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Organizational Culture

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The long-run growth of an organisation requires a variety of strategies as a developmental process to sustain its competencies over its rivals. The development of such strategies in the organisation can be viewed in terms of its cultural content as fundamental as other crucial elements such as leadership and human resources. In other words, identifying and understanding organisational culture can effectively help managers make strategic changes responding to the turbulence in an increasingly dynamic environment.

As the importance of organisational culture has been clearly realised for managers to make strategic decisions, cultural web is a useful tool to understand cultural values that have only been reflected through people’s daily behaviours within an organisation. Johnson and Scholes (1997) suggested that the framework of cultural web could help managers to find the hidden cultural values that have not been written down, as well as the concepts of different cultural artefacts and their relationship within an organisation. According to Schein (2006), core beliefs and assumptions of an organisational culture are taken for granted, unconsciously shared and deeply embedded and construct the underlying of culture, which is referred to the paradigm. Johnson (1992) explained the existence of the paradigm in an organisational world. Managers from different departments may perceive distinctive values about many areas within the organisation, however, there should be an agreement, to some extent, on the consensus of the organisational world. This paradigm is so critical that strategic development made by managers is based on it and strategies are incrementally evolved as a reflection of it. For example, innovative and revolutionary design is the core belief and assumption of Apple company. Their chief executive officer Steven Jobs was very rigorous about any products...

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