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Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

In: Business and Management

Submitted By sahara
Words 4135
Pages 17
Executive Summary The world is more concerned about organizations with high rate in their performance, effectiveness, employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, career development and etc. Thus, organizations want employees to go behind their day-to-day job duties and exceed expectations. Literatures suggest that these extra-voluntary behaviors, called organizational citizenship behaviors, are positively related to the indicators of organizational effectiveness. Katz and Kahn (1978) mentioned that organizational citizenship behaviors can be extremely valuable to organizations and can contribute to enhance better performance as well as competitive advantage (Jahangir & Akbar 2004). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and its impacts on organizational effectiveness. The first section will define organizational citizenship behaviors and reviews some standpoints from different authors. The second section will explain the main types of behaviors. However, many behavioral patterns are likely to fall into this category, but we focus on the most important ones. Furthermore, the antecedents of the OCBs as well as its consequences will be discussed. Finally the paper will propose HR practices that can help to encourage employees to exhibit favorable behaviors and enhance effective OCBs.

An Introduction to Organizational Citizenship Behavior Katz, as far back as 1964, was the one who emphasized on the need for a behavioral system that went beyond the required role of the job description. He realized that this behavioral system was tantamount to organizational effectiveness.
By considering concepts such as “willingness to cooperate” (Barnard, 1938) and “innovative and spontaneous behaviors” (Katz, 1964), Organ (1988) defined organizational citizenship behaviors as “individual behavior that is...

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