Organizational Theories

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Student06
Words 533
Pages 3
Organizational Theories
June 25, 2011

Organizational Theories
James Q. Wilson, an American criminologist, identified the primary functions of police departments as law enforcement, order maintenance, and service delivery (Liederbach & Travis, III, 2008). In 1968, he observed patterns of discretionary behavior in eight police departments (Police: Organization and Management - Variation in Style and Structure, 2011). From these observations he concluded that police organizations, depending on their approach to these functions, could be categorized into three basic styles of policing. These operational styles are the Watchman, the Legalistic, and the Service styles.
The Watchman style is based primarily on the use of uniformed police patrol (Grant & Terry, 2008). Wilson noted that the patrolman’s role was defined more by his responsibility for maintaining order than by his responsibility for enforcing the law (Wilson, 1978). This style of policing includes a considerable use of police discretion. There are few policies and procedures, therefore allowing for an individual approach by officers towards problems. This form of policing is less pro-active than other forms, and as a result, officers are distanced from the people in the community.
The Legalistic style of policing emphasizes the importance of law enforcement and maintaining clear and impartial legal standards for both the police and the public alike (Grant & Terry, 2008). In this form of policing, there is a high level of commitment to professionalism and considerable importance is placed upon research and planning. In legalistic-style departments, officers initiate formal contact with citizens and structure their work according to the criminal law (Police: Organization and Management - Variation in Style and Structure, 2011). These police departments have no interest in social problems and…...

Similar Documents

Organizational Theory

...BA 510 Organizational Theory Final Exam I offer you a challenge for purposes of accessing your understanding of the material presented in this class. This challenge is somewhat unique as it will test your integrate key concepts into material taken from everyday life. This exam is in 2 parts. EXAM INSTRUCTIONS You are limited to 13 pages (single spaced, 26 pages double spaced) to tie your thoughts together. This is not an invitation to write more than is necessary, just a realization that some may want to write more in a last minute attempt to raise their final grade. This exam must be submitted to me via the assignment link in the Final exam folder on the assignments page by Saturday March 19th at 10 AM CT. Early submissions are encouraged! PART 1 Instructions Your task is to explain each of the 17 quotes below in terms of material we have talked about in this class. Each quote should be given some thought as to what theory/concept/approach we have talked about ties into each snippet, and what OB lessons can taken from each quote. Some notes before you start… 1) Each quote was chosen for what it says, not for who said it. 2) It is possible that these quotes could be tied to multiple ideas. 3) I am looking for explanations of what you see, and demonstrations of understanding of the material. For example, telling me that #1 is about leadership is not enough. 4) You are allowed to take as much time on this test as you would like, and use any...

Words: 3291 - Pages: 14

Organizational Theory

..., boundary spanning, maintenance, adaptation, and management.   Organizational Configuration Henry Mintzberg says that every organization has five interrelated parts [Exhibit 1.3A]: technical core of people who do the basic work of the organization; technical support creates innovations in the technical core with employees such as engineers and researchers; administrative support is responsible for smooth operation and upkeep of the organization, including its human resources; top management provides direction, strategy, goals, and policies for the organization; and middle management is responsible for implementation and coordination at the departmental level.   Dimensions of Organization Design Structural Dimensions [Exhibit 1.4] Structural dimensions provide labels to describe an organization's internal characteristics. Formalization pertains to the amount of written documentation in the organization; Specialization is the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into separate jobs; Hierarchy of authority describes who reports to whom and the span of control; Centralization refers to the hierarchical level that has authority to make a decision; Professionalism is the level of formal education and training of employees; Personnel ratios refer to the deployment of people to various functions and departments.   Contextual Dimensions Contextual dimensions characterize the whole organization and describe the organizational setting. Size is the......

Words: 1364 - Pages: 6

Organizational Research and Theory

...Organizational Research and Theory Name: Institution: Date: Power is an essential factor in the running of an organization institution or even a state. A powerful institution will always ensure that things work out and at no instanced are things going wrong. However, one would wonder what exactly organizational power is. Power also has some benefits that come along with it. Organizational power, in this case, can be defined as the means by which conflict are resolved in an organization. Others define power as the ability of a group or a person to overcome the resistance of others so as to achieve the desired outcome (Jones, 2010). It is reasonable to state that some element of coercion exists in conflict resolution. Therefore, organizational power is specifically said to be the ability of A to make B to do a thing that B could not have done. Therefore, if a subunit with an organization has a lot of power, it can apply power to achieve the results that it desires. In conflict resolution element of power plays a crucial role. It influences the decisions to be made, for example, how resources shall be allocated to different subunits. Most decisions in an organization are made through bargaining, and when this is so then the side with more power significantly influences the outcome or the decision made. In other words, power determines the subunit that will suffer with an organization and the one that will benefit. As a matter of fact, conflicts arise in...

Words: 669 - Pages: 3

Organizational Theory

...Organizational Research and Theory: MBA 6001 | Research Paper | | The purpose of this research paper is to address organizational research and theory and to determine the importance of establishing rules, regulations and standing operating procedures in an organization. An organization’s way of conducting business and its environment is critical to the success of that company. There are many elements that complete the puzzle of that organization that will determine that organizations success or failure. All personnel from the highest to the lowest level have key roles that display the relevance of the organizational environment, organizational design and organizational change. The Organization An organization is defined as “a tool that people use to coordinate their actions to obtain something they desire or value which is to achieve their goals” (Jones, 2010, p.2). According to Jones (2010), an organization is a response to and a means of satisfying some human need. It is important to be innovative in an organization. When new technologies are discovered and needs are increased, the organization thrives in their success. As long as there is a need that an organization can provide, the organization will have continuous success. There are many people who have goals of becoming an entrepreneur in their area of expertise. “Entrepreneurship is the term used to describe the process by which people recognize opportunities to satisfy needs and then...

Words: 3097 - Pages: 13

Organizational Theory

...1) Describe the relationship between the organizational environment and organizational structure and design. Explore the differences between internal and external environmental factors. What factors are important and why? An organizational environment usually sets boundaries to what an organization can and cannot do because of the factors which influence that organization. The term is defined as all elements that exist outside the boundary of the organization and have the potential to affect all or part of the organization. Where the organization physically takes place, or its domain and how the sectors play a role on the organization all have an impact on the structures to react to those factors. The organizational structure is based on the number of levels of hierarchy, grouping individuals together into departments and number of departments in an organization, as well as communication and coordination across departments. Some factors that influence organizations are the task environment including: international, industry, raw materials, human resource and market sectors. These sectors directly impact the organization’s ability to achieve goals. These factors are more capable to control, to a certain extent, by the organization. However, there are also the general environment, like the: sociocultural, government, economic conditions, technology, and financial resource sector. These sectors might not have a direct impact on the daily operations of a firm but indirectly...

Words: 3243 - Pages: 13

Organizational Theory

... to protect your image on social networks is no secret. Use common sense and contemplate before you post. Social networking can enhance or ruin your life. It’s all up to you! .   References Employers are scoping out job candidates on social media – but what are they finding? (2012) CareerBuilder. Retrieved from http://www.careerbuilder.com/JobPoster/Resources/page.aspx?pagever=2012SocialMedia&template=none&sc_cmp2=JP_Infographic_2012SocialMedia Cohen J, (2013) “38 Things Not To Share On Social Networking Sites,” http://www.inscribd.com/38-things-not-to-share-on-social-networking-sites/#axzz2kMRbDn2K Crockett, S. and Gerhart, (2011) “The Benefits of Using Social Media for Employee Communications,” http://www.mower.com/news/emabstracts/volume-2/issue-3/the-benefits-of-using-social-media-for-employee-communications Flaherty, A. (2013, September 5). Study finds online privacy concerns on the rise. The New Zealand Herald, p.1 Rosen, L. (2010, December 22) Using Social Network Sites Such as Facebook to Screen Job Candidates Increases Legal Risk for Employers in 2011. Retrieved from: http://hr.toolbox.com/blogs/background-checks/using-social-network-sites-such-as-facebook-to-screen-job-candidates-increases-legal-risk-for-employers-in-2011-43294 Klumper, D., Rosen, P., Mossholder, K. 2012. Social Networking Websites, Personality Ratings, and the Organizational Context: More Than Meets the Eye? Journal of Applied Social Psychology. Lerner...

Words: 1727 - Pages: 7

Organizational Theory

...Organizational Theory Angele Muhammad February 5, 2014 Assistant Professor Darren Gil Southern University at New Orleans Abstract I will discuss the basis of an organizational theory as it applies to the criminal justice system. I am discussing and giving a clear understanding of the criminal justice system as an organization of a bureaucratic management system with hierarchies and processes of inputs, processes, and outputs within one aspect of the criminal justice system i.e. police, within one city. I will also discuss how New Orleans Police Department was created throughout history and what organizational theory has been implemented. This is a brief history of the New Orleans Police Department and why a bureaucratic management system is the basis for this organization. Organizational Theory Understanding that Organizational theory is the study of organizations in the aspect of design, structure, the relationship of the organization and the external and internal environment including the behavior of the hierarchy within the organization. The police, courts and parole, which are the criminal justice agencies, fit the description of being an organization. They consist of having a process of input, processing and outputs. This system desires to process and close cases that will stay closed within a hierarchy frame. They all have sets of written rules and specialized training within a hierarchy of authority that desires the bureaucratic structure to...

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

Organizational Theory

... by the workers always influence the job performance. (Reeves, 2009). Communication is the concept in which information is exchanged between two entities. Development of good communication skills in the working environment is very crucial. The day to day operations are achieved if a good decision making process is initiated right from the very start; a good decision relies on the distinct development of effective communication principles. It brings into light the importance of all individual to develop a good working environment that is convenient to all members of the company. The best way to tackle an emerging setback in an organization is to work in unity, unity is strength. According to Emma Hallet, teachers’ in Wales and England had a strike due to the lack of necessary factors that would ensure their performance is appreciated (2014). The National Union of teachers demonstrated against unfair pension changes, Low pay in relation to performance and excessive workload that teachers were exposed to. This strike was the third national strike since 2002 that saw more than 400 schools shut doors. In organizational behavior this can be accounted for by explaining the content theory of motivation. Herzberg’s' Two Factor Theory This is one of the content theories of motivation. The two factor theory distinguishes between the motivators and hygiene factors. The motivator factors included challenge at work, responsibility and recognition. These factors were...

Words: 1199 - Pages: 5

Organizational Theory

...Introduction This essay will cover the meta-theoretical assumptions that make up the modernist and symbolic interpretive approaches and how the respective theories under these perspectives describe about the relationship between organisations and technology in the environment. Meta-theoretical assumptions Ontology refers to our assumptions and concepts about reality. According to Hatch and Cunliffe (2006), concepts produce mental categories for arranging, categorizing and keeping experience in memory. This mental documentation assists in the studies of an object’s nature of existence, whether or not it is real or illusory. It suggests that although we do not see something perhaps it does not mean that it doesn’t exist. The study of ontology takes 2 conflicting views, subjectivism and objectivism. The ontology of modernism is objectivism. The modernists believe that reality exists independent of our knowledge of it. From the objectivist’s point of view, reality is experienced through our five senses and our knowledge of what’s around us is derived from what we encountered and that the knowledge may be substantiated overtime by scientific methods to enhance its reliability (Hatch and Cunliffe, 2006). However, this is strongly objected by the point of view of the subjectivists. The subjectivists believe that the reality exists only when it is experienced and registered by someone. In addition, the symbolic-interpretivist broadens the perspective of reality to involve...

Words: 2292 - Pages: 10

Organizational Theory

... final project. To achieve full marks, blog must be posted by Monday before class and insightful, reflective comments on at least two other posts no later than the following Monday. Short Paper: Culture, Motivation and Performance Using the organization that will be analyzed in your final project paper, analyze and explore the relationships between culture, motivation and performance. The paper should indicate understanding and perceptions of key content points from assigned chapters, articles, videos, etc. The paper should be 3-4 pages in length, using APA 6th Edition guidelines. This paper is due on the Sunday after week 3. Group Presentation: Fast Food Technology Groups will visit, observe, analyze, compare and contrast and make improvement recommendations on organization behavior of McDonald’s with respect to a competitor. Presentations will be given in week 5. A portion of the grade for this presentation will be for your team participation and contribution. Final Project Paper For the final project, students will identify and address an organizational behavior issue or opportunity for a company that they work in, have worked in, or otherwise use legitimate sources to research. Utilizing content from the textbook, articles, videos, papers, self-assessments, blogs, websites and other resource material, the paper should analyze, interpret, and make recommendations through the lens of......

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

Organizational Theory

.../872332036?accountid=10868 Kessler, E. H. (2001). The idols of organizational theory from francis bacon to the dilbert principle. Journal of Management Inquiry, 10(4), 285-297. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203305531?accountid=10868 Lorber, Judith. (1998). Gender Inequality: Feminist Theories and Politics. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publications. Mintzberg, H. (1973). The nature of managerial work. New York: Harper & Row. National Association of College and University Business Officers. (1996). Organizational paradigm shifts. Washington, D.C: National Association of College and University Business Officers. Renihan, P. (1985). Organizational theory and the logic of the dichotomy. Educational Administration Quarterly, 21(4), 121-134. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/63310833?accountid=10868 Senge, Peter M. (1990). The Fifth Discipline. New York: Doubleday. Shapiro, Mary, Ingols, Cynthia and Blake, Beard. Using Power to Influence Outcomes: Does Gender Matter? Journal of Management Education October 2011 35: 713-748, first published on June 9, 2011 doi:10.1177/1052562911411089 Shapiro, Robert Y. & Mahajan, Harpreet. Gender Differences in Policy Preferences: A Summary of Trends from the 1960s to the 1980s Public Opinion Quarterly (1986) 50 (1): 42-61. doi: 10.1086/268958 Schneider, Dorothy & Schneider, Carl (1993). American Women in the Progressive Era. New York: Facts on File. Swim, J. K., Aikin, K. J., Hall, W. S., & Hunter, B.......

Words: 6977 - Pages: 28

Organizational Theory

...Maslow is best known for his theory, the Hierarchy of Needs. Depicted in a pyramid, the theory explains the different levels and importance of human psychological and physical needs. It can be used by business managers to better understand employee motivation. The general needs in Maslow's hierarchy include physiological needs (food and clothing), safety needs (job security), social needs (friendship), self-esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs relates to organizational theory and behavior due to it's exploration of worker motivation, enabling better managerial practices and higher job satisfaction. Managers must be perceptive and empathetic to their employees—they must listen to what their employees' needs are and work to fulfill them. Maslow is best known for his theory, the Hierarchy of Needs. Depicted in a pyramid, the theory explains the different levels and importance of human psychological and physical needs. It can be used by business managers to better understand employee motivation. The general needs in Maslow's hierarchy include physiological needs (food and clothing), safety needs (job security), social needs (friendship), self-esteem, and self-actualization. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs relates to organizational theory and behavior due to it's exploration of worker motivation, enabling better managerial practices and higher job satisfaction. Managers must be perceptive and empathetic to their employees—they must listen to what...

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Organizational Theory – Organizational Systems Analysis

...Organizational Theory – Organizational Systems Analysis Organizational Theory – Summary Paper Today’s organizations draw upon the concepts of social and cultural anthropology, political science, strategic management, and organizational behavior. To become a successful manager in today’s organizations, mangers must understand and adjust to organizational concepts, implementation and management of change within organizations, concepts of systems of theory problem solving and decision making. As a manger in my current organization, this course has taught me how to improve my managerial skills through recognizing and understanding the concepts mentioned above. The following is a complete system analysis of my company based on the Six-Box Model. Within the six-box model I will demonstrate how the following factors: (1) Boundaries and Environments; (2) Organizational Structure; (3) Formal and Informal Systems; (4) Reward Systems; (5) Power; (6) Force Field Analysis, (7) Organizational Interventions; and (8) Reactions to Proposed Changes affect a managers management style. Organizational Boundaries and Environments Boundaries in organizations can be defined as “the umbrella under which rules are implemented to shape their purpose and goals.” (Ware, 2005). Boundaries are in place to determine the sphere of influence for the internal activities of an organization and to govern the reactions to external...

Words: 3882 - Pages: 16

Organizational Theory Design

...CHAPTER 1 * 1. 1- 1- Organizational Theory, Design, and Change Sixth Edition Gareth R. Jones Chapter 1 Organizations and Organizational Effectiveness * 2. What is an Organization? Organization: a tool used by people to coordinate their actions to obtain something they desire or value Organizations provide goods and services Organizations employ people Organizations bring together people and resources to produce products and services Basically, organizations exist to create value Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall * 3. How Does an Organization Create Value? Value creation takes place at three stages: input, conversion, and output Each stage is affected by the environment in which the organization operates Environment – the set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization’s boundaries but affect its ability to acquire and use resources to create value Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall * 4. Figure 1.1: How an Organization Creates Value Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall * 5. Why Do Organizations Exist? People working together to produce goods and services create more value than people working alone 5 major reasons why organizations exist: To increase specialization and the division of labor Division of labor allows specialization Specialization allows individuals to become experts at their job To use large-scale technology Economies of scale...

Words: 985 - Pages: 4

Organizational Theory

...Assignment #3: Module 1 - The Individual Ciera’ Harris, Chukwuemeka Okereke, Kayla Paige, Tavion Powell, Farah Raymond, and Jill Ricks PADG 5500.01 Dr. Wigfall 1/28/2016 R/J - Chapters 5: Personality and Values 1. Younger individuals do differ from older individuals in their plans to remain with one employer for a long time. Younger individuals (Millennials) are not as interested in job security and stability as older individuals (Baby Boomers) were when they entered the workforce. Millennials are focused more on the now, rather than ten or twenty years from now. Millennials are more mobile and do not mind moving around. Baby Boomers focus on career then salary, now the focus is salary then career. These differences exist both because of shifting economic realities and changing work values. When Baby Boomers started off in the workforce, the economy was completely different. Millennials have more knowledge and access to information on jobs through many sources, especially the Internet. Baby Boomers did not have that kind of access. 2. It can ultimately hurt to job surf as soon as the desire strikes. Employers like to see some degree of stability on resumes. An application can get passed by because of someone moving around too much from company to company. The employer does have the right to ask about job surfing. The employer also can ask about short term and long-term goals. An employer does not want to invest in someone who is not willing to stay...

Words: 1388 - Pages: 6