welfare program.
Question-3: How are you motivated the employee, if always gives you positive result?
Manager:
We motivate our employee in different way. We give rewards, incentive, target achievement and national and international tour. Two eid bonus for all employees. It depends on salary basics. Another one is LFA (Leave fro annual) this remuneration for all employees, that means Ten thousand taka. Our opportunities are loan, car and advance salary. Advance salary gives the employee at a time three times of their gross salary.
It give us the positive result. We reach our target. In competitive market we improve very quickly.
Question-4: What other approaches might have worked better?
Manager:
I think that day by day everything improve. We concern about our employees. If we need top any position or manager level position that time we collect the employee in over organization, we offer the car. We offer the standard hous rent, Another option is if any body stay in office and his/ her annual leave is 60 days when his / her leave collect will be 60 days with in two or three years Popular provide that employee a handsome salary at a time.
Question-5: As a leader which leadership style did you use?
Manager:
Of course, we follow the leadership. I have a good relation with my employee, consultative leadership follow. I always depend on rewards system. If i take any decision, I consult with my employee; they told me what is good or bad. I inspire them they success their mission.
Question-6: Why conceptual leadership skills become more important and technical skill less important at higher organizational levels?
Manager:
Conceptual leadership skill and technical skill leader. In both skill leader is important. Technical skill leader is special in one field. When we think about top position we need over all idea and clear concept about organization. Conceptual leader think advance about future of the organization.
Question-7: How is it possible for participation to increase the power and influence of both manager and employees?
Manager:
In our organization ever body participated. It depends on position. Manager, MD, they know the organization policies, when we recruit new employee we training them they know the organization policies, assets, total employee.
Question-8: As a manager is you think any conflict in your organization?
Manager:
Every organization have a conflict, it could be personal, group or department wise. In our organization mainly conflict are departmentalization. One department to another department, some group conflicts are happen, we try to solve the problem.
Question-9: What are the effects of conflict?
Manager:
Conflict effects are two types. It could be good or bad. As a manager, I never aspect bad thing, I never aspect it happen long time. I use the group to produce the more products.
Question-10: What types of groups do you have?
Manager:
In our organization two types of groups. One is formal and another one is informal group. Organization creates a opportunity to make a group. This group is approved by organization. Some times employee create group for their needs it could be logical or not. It never survives long time.
Question-11: What are the benefits and problems of the informal organization?
Manager:
Informal group is a problem when employee make a group they can do anything as a manager I concern about informal group. When they make a group, we collect the information, what’s there a need. We think mutual it, or we make a committee with senior Manager.
Question-12: Stress is not managed to be removed, what happens on employee?
Manager:
Every organization has stress. As a private company here work stress are more. Here employees work in under pressure. Some time they feel bad. It creates a personal problem.
Their behavior is rude with her families and with her relatives. We try to most recover them to free them/ refresh them.
Comments:
Organization has two types of needs.
Primary needs and secondary needs. In this organization primary needs are fulfilled. Employees are satisfied food, comfort and salary. Secondary needs are not fulfilled in the same time. In this organization provided car but they have not any accommodation facilities. Employees want this reward to be fair. If there is no equality there will no motivation.
Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting employees so that they work to achieve objective. For that reason manager create good relation with employees. Leader give importance to employees human needs first. Pharmaceutical organization especially sales department they work in field they have lot of experience. How beat the competitor they know very well. If company more participated the employees, they know more about the company. They contributed the decision making. It will be more effective. Employee’s attitude is important factor regarding response to change.
Conclusion
Finally, we say that this company use organizational behavior but it is not completed. They improve day by day also they have some limitation. Pharmaceutical markets are more competitive. Everyday they use new method to beat the other company. Other company employees what they do they observe it. They predict what will be the employee’s behavior in future.
Popular pharmaceutical company they use the custodial model but it is not computed. They have opportunity to work as a team. They offer different types of rule to motivate the employees to give reward such as salary increase, bonus, promotion, pension etc.
In pharmaceutical company job security is very low. Here most of the employees are work under pressure. They have a target, every month they fulfill the target. If they did not reach the target he loses her job. They offer many facilities car, salary advancement and other benefits. I think all employees are not agreeing with common bonus. Manager and employees relation are good.
Managers discuss with employees but he takes decision. Employees participated and contribute to make decision. They take decision combine with employees, especially in sales division.

Answer to Question No.1
Rocket Singh is a business perspective movie where the name of leading character is HarpreetSingh Bedi. Harpreet Singh was an honest, young, confident and energetic person who wanted to build up his career as a salesman.This movie focused on various types of entrepreneurial and behavioral aspects in the followingmanner. Here is an overall evaluation of story in brief:


Greatest secret of success in business lies on satisfied client. Sales man should alwayskeep their mind that they need customers, customers do not need them. So they shouldknow what the needs of the customers are and how one sales man can fulfill them. Do allthe service for the customers.


Delighted and satisfied customers can become the ambassador of a business & their reference can generate more business profit margin. Delighted and satisfied also helps toincrease customers.


People should be treated as resources and capital in the organization. If they are treated as partner of the business, they will work in the organization for their own profit.


Mediocre become mastermind when they are involved.


Even zero has the value. The lowest person in the organization hierarchy can do wonder if he/she is put at the right place. And genius can ruin whole game if placed wrongly.Matching of inherent talent with job description is critical for success of the organization.


Everyone is born with potential of ‘vice & virtue’.  Every employee has both the qualities, the qualities of rising and falling in the career.These rising and falling qualities determine your destiny.


Risk taking is a basic characteristic to be an entrepreneur. Jumping out of comfort zone,taking initiatives & playing with risks are very important quality of an entrepreneur what makes his/her different. They should always remember that the biggest risk in life is to avoid the risk.


A loyal team is needed to build the corporation successful. Great organization is built by great team where the entire ream member is satisfied with their job. So it can be seen that there are also a lot of responsibility to the organization to make their employee or team member satisfied.

Harpreet and other employees were not independent enough, in question raising voice,expressing something they think unethical.The workplace environment effects the job satisfaction at primary level. As seen in this movie,
Harpreet’s desk was just beside an office wash
-room, where someone was always using that,which created a very annoying situation. Now, if we come to the consequences of these dissatisfactory levels, we find many things thoseare negatively correlated with the profitability and goodwill of any company.First of all, job performance of the employees went down tremendously. Neither salary moneynor pressure of the superiors could bring it up.Organizational citizenship behavior is absent in most of the employee cases. No one liked the job but continued just because of some monetary feedback. As the employees were not satisfied, performance and attitudes never crossed any line beyond expectation of the superiors.In this movie, one of the customers offered bribe to Harpreet. He was a moral human being aswell as a moral employee. He complained against that client. This incident made the customer very much unpleased. Here, employee dissatisfaction made the customers dissatisfied.Workplace deviance, in this movie, is the most familiar in respect of employee dissatisfaction.
Employees responded somehow, as they didn’t like their job. As they were bound not to quit, they were taking work time in surfing internet, gossiping, neglecting easy tasks. As a result, afterwards they started using the company’s assets and resources for personal use. These levels of dissatisfaction encouraged the employees, not to resign, but to neglect the job performance, which is v ery much harmful for the company’s profitability and goodwill. It causes more turnovers less productivity and also creates chaotic situation in office. Sometimesemployees become violent. The ultimate consequence of this type of dissatisfaction is losing therespect from the employees for the superiors as well as the job, decline in productivity, decreasein profitability and increase in employee turnover. Answer to question no. 6
In this case of the movie, dissatisfaction is destructive. A theoretical model Exit-Voice-Loyalty- Neglect- framework is helpful in understanding the consequences of job dissatisfaction. Exit response involves directing behavior towards leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. Neglect response involves passive allowing conditions toworsen, including chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort and increased error.
These two behaviors are destructive in the way that these encompass the employee’s preference variables – productivity, absenteeism and turnover.Dissatisfaction is destructive in two ways, if the employee exit or neglect the work. In case of AYS, employees were dissatisfied with the overall managing system and behavior. All of themwere maltreated in some situation. For this reason, they were not loyal to the company and job. It reduced the company’s quality service to the customers, started giving less respect to the other employees and the superiors. They were neglecting the responsibilities continuously. But theydid not resign because of scarcity of any other good job. As they were bound to do the existing job, they started unethical doing being a part of the company. At last they were encouraged toestablish a new company using all the necessary resources and customers of AYS, which wastotally unethical. As a result, AYS ultimately lost their employees, customers as well as their profitability in the long run. In this way, employee dissatisfaction is destructive for the company. Answer to question no. 7
Social loafing means the tendency of individuals to expend less effort when working together with friends rather than working individually or other group. Those who avoid their responsibilities to perform as a group member are known as social loafer. A social loafer createsa huge problem in a group and group work.When we started our group assignment or report or presentation, we divided it in such a way that everyone in the group has to perform some part of the assignment. So we didn’t have any free rider in our group. The reasons behind this are given below:1) Social loafing mainly occurs when the group is relatively large. But the size of our group issmall. So everyone was bounded to complete their work.2) We have been working as a group member for a long time so we know the capabilities andlimitation of the members. So we arranged our work in such a way that everyone was assignedwith work.3) If there was any conflict regarding the work then we arranged group meeting to solve that problem.4) All the members in a group should have some responsibilities and I think that the members inour group are responsible with their work.Since our group was able to avoid social loafing we were able to work on time. To complete any group work it’s necessary to work ef fectively and to utilize the ability of every member. We didthis thing by working together and by understanding others power and weakness

About Agora super shop
The name of Agora is entwined with the glory of-the Agora’s marketing policy “to create a better environment for consumers”. A man gifted with an inherent entrepreneurial sense, Late A. C. Abdur Rahim, the founder of Rahim-Afrooz started a trading house in 1973, which continued to expand in scope and nature as time went along. In 2000, Agora was introduced to the world. The success was immediate as there was a demand for such business in the local market. Agora’s state-of-the-art technology and creative strategy gave it an edge ocher its competitors at local market.Agora is a Dhaka-based supermarket chain. It is the largest retailer, both by local sales and by domestic market share, and the the largest retailer in Dhaka leaving behind PQS, Meena Bazar, Nandan Mega Shop, Pacific, Pick and Pay, Etc, Shop & Save and others.Originally specialising in food, it has moved into areas such as clothes, consumer electronics, consumer financial services, selling and renting DVDs, compact discs and and consumer telecom accessories.Agora Ltd. is an enterprise that combines industry and trade, mainly engages in retailing the quality products at the most lowest price in the market. The management of Agora, was an enthusiastic advocate of trading stamps as an inducement for shoppers to patronise their stores: They signed up with all types of quakity products manufacturer, and became one of the company’s largest clients. But the management was a fan of pile it high and sell it cheap, and in the mid-2000 Agora faced many cost problems associated with not properly integrating its purchased chains of stores. When the firm overstretched itself opening few more outlets throughout the city, management consultants were called in to sort out the mess. In 2001 Agora launched Operation Checkout, an across the board price cutting campaign aimed at countering the threat from the new breed of discounters such asKwiSave. Facing the world and looking beyond, Agora will always maintain the pure-hearted, enterprising, quality and struggling spirit make efforts to scrupulously abide by our goodwill, create splendid future together with you in management vision of joint development, joint prosperity and mutual benefits!Management is the part and parcel of everyone life. Agora is synonymous with market at low prices and name brand quality The company basis of success and foundations cannot be credited to the current management. Agora formula for success simply put is their relationship with customers, employees, and technology that assists in forming relationships with their suppliers; places Agora as the top discount retailer, history-development, and Growth Sam Agora to become the top discount retailer. The Mega Corporation has eliminated top competitors such as Nandan and PQS to reign supreme over the discount retailing market. Following international trend, discount retailing evolved due to frugality during year 2000. Agora opened the first outlet in Dhanmondi in 2000. And see what the company could do to improve. Agora needs to do research on the locations that it moves to. The customs and the people need to be thoroughly looked into so a new store opens as smoothly as possible. Meeting could be held with business owners and locals to answer in questions or concerns. Relationships need to be looked at closely especially between the employees and suppliers so that it becomes one of give, take, and trust and not so one sided.Agora is a supermarket that is a departmentalized store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. It is larger in size and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store.Agora comprises meat, produce, dairy, and baked goods departments along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various nonfood items such as household cleaners, pharmacy products, and pet supplies. Most supermarkets also sell a variety of other household products that are consumed regularly household cleaning products, medicine, clothes, and some sell a much wider range of non-food products.Agora occupies a large floor space on a single level and is situated near residential areas in the Dhaka in order to be convenient to consumers. Its basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof at relatively low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and, frequently, the convenience of shopping.Agora usually make massive outlays for newspaper and other advertising and often present elaborate in-store displays of products. It is now a part of a chain that owns or controls other supermarkets located in Dhaka; this increases the opportunities for economies of scale.Agora usually offer products at low prices by reducing margins. Motivation and productivity
Motivation
The definition of motivation is to give reason, incentive, enthusiasm, or interest that causes a specific action or certain behavior. Motivation is present in every life function. Simple acts such as eating are motivated by hunger. Education is motivated by desire for knowledge. Motivators can be anything from reward to coercion.There are two main kinds of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal. It occurs when people are compelled to do something out of pleasure, importance, or desire. Extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors compel the person to do something. However, there are many theories and labels that serve as sub tittles to the definition of motivation.
Factors of motivation
Relationship: This factor measures the desire to develop meaningful relationships with other players in the game – usually in the form of a supportive friendship. Players who score high on this factor usually make good friends online, and tend to have meaningful conversations with their online friends, which usually involves talking about real-life personal issues. In times of need, these players can usually count on their online friends for emotional support. These players also tend to feel that they have learned things about themselves from playing the game, as well as gaining a better understanding of real-life group dynamics.
Immersion: This factor measures the desire to become immersed in a make-believe construct. Players who score high on this factor enjoy being immersed in a fantasy world they can wander and explore. They tend to role-play their characters, and use their characters to try out new personalities and roles. They enjoy being in the company of other role-players. They also appreciate the sense of being part of an ongoing story, and oftentimes will think up a personal history and story for their characters.
Grief: This factor measures the desire to objectify and use other players for one’s own gains. Their means may be both outward or subtle. On the outward side, they may enjoy dominating other players by killing them on the battlefield, or by taunting and annoying them. On the more subtle side, they may enjoy manipulating other players for their own gains, such as deceiving other players through clever scams, or begging for money and items. In either case, the satisfaction comes from some form of manipulation of other players for personal gain.
Achievement: This factor measures the desire to become powerful within the construct of a game. Players who score high on this factor try to reach the goals as defined by the game. They try very hard to accumulate rewards. For example, they try to optimize their XP gain to reach the next level as quickly as possible. Or they may try to accumulate as much high-level gear as possible. Or they enjoy doing massive amounts of damage to mobs. The underlying theme is a desire to get bigger numbers. But the satisfaction comes from feeling powerful.
Leadership: This factor measures the gregariousness and assertiveness of the player. Players who score high on this factor prefer to group rather than solo. They are often assertive individuals and usually drift to leadership positions when in a group. Because a group led by an indecisive leader often gets fragmented, the assertiveness of these players probably allows them to be effective group leaders in the game
Productivity
The amount of output per unit of input (labor, equipment, and capital). There are many different ways of measuring productivity. For example, in a factory productivity might be measured based on the number ofhours it takes to produce a good, while in the service sector productivity might be measured based on therevenue generated by an employee divided by his/her salary.
Here’s my personal definition of productivity: Productivity = Value / Time
(productivity equals value divided by time)
By this definition there are two primary ways of increasing productivity:
1) Increase the value created
2) Decrease the time required to create that value
You can complicate this definition by including other factors like energy and resources, but I prefer the simplicity of time because in most cases factors like energy and resources are reducible to time anyway. Time also makes it very easy to compare different levels of productivity, such as output per hour or per day.
Apparently you can make some significant gains on the time side. There are many personal productivity optimizations which, especially if you introduce them in your youth, will produce a massive net savings of time over the course of your life. Consider your typing speed, for instance. If you invest the time to get your speed up to 90 words per minute or faster, it will be well worth the initial time investment if you happen to do a lot of typing over your lifetime, compared to allowing your speed to linger at 50 wpm or slower year after year. The extra hours of practice will be nothing compared to the time you save typing emails, letters, or blog entries over the next few decades. Other time-based optimizations include improving your sleeping habits, minimizing commute time, or dropping time-wasting habits like smoking.
Body of the report Correlations | | What sort of monetary benefits you prefer? | Are you satisfied with the facilities provided here? | What sort of monetary benefits you prefer? | Pearson Correlation | 1 | .408 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | . | .495 | | N | 5 | 5 | Are you satisfied with the facilities provided here? | Pearson Correlation | .408 | 1 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | .495 | . | | N | 5 | 5 |
The correlations between sorts of monetary benefits you prefer and you satisfied with the facilities provided here, R= .408. That’s means that there is a positive relation between sort of monetary benefits and satisfaction with the facilities provided. We can conclude that given monetary benefits are satisfied to the employees. Correlations | | What sort of Non-monetary benefits you prefer? | Are you satisfied with the facilities provided here? | What sort of Non-monetary benefits you prefer? | Pearson Correlation | 1 | .354 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | . | .559 | | N | 5 | 5 | Are you satisfied with the facilities provided here? | Pearson Correlation | .354 | 1 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | .559 | . | | N | 5 | 5 | The correlations between sorts of Non- monetary benefits you prefer and you satisfied with the facilities provided here, R=.354. That’s means that there is a positive relation between sort of Non- monetary benefits and satisfaction with the facilities provided. We can conclude that given Non-monetary benefits are satisfied to the employees. Correlations | | What will make you more productive? | Are you performing at your highest level? | What will make you more productive? | Pearson Correlation | 1 | -.583 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | . | .302 | | N | 5 | 5 | Are you performing at your highest level ? | Pearson Correlation | -.583 | 1 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | .302 | . | | N | 5 | 5 |
The correlations between what will make you more productive? And Are you performing at your highest level? , R= -.583. That’s means that there is a negative relation between what will make you more productive? And Are you performing at your highest level?. We can conclude that performing at highest level don’t make them more productive. Correlations | | Are you performing at your highest level ? | What hinders you to perform at your highest level? | Are you performing at your highest level ? | Pearson Correlation | 1 | .086 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | . | .891 | | N | 5 | 5 | What hinders you to perform at your highest level? | Pearson Correlation | .086 | 1 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | .891 | . | | N | 5 | 5 |
The correlations between performing at your highest level and What hinders to perform at highest level , R=.086. That’s means that there is a positive relation between performing at your highest level and What hinders to perform at highest level. Correlations | | What keeps you motivated? | Are you performing at your highest level ? | What keeps you motivated? | Pearson Correlation | 1 | .612 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | . | .272 | | N | 5 | 5 | Are you performing at your highest level ? | Pearson Correlation | .612 | 1 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | .272 | . | | N | 5 | 5 |
The correlations between what keeps you motivated? And Are you performing at your highest level?, R=.612. That’s means that there is a positive relation between what keeps you motivated? And are you performing at your highest level. We can conclude that motivation inspire to perform at highest level. Correlations | | Are you doing what you like most? | Is the firm pressuring you to do what you don’t like? | Are you doing what you like most? | Pearson Correlation | 1 | -.167 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | . | .789 | | N | 5 | 5 | Is the firm pressuring you to do what you don’t like? | Pearson Correlation | -.167 | 1 | | Sig. (2-tailed) | .789 | . | | N | 5 | 5 | The correlations between doing what you like most and the firm pressuring you to do what you don’t like, R= -.167. That’s means that there is a negative relation between doing what you like most and the firm pressuring you to do what you don’t like. We can conclude that the firm pressuring employees to do what you don’t like.

Findings * There are positive relationship between sorts of monetary benefits and the satisfaction with the facilities provided here to the employees. That’s mean, employees are satisfied with the monetary benefits. * Employees become more motivated and satisfied with the given sorts of non-monetary benefits * Good working conditions motivate employees to perform at highest level. * Monetary benefits motivate employees more to do work. * Lack of motivation hinders to perform at highest level. * The firm don’t give pressure to do what they don’t like.
Conclusion
Agora is one of the largest super shop in Bangladesh. Agora opened the first outlet in Dhanmondi in 2000. Agora is a supermarket that is a departmentalized store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise. Many workers are working there. We have found that Agora is motivating their employees with providing monetary benefits and Non-monetary benefits. They become more motivated when monetary benefits are given. Work holidays and pay increase and Working environment motivate them more to be more productive. Agora doesn’t pressure on employees what they don’t like. Agora is running business with satisfying their employees and I hope Agora would be the largest and famous super shop in Bangladesh.

Executive Summary
This report is prepared to fulfill the partial requirement of the course Human Resource Management. This report is supposed to be prepared through the analysis of various or focused HR activities in local successful organizations. The different aspects of Human Resource Management, which we learn in theory, should be compared with the real life scenario on the basis of practical implications.
This report looks at various aspects of HRM of Grameen Phone organization. The organization chosen, “Grameen Phone limited” is market leader in its own respective fields. The company backgrounds are later provided to enhance the application of different HR functions.
Objectives of the Report * To realize the concept of Human resource Management in real life context. * To associate practical work scenario with theories and book definitions. * To achieve the true & practical picture of human resource managerial functions in organizations. * Understanding the human resource management problems and prospects in the surveyed organization. * To know how the HR departments manage their activities. * To get an in depth idea of the core HR functions of recruitment and selection, motivation, performance appraisal and rewards & compensation.
Scope
The focus of the report is mainly on specified human resource management functions undertaken by the organizations.
The main focus of the report has been the core Human Resource functions of recruitment and selection, motivation, performance appraisal and rewards & compensation. However, other issues, for example, Health & Safety and Environment etc. were also highlighted.
The report is entirely highlighted by the linkage between book definition of human resource management and its practical implications. Different aspects of HR functions have enriched the knowledge of the surveyors as well as put up the present and practical human resource management scenario.
Methodology
A detailed questionnaire was designed, which had a series of questions to determine the variations and density of the HRM processes undertaken by GP.
We used both primary and secondary data in this study. As a primary source we used a questionnaire. For this purpose we adopted Interview method to collect data.
Primary Data Collection
The primary data was collected through the interviews which included organization and the functional process,
Secondary data collection
Secondary data were collected from different books. Different managerial concepts, theories and views were taken under consideration. The views expressed in our text by Mathis & Jacson was specifically given importance. Much significant information were also collected from the internet.
Data Analysis
Prior to analysis, data collected from various sources were processed further for making them suitable to the needs of the present study.
Collected reports, books, interviews are analyzed in the light of the standard managerial practices. The policy issues are linked with human resource management.
Constraints
This report on “The HRM of Grameen Phone Limited” is mainly based on primary and secondary data collected from various sources. Therefore, since our objective was to achieve the true & practical picture of human resource managerial functions in organizations, we might not have been able to achieve our goal.
Some of the data collected through interview may have the problems like errors of leniency, central tendency and information concealment.
Grameen Phone: Background
Bangladesh Scenario
Bangladesh has one of the lowest telephone penetration rates in the world.
CityCell Mobile Phone Service introduced the concept of mobile telephone in Bangladesh in the early 90s. The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of Bangladesh granted the nationwide digital cellular license to Grameen Phone on 28th November 1996 and it thus came into the picture.
Launching of Grameen Phone
Grameen Phone (GP) launched its services in Bangladesh on 26th March 1997. The basic strategy of GP is the coverage of both urban and rural areas. GP believes in service that leads to good business and good development. Its purpose is to receive an economic return on its investments and to contribute to the economic development of Bangladesh.
Financial Structure
Telenor, a state-owned telecommunication company in Norway, is the largest shareholder and owns 51% of GP. The Grameen Bank is the second major shareholder and owns 35%. Marubeni Corporation of Japan holds 9.5% and Gonofone Development Corporation in New York holds 4.5% of GP.
Infrastructure Development & Network Expansion
GP made several important steps in its infrastructure development and network expansion. It took lease of 1800-kilometer fiber optic backbone network from Bangladesh Railway for 20 years in September 1997. The GP network now has coverage in some 39 districts including all six divisional headquarters. Some major transmission networks were completed in 2000 including Dhaka-Rajbari, Sylhet-Mymensingh and Narayanganj-Laksam links.
Market share of GP in the mobile industry of Bangladesh
Grameen Phone is the largest private sector investment in the country with over USD 130 million already invested. It is the leading mobile phone operator in the country in terms of both coverage and number of subscribers, commanding more than 70% of the market share. The fast expansion and coverage area of the GP network and the aggressive marketing of existing and new products greatly contributed to increase the number of subscribers.
Mission:
Leading the industry and exceed customer expectations by providing the best wireless services, making life and business easier
Vision:
Company exists to help all customers get the full benefit of communications services in their daily lives and want to make it easy for customers to get what they want, when they want it. We’re here to help
Values:
* Make It Easy * Keep Promises * Be Inspiring * Be Respectful
GP HRM Department: Background
GP as any other successful organization has an established HRM department. The function of this department is to provide as much support as possible to the other departments of GP. They have realized the fact that in order to be successful the organization needs a department that will deal with all the matters involving human resources of the organization.
The HR department was established in 1997. The total number of employees working in the HR department at the moment is 2200. Most of the employee worked at call center (1300)
The HR department of GP consists of four separate sections. These are: n Recruitment and selection n HR management n Training and development division n HSE (Health Safety Environment) division
The recruitment and selection department of GP deals with all the recruiting and selecting matters of the organization. This division carries out all the functions in meeting the demand for employees when the organization needs to recruit them.
The HR management division of the Human Resource Department is responsible for supporting the process of HRM. This division is maintaining all the functions that need to support the proper functioning of the HR department so that they can support the organization in carrying out the function.
The training and development division of the HR department is responsible for assessing the training needs of the employees of the organization. According to the need, they suggest the appropriate training method and thus suggest to the HR director. As a result the development needs of the employees are ensured.
The Health Safety Environment division better known as the HSE division is responsible for providing safety and better working condition for the employees. This division is responsible for ensuring that the health and safety standards set about by the government is enforced by the organization.
The organogram of GP is as follows:
There is a director of HR department who undertakes all the functions of this department. There are deputy managers in every division of the department. These managers are aptly supported by an officer.
To give an idea as to the need for the existence as well as the importance of the HRM department in GP we can but look at some interesting statistics. In the 2000-2001 fiscal yearn they had a phenomenal growth of around 200%. This growth had to be supported by a growing workforce. Thus the HRM department has carried out their activities in full force. In the year 2001 they recruited around 200 employees. In the year 2002 they recruited around 170 employees. In the coming year of 2012 they plan to hire or employ around 1000 more employees to meet the demand of the growing organization.
The Hierarchy of HRM in the Grameen Phone:

1. Organizational Excellence and Recruitment.People and Organization
1.1 Center of Excellence. Organizational Excellence and Recruitment
1.2 Center of Excellence. Organizational Excellence and Recruitment
1.3 Planning and Recruitment. Organizational Excellence and Recruitment
1.4 Center of Excellence. Organizational Excellence and Recruitment
1.5 Learning and Development. Organizational Excellence and Recruitment
1.6 Employee Engagement. Organizational Excellence and Recruitment
2. Security and Risk Management. People and Organization
2.1 Security and Risk Management. People and Organization
2.2 Risk Management and Network Security. Security and Risk Management
2.3 Process Assurance. Security and Risk Management
2.4 Liaison and Stakeholder Management. Security and Risk Management
2.5 Project and Initiatives. Security and Risk Management
2.6 Premises Security Crisis Mgt and Support. Security and Risk Management
3. Transport. Property and Facility Services
3.1 System Administration and Data Management. Transport
3.2 Food Beverage and Event Support. Property and Facility Services
3.3 Legal and Contract. Property
3.4 External Affairs and Vehicle Administration. Transport
3.5 Reporting and Control. Transport
3.6 Regions. Property and Facility Services
3.7 External Affairs and Vehicle Administration. Transport
3.8 External Affairs and Vehicle Administration. Transport
3.9 TPT Maintenance. Transport
3.10 Property and Facility Services. People and Organization
3.11 External Affairs and Vehicle Administration. Transport
3.12 FleetOperationCenter. Transport
3.13 Estate and Asset Management. Property
3.14 Facility Services. Property and Facility Services
3.15 Estate and Asset Management. Property
3.16 Help Desk. Property
3.17 O and M. Property and Facility Services
3.18 External Affairs and Vehicle Administration. Transport
3.19 TPT Service Management. Transport
4. Compliance. People and Organization
4.1 Compliance. People and Organization
4.2 Compliance. People and Organization
4.2 Compliance. People and Organization
5. People Excellence and Rewards. People and Organization
5.1 Rewards. People Excellence and Rewards
5.2 Payroll and Pension. People Excellence and Rewards
5.3 Service Operations. People Excellence and Rewards
5.4 People Information Management. People Excellence and Rewards
5.5 Rewards. People Excellence and Rewards
6. HSSE and BA. People and Organization
6.1 Health. HSSE and BA
6.2 HSSE and BA Planning and Reporting. HSSE and BA
6.3 OHS and S Assurance. HSSE and BA
6.4 HSSE and BA Excellence. HSSE and BA
6.4 HSSE and BA Excellence. HSSE and BA
6.5 Safety and Value Chain Business Assurance. HSSE and BA
Recruitment
Recruitment Method
Grameen phone uses on- line application system for its recruitment purposes. Grameen phone prefers its internal employees to assume newer responsibilities, and the information of any new job opening is communicated though local area network (LAN). Once Grameen is certain that internal employees are not fitting in the new jobs, on-line advertisement is used to recruit employees from outside the organization. This on-line advertising system not only increased the accessibility of the applicants throughout the world to apply for Grameen phone, but also resulted in an increase in speed and reduction in cost of advertising. It should be stated that Grameen Phone succeeded in reducing its cost by 75% by using on-line advertising. Currently they have 18000 CVs in their database.
Goals of Recruiting of GP
Because of a well organized HR department GP has been able to create an effective communication network between the different departments. As a result any need for recruitment is communicated by the respective department through the HR to the top-level management which then proceeds to meet the demand of the particular department.
The job information is then communicated HR department to the potential job applicants. The ultimate goal of GP is to recruit the best possible candidates by creating an efficient line of network among the departments.
Factors/constraints Affecting Recruiting Efforts of GP
The major constraints of Grameen Phone’s recruiting process have been identified as
Recruiting Cost
Since its inception the recruiting cost of GP had been high due to costly advertising campaigns in the printed media. Recently they have started online application system as mentioned earlier and as a result they have substantially reduced this cost by 75 percent. .
Internal Organization Policy Being a growing company recruitment rate of Grameen Phone is very high; in year 2002 GP recruited about 170 employees and in the year of 2009/10 GP recruited about 700 employees (total departments) In spite of that GP places more emphasis on internal recruiting than the external ones. This has become one of their core internal organizational policies.
Attractiveness of the Job
When GP first started its operation in October, 1996 Grameen Phone had to compete in the job market with the multinational & renowned companies. But being successful in the telecommunication sector and capturing a lion share of the market Grameen phone has now earned a reputation of providing attractive jobs which are at par with the corporations. What had been their constraint few years back has now become a positive factor in their recruiting efforts. Recruiting Sources
Internal Search
As stated earlier Grameen Phone goes for internal sources of recruitment. In this process they go for * Job Postings on bulletin boards. * E-Mailing to all the employees informing them about the job opening including the job description. * Job vacancies are published in the “Career Opportunity” section of Grameen phone’s website which can only be accessed by GP employees. * Most of the jobs are open for both external as well as internal applicants. However there are some specific jobs which are only accessible to the internal employees only.
Grameen phone prefers internal search because of the following advantages: 1. Higher degree of communication among the employees. 2. GP tries to promote individuals within the organization because they fit within the organizational setup more easily. 3. It ensures proper selection, since information on the individual’s performance and ability is known to the employers. 4. Grameen phone saves cost recruiting internally. 5. Grameen carefully plans promoting from within which act as a training device for developing middle & top-level managers.
Disadvantage
1. Management is forced to select candidates from a limited pool 2. It discourages entry for talent people from outside.
External Search
In this process they go for recruiting using: * Online application process * University placements * Job fairs * Walk-ins * Consultants- for senior level recruiting
Unlike the first few years, where Grameen Phone opted for advertising its recruiting needs using the printed media, now it has shifted its advertising campaign by using the internt.
They now recruit using the online application form, were they have had numerous responses. They currently have 18,000 CVs in their database.
Grameen phone goes for university placement by sending letters and other forms to notable institutes such as IBA, NSU and also in other vocational and technical institutes. In these letters they specifically mention the job requirements, specifications as well as the description. After receiving the responses they start processing the recruitment process.
Job fairs have achieved popular status since they started few years back. Grameen Phone has been using these job fairs as their recruiting sources. Last year they employed over 40 personals from these job fairs.
For senior management level recruitment, Grameen Phone goes for using the services of management consultancies or “head hunters” organizations. In addition to all these recruitment sources, they also go for unsolicited applicants or walk-ins as they are better known.
Disadvantage
It takes time to advertise, screen and to select suitable employees.
It also a expensive way and there is no guarantee that the organization ultimately will be able to hire suitable candidates.
Recruitment Process
The recruitment process starts from the matching of the demand for employees of the separate departments of GP. As it is growing industry in its own sector, GP has demands for numerous employees. To match this demand they require an efficient recruiting process whereby they can meet this demand. This is where the HRM department comes to play.
The process starts when the concerned departments send a proposal about the required number of employees to the HRM departments. The hr department then consults with the Finance department to find out the maximum number of employees that can be employed under the allocated budget for recruiting. After the determination of the maximum number of allotments that can be recruited after the consultation with the finance department and top level management, the prescribed number is then sent to the concerned department informally. If there is an oral agreement between them, then the HR department processes the prerequisite requisition form and sends to the departments, top level management and the finance department.
After the requisition form is filled out and it is transmitted to the concerned departments, it is then up to the concerned department to determine whether they accept this number or not. Once the requisition form is accepted by the concerned department, they then supply the HR department with the job specification and requirement and thus the Hr department starts with the recruiting process.
Selection
Selection Process
The selection process of GP is a more or less traditional approach. The selection process of Grameen Phone typically consists of the following steps. * Summary sheet * Short listing(by the human resource department * Comments to the concerned departments about the applicants * Written test(up to deputy manager level
The selection process starts with an initial screening using a summary sheet. This summary sheet summarizes the characteristics of the applicants in light of their educational background and experience. By reviewing the summary sheet, a short listing of the applicants is done to reduce the number of applicants to a short list of potential jobholders. The results of this short listing are then communicated to the concerned departments. A written test is then conducted as final evaluation of the applicants. Only a negligible percentage of recruitment is done for higher level managers, and it is only for them that an interview session is conducted instead of the written test. Interviews are also carried out for entry level employees and especially for those who are selected by the company to be posted outside Dhaka. Applicant assessments are not performed yet being only a new company in the market, but the HR department of GP is planning to introduce an assessment center for the applicants. According to the HR department of GP, some loopholes are formed in their more or less traditional approach towards selection, and the establishment of an assessment center is very important for successful selection of personnel in their organization.
Performance Appraisal
Hiring is the most important decision made by the managers of professional activities, firing and disciplining are the most painful, but performance evaluation may be the most difficult. Performance evaluation exemplifies one of the persistent characteristics of the management of the professionals; it has to be done, and there is no neat, objective way to go about it.
Appraisal Process
GP uses its own appraisal system in evaluating the performance of their employees. They use a prescribed format for each of their eight management competencies. These eight competencies are identified by the GP management to be essential for successful evaluation of their employees. Usually they set the objectives for each department at the beginning of each year and communicate it to the department heads, who in turn communicate these to their subordinates.
In GP, performance appraisal of an employee is done by the supervisor of the concerned department. Other appraisal systems such as peer evaluation, 360 degree evaluation, etc. are not done in GP. According to GP, evaluation by supervisor is much preferred than peer evaluation and subordinate evaluation as the latter results in peer pressure and influences of supervisors while appraising.
Techniques
The performance appraisal system of GP consists of a written scale of job-related parameters. Each of the eight competencies of the employees is graded on a scale of 0-5, and the particular employee is rated on a total scale of 40. It must be noted that the routine functions of GP are not included in the appraisal process; a somewhat critical incident method is used to appraise employees. So we can understand that the management of GP is highly concerned with the unbelievably good or undesirably bad results of an employee in appraising the particular employee.
Barriers of Appraisal Method
Performance evaluation is one of the most difficult processes in the organization, and so a number of difficulties are associated with its application. In GP, they face a number of problems regarding performance appraisal such as * Difficulty in meeting deadline – a major difficulty in appraising employees is the inability of the appraiser to meet the deadline set by the company to appraise the employees. Performance appraisal is a very time consuming effort, and, still in their early days, GP has not yet produced a faster way to appraise employees. * No particularly appropriate method – there are several methods by which appraisal can be conducted, bur they were unable to use standard appraisal systems such as BARS, paired comparison, etc. because they were not consistent with the appraisal needs of the organization. So they had to set up their own performance appraisal system which is consistent with their company.
Motivation
Sometimes motivation is considered as a yardstick to measure performance of an employee. It is often taken for granted that the more motivated an employee is, the more successful he is in his daily activities. However, it should be understood that motivation is only an important part in determining the employee’s success in performing, not the only factor behind successful performance.
Motivation Process
In GP, the management carries out surveys regarding employee satisfaction to get an idea about employee motivation towards the job. Each year, the company delegates to the employees the expectations they keep to the employees in terms of their performance. The HR department also has conducted surveys as well to find out whether they have supported the business or not. This is done to see whether they are participating in the growth of GP.
This way they can ensure effective motivation to be associated with the success of the company.
Motivational Methods
An important motivation method that they have employed is to create an image as a renowned employer in the job market. This image helps GP in creating a congenial environment for the employees as well as creating an indoctrinating effect for the company. This guaranties maximum effort on the part of the employee followed by high job satisfaction.
As an important motivation technique, GP tries to first create and then incorporate positive values within the organization. These values, they believe, will guide the behavior of their employees, and thus enabling them to evaluate the performance of the employees successfully. While creating these core values, GP consults with every employee to determine the values that will be instrumental in making GP successful. As a result, the employees of GP feel to be part of the organization which acts as a very effective motivation tool.
GP does not have any specific uniform motivational tool. Rather they try to motivate employees on the following bases 1. Right values – GP tends to motivate employees who follow the core values of the organization by both financial and non-financial rewards. 2. Long service rewards – This differs in every department, but the main theme is that the employees are rewarded as well as awarded for their long services. 3. Permanency – For entry-level employees, a successful motivational tool has been awarding them a permanent position after six months. 4. Employee competition – Employees are handed down with challenging goals which provides them with intrinsic rewards. 5. Flexible Benefits – Flexible benefits are dependant on a particular situation and the appropriateness of the reward.
Reducing Tension and Stress
For a manager, an important motivational purpose is to reduce tension and stress of the employees. In GP, they do it in the following ways (these techniques are also used to motivate employees in general). * Flex timing * Tailoring the work day absences according to their own convenience * Creating a family friendly organization by holding family picnics etc. * Conducting curricular activities such as sports tournaments. * Swap
In order to ensure efficient performance of the employees, GP specifies the efforts required by the employees to meet the organizational goals. If the efforts are not given by any employee, instead of taking action against him, the HR department undertakes consultancy services to help him meet the required efforts or performance.
The employees of GP are motivated by creating an open environment within the organization, where both the employers and the employees can share the successes and failures of the organization.
GP has a separate department named HSE (Health, Safety, and Environment) which ensures healthy and safe environment for the employees. GP offers medication counseling to the employees to motivate them work better. Each work location of GP has a health and safety coordinator who looks after the workplace environment of GP. In addition to these coordinators, external experts are also invited to share their experience with the employees. The HSE department is also responsible for the safety of the employees on transports.
Training and Development
GP has found out that training is an important motivational tool, and so thy have decided to provide training and development of employees. The types of training they provide are * Situational leadership training o find out the potential future managers of the organization * Customer service to deal with the customers * Leadership training only for senior level personnel
Workshops
Also they provide workshops for developing * Non-technical managers * Post confirmation business orientation where they share the employees’ feelings about the organization after joining it
Job Rotation
A surprising thing that was discovered in GP is that they do not go for job rotation in their work place. This may seem surprising since most companies go for such type of techniques as their motivational methods.
Rewards and Compensation
It is very important for an organization to pay its employees. In order to motivate its employees, an organization has to pay for the performances of the employees. In order to be successful this function of the organization has to be linked with the motivational as well as the appraisal system.
Organizational Incentives
From Gp’s point of view they prefer to pay extrinsic rewards. These rewards are in the form of uniform benefits. They do not go for flexible compensation. These extrinsic rewards are in the form of basic salary and when the performance of the employee is satisfactory then bonuses are given.
Intrinsic rewards are given in the form of involving the employees in forming the core values in the organization as stated earlier. Also goal setting of the job is done with the participation of the employees which creates an atmosphere of cooperation and belongingness. Furthermore the top level management sets challenging goals for the departments and as result they provide the employees with an opportunity to prove themselves.
GP does not go for non financial rewards in the form of choosing ones own office furnishings, preferred lunch hours and so on. Rather the organization prefers to pay financial rewards in the form of normal payment of salary and so on.
Job Evaluation
The jobs are evaluated based on the objectivity of their functions. Then the employee’s performance is evaluated in the appraisal function of the HR department. Job evaluation is done using * Ranking method * Point method
After the evaluation is done, then the HR department goes for reviewing the performance of the employees.
Pay Structure
GP has to determine the pay structure for the employees. This is done in congruence with inflation and other economic factors. In determining the pay structure GP used a survey three years back. This does not mean that GP will not use such methods in the future.
Special Cases of Compensation
GP does not provide individual incentives such as merit pay, piecework etc. Rather they go for general incentives in the form of normal pay and other bonuses. It should be mentioned that the departments of GP give non financial rewards such as “best sales officer award” and so on. These awards are a means of motivating the employee.
Competency based awards are given in GP. These awards are very minimal in comparison to other types of compensation. These rewards constitute only 5% of the total reward system. As a result the HR department does not consider this as a formal compensation method. They further do not recognize them as part of a competency based award.
Findings
* GP network does not cover whole over the country. Rangamati, Khagrachari, Bandarban and some rural areas network is very worse because these areas network technology system is backdated. * There are so many GP customers but customer care center is not available every where. Most of the rural people can’t get customer care facilities. * Call center employees are not efficient for these huge amounts of customer. * Flexi load facility is not available in most of the rural area. * Call rate of GP is high, in the perspective of most of the Bangladeshi people’s economic condition. * Most of the time GP think offer for corporate people
Recommendation
To solve this above problem GP should take some action. This action as follows… * GP network should expand all over the country and use latest technology * Customer care centre should spread all over the country * The problem of Flexi load facility should be eliminated for better customer satisfaction * When launch the new offer GP should think about our young people
Conclusion
Grameen Phone is the first leading cell phone companies in Bangladesh. Their HRM is very strong. Before introducing Grameen Phone the mobile phone service was not available. The price and call rate was very high. In a country, telecommunications play a significant role in economic and social development. This is why Grameen Phone, in collaboration with Grameen Bank, is aiming to place one phone in each village to contribute significantly to the economic uplift of those villages. Grameen Phone’s basic strategy is coverage of both urban and rural areas. Grameen Phone is the revolution for mobile service in Bangladesh. Now, more people of Bangladesh are affordable to utilize the mobile.
Grameen Phone believes in service, a service that leads to good business and good development. Telephony helps people work together, raising their productivity.

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