Free Essay

Origin and Development of Korean Mask

In: Social Issues

Submitted By athenazhang0514
Words 2589
Pages 11
Origin and Development of Korean Mask Dance Dramas Mask dance drama is one typical type of Korean traditional dramas, which is originated from the primitive Shamanistic ritual ceremony, and developed in court and among common people throughout Korean history. In both aspects, a prosperous development has been gained and the final form of the Korean Mask dance drama has been shaped in the Joseon period. Due to various reasons, the arts have been largely lost in the development of the modernization. After the independence, calls for the protection measures of Korean mask dance dramas grew louder domestically, and eventually, it has got a new lease of life under the policy of national intangible cultural protection being carried out in 1960s. By now, there are totally only 13 valuable Korean Mask dance dramas inherited are acknowledged as national intangible cultural heritage. During the spreading and inheriting process, some of the dramas have lost their vitality, while some others have gained new developments and have showed a significant impact on people’s social life.
The Origin of Korean Mask Dance Dramas
In Korean traditional society, the concept of hierarchy was deeply rooted in people’s mind, common people couldn’t speak ill of the people in power, and that is one reason why masks became popular in Korean traditional society. The masks offered freedom for performers to anonymously express their criticisms of powerful local people, such as members of the aristocracy or the Buddhist monastic hierarchy. Some of the talchum(탈춤), or plays, also mock stereotyped versions of annoying personalities within the lower classes: the drunkard, the gossip, the flirt or the constantly-complaining grandmother.
According to relevant eminent scholars studying in this field, Korean Mask dance dramas can be divided into two systems, ancestral rites’ system and Ogwangdae system. Hahoi Byeolshin’gut Talnoli(하회별신굿 탈놀이) and Gangneung Gwanno Gamyeon’ geuk(강릉 관노 가면극) are typically originated from the ancestral rites’ system, developing with traditional religious meanings. While other mask dance dramas have been turned into professional art performances by gwangdaes in Joseon period, and these mask dance dramas usually have better stories passed down from the early three kingdoms period aiming at attracting audiences.
The original stories for Korean mask dance dramas in Ogwangdae system are from western regions like India. In the old days, the western artists brought the mask dance and its stories to China through the Silk Road and then passed them to Silla. In the Chronicles of the Three States, poems about mask dance dramas can be found written by Silla poet Choi Ji-won. For example, in the poem that named Lion, it says that lions have walked a long way to reach here, that the clothes were all tore out with dust on. The lions shook their heads, waged their tails, with mighty momentum( “远涉流沙万里来,毛衣破尽着尘埃,摇头掉尾驯仁德,雄气宁同百兽才”) . This kind of mask dance still can commonly be seen in China or Korea as a kind of traditional performance. Artists imitate every detail of lions’ actions wearing costumes and masks. As in Korea, there have no lions’ images before the three kingdoms period, we can easily draw the conclusion that this kind of dance performance is originated from western regions and then passed down to Korea.
Despite the mask dance dramas originated from western regions, there are some native dramas originated with religious meanings under the impact of Korean Shamanism. Their predominant use in Korea's early history was at funeral services to help banish evil spirits. They were also used for Shamanistic rites and were kept within temples where they were honored with offerings. The origin is always connected with the usage. In traditional Korean society, Shamanism is regarded as a national religion among common people. After mask dance dramas were introduced into Korea, the art has been developed to be an important type of the cult of incantations.
In the Korean primitive tribe period, farmers used to dance before the autumn harvest, in order to drive the insects and filthiness beneath the earth away. From then on, dancing has been developed as a basic form of communication between men and god. While dancing, people imitate god’s attitude in their minds, and it would be the god dancing, other than men’s dance if coupled with masks on the performers’ faces. This kind of ritual dance served as the key procedure in sacrificial rites, which could pass a strong conviction to the prayers, and has also furthered the development of Shamanism culture in Korea. Therefore, the original usage of the masks is to be as the symbol of god. What shamans want to do is to imitate god’s attitude and to pass down the god’s words to common people, and they have to strengthen people’s belief in them or in god in order to develop Shamanism. While they were trying their best to imitate god’s attitude that was closed to people’s expectations by using the masks, the images they were widely used have then become the general image of god in common people’s minds throughout the society.
Among all Korean mask dance dramas, Cheoyongmu is one of the most representative dance used for Shamanistic rites. The dance is based on the legend of Cheoyeong(처용), and has made great progress throughout Korean history in the field of mask dance dramas. In the legend, Cheoyong asserted himself as the son of an ocean king during the rule of King Heongang in the Shilla Dynasty and served as a government worker in the Ulsan region. The king chose a pretty women for Cheoyong to marry as a reward. One day, Cheoyong has went to Gwangju, and didn’t come back home till midnight. Then, when Cheoyong returned home late that night, to find his wife in bed with another man. Rather than exploding in anger, however, he turned the other cheek and went back into the village singing and dancing. The man, who was actually a god of disease, was so impressed by Cheoyong's forgiving nature that he swore an oath to him.
"I admired your wife and committed a wrongful deed. I was so impressed by your virtuous mind that I will never again enter any house that bears your portrait," he said.
Since the legend originated, putting an image of Cheoyong's face on the gate of a house was said to prevent contagious diseases and dispel evil spirits. And in the field of mast dance dramas, Cheoyongmu has been served as a court dance performed to dispel evil spirits and prayed for tranquillity at royal banquets, or during exorcism rites on New Year’s Eve to promote good fortune. While dancing, the shamans would imitate Cheoyong, singing and dancing to drive off evil spirits, which is also regarded as the most primary task in Shamanistic rites.
The Development of Korean Mask Dance Dramas
When taking an overview of the history of mask dance dramas on the peninsula, what is always mentioned is the existence of the oldest mask—a shell mask uncovered in a midden heap in Dongsamdong (inBusan), while the oldest mask being recorded in Korean history is in the Chronicles of the Three States.
Therefore, when we take a look at the development of Korean mask dance dramas, the history can be traced to the early three kingdom period. At that time, Goguryeo, Silla and Baekje all have their best mask dance dramas in different types, especially Silla’s mask dance drama has a rather close connection with the folk music of Tang dynasty. The Goryeo period witnessed the cultural integration between Korean national culture and western regions’ culture. Historians speculate that at Goryeo period, the performing arts were influenced by music, dance, and drama from beyond the peninsula in the same way that sculpture, visual art, and clothing styles entered Korea along the Silk Road, which was often accompanied by new philosophies, such as Buddhism and Confucianism. Besides, at the time, when performing mask dance dramas, artists began to use a high platform as the stage, which was also introduced into peninsula from China. During the Goryeo period, Silla-era kommu was very popular, and by that time the performances certainly included masked dancers. By the late Goryeo period, a new unique form of satirical play has gained new development, with the characteristic of criticizing the political system, yangban and monks. During the Goryeo period, many Buddhist clergy held considerable political power. Corruption was rampant among government officials, and the high monks indulged not only in feasting and bribe-collecting, but also in the pleasures of wine, women and song. Thus, the corrupt and lusty monk became an object of mockery for the common people in mask dance dramas.
In the early Joseon period, performing arts were funded by the state, with mask dance dramas included in court and regional government performances under the auspices of the Sandae Dogam (산대도감). Therefore, Goryeo-era talchum has become more prevalent among both yangban and common people, and also some new plays have been made for yangban and monarch’s needs with similar characters and common characteristics at that time. However, The Sandae Dogam was disbanded later, due to the financial strain of the two invasions in the early 1600s and perhaps also due to the extragance and over-formalism of the Joseon government. Afterwards, the country was stricken heavily by poverty, and at the Young-jo, Jeong-jo period, the mask dance dramas played in court have been totally abolished. Thus, performers scattered in different places on peninsula could only continue to perform the plays that they were good at for regional festivals, but without government oversight the dramas diverged from the Sandae Dogam model. The different versions of the mask dance dramas performed by different artists at that time gradually formed today’s Korean mask dance dramas’ system.
Traditionally, the mask dance dramas were performed during important holidays, such as New Year festival, Dano, Daeboreum, and Chuseok. However, like most Korean traditional arts, mask dance performance declined significantly during the Japanese occupation (1910–1945). Though Performances of the mask dance dramas were not explicitly forbidden until after the Sino-Japanese War began in 1937, Japanese government carried out cultural policies early than that time which oppressed local expression, taught Korean people Japanese culture and languages, and eliminated many regional festivals and ceremonies. As a result, the mask dance dramas have lost much of the chances to perform, and the artists felt so hard to keep up with the cost of living that many of them eventually gave up the performances.
The subsequent division of the peninsula, civil war, and lean years before the Republic of Korea began to prosper economically resulted in a temporary halt to most performing arts activity. The calls for the protection measures of Korean mask dance dramas were growing louder domestically, and after Park Chung Hee became president, he established the Cultural Property Protection Law (CPPL) in 1962. In the law, one of the four areas was intangible cultural heritage: intangible arts such as music, dance, games, and rites were nominated for protection under the law. Through the nominating process for government protection, Namsadang, Tongyeong Ogwangdae, and Goseong Ogwangdae etc., many of the mask dance dramas were included in the law after a series of reconstruction by local artists. However, there were some plays that already did not have former performers by that time, and it is likely that the reconstructed version is a kind of idealized and imagined version of what may have once been performed.
The existing Korean mask dance dramas are mainly divided into 4 types, three of which are named after the place performing the plays: Sandae Talchum, Hahoi Talchum, Ogwangdae and the Talchum played in Hwanghae Province. Sandae Talchum is the plays performed in court and regional governments in Joseon period as previously mentioned. After the decline of Joseon, the audience of the plays has changed into common people, and the artists have to give a kind of touring performances in different villages to make a living. At holidays such as Dano and Shamanistic rite praying for the rain, the artists would set up a platform for performance at the village square temporarily, and the performance would be started by sunset and end at the midnight. This kind of unique Korean traditional mask dance drama has already lost much of the audience, and by now, there are only one village near Seoul that are still performing the plays with government’s fund. Hahoi Talchum is well-known in Korea due to the government’s promotion. This kind of mask dance drama is not like the others, it is performed not to entertain people, but to diminish evil power and to calm dead women’s souls, and finally reach the destination of protecting the whole village, which is one part of the local shamanistic rite to drive off evil spirits. Ogwangdae is mainly performed in the east-north part of Korea, and is mainly performed to entertain people. In the drama, there are five clowns, each stands in a direction of north, east, south, west and the middle. Ogwangdae is generally performed on the 15th day of the first month according to the lunar calendar, and different plays of Ogwangdae have all been regarded as national intangible cultural heritages.
Nowadays, Korean mask dance dramas have already diverged from the traditional festival activities, performing only as a kind of Korean traditional art and the performers have to do some adjustments to fit the specific audience’s needs. Therefore, the art has become more and more commercialized and entertaining. In addition, as the performing time has been sharply reduced, the performance content, songs and lines have also been greatly cut down.
Conclusion
Korean mask dance dramas is one significant kind of traditional dramas. The original stories for the plays in Ogwangdae system are from western regions like India, also there are some native dramas originated with religious meaning under the impact of Korean national religion Shamanism. Early at the three kingdom period, Goguryeo, Silla and Baekje have all already enjoyed their unique mask dance dramas in different styles, and after new developments through Goryeo and Joseon period, the mask dance dramas has once become a formal ritual played for the government, and there was even a performance and ritual bureau named Sandae Dogam. After the invasion and decline of the Joseon government, this kind of folk art has once been lost, and at the same modernization period, performers scattered in different places on peninsula continued to perform the plays that they are good at for regional festivals. The different versions of the mask dance dramas performed by different artists at that period of time gradually formed today’s Korean mask dance dramas system.
The academic study of mask dance dramas in Korea is no longer fashionable, yet there are many facets of the mask dance dramas that remain to be studied, and also the translation of different mask dance dramas’ names are still not commonly confirmed, which would sometimes result in readers’ misunderstanding.

References
Bak, Jintae. 2001. Tongyeong Ogwangdae. Seoul: Hwasan Munhwa.
Jeon, Kyungwook. 2005. Korean Mask Dance Dramas: Their History and Structural Principles.Seoul: Youlhwadang.
Lee, Youngmee. 1997. "Korean Traditional Theatre and Madanggeuk Theatre." Korea Journal 37 (3): 40–62.
CedarBough Saeji, 2012. The Bawdy, Brawling, Boisterous World of Korean Mask Dance Dramas:A Brief Essay to Accompany Photographs, E-Journal No. 4: 146-168.
田耕旭:《韩国的假面剧》[M],学古斋,2004年。
韩英姬:《韩国假面剧研究》[D],延边大学,2010年。
朴镇泰:《假面剧的起源与结构》[M],新文社,1990年。

--------------------------------------------
[ 1 ]. CedarBough Saeji , The Bawdy, Brawling, Boisterous World of Korean Mask Dance Dramas:A Brief Essay to Accompany Photographs, 2012.9

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Korean Literature

...KOREAN LITERATURE Korean literature is the body of literature produced by Koreans, mostly in the Korean language and sometimes in Classical Chinese. For much of Korea's 1,500 years of literary history, it was written in Hanja. It is commonly divided into classical and modern periods, although this distinction is sometimes unclear. Korea is home to the world's first metal and copper type, world's earliest known printed document and the world's first featural script. ------------------------------------------------- General overview In general, the written arts have a tradition in epigraphic inscriptions on stones, in early tombs, and on rarely found bamboo pieces that formed early books. Repeated invasions and sacking of the east and west capitals, as well as the difficulty in preserving written texts on bamboo, make works before 1000 rare. Those works were entirely written in Chinese characters, the language of scholars, but of course incorporated Korean words and mindset. Medieval scholars in Korea learned and employed written Chinese as western schoolmen learned Latin: as a lingua franca for the region. It helped cultural exchanges extensively. Notable examples of historical records are very well documented from early times, and as well Korean books with movable type, often imperial encyclopedias or historical records, were circulated as early as the 7th century during the Three Kingdoms era from printing wood-blocks; and in the Goryeo era the world's first metal......

Words: 2248 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Is Compare Japan-Korea Cosmetic

...AY 2011 COMPARISON OF MARKETING STRATEGIES BETWEEN JAPANESE AND KOREAN COSMETICS COMPANIES IN THAILAND’S MARKET MATHAVEE REUNGSINPINYA Major in Business Administration GRADUATE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE WASEDA UNIVERSITY 35092351-8 C.E. PROF. GROSSBERG PROF. SUGIURA D.E. PROF. FUJITA Table of Contents CHAPTER 1. SECTION 1. SECTION 2. SECTION 3. SECTION 4. CHAPTER 2. SECTION 1. SECTION 2. SECTION 3. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................... 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................ 1 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY........................................................................... 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ......................................................................... 3 STRUCTURE OF PAPER ................................................................................. 4 INDUSTRY ANALYSIS .......................................................................... 5 THAILAND’S COSMETIC MARKET ................................................................. 5 JAPANESE COSMETICS IN THAILAND ........................................................... 8 KOREAN COSMETICS IN THAILAND ........................................................... 10 CHAPTER 3. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF MAJOR JAPANESE AND KOREAN COSMETIC COMPANIES ..............................................................................................14 SECTION 1.......

Words: 24685 - Pages: 99

Premium Essay

Folk Dance

...Name: Aunso, Jemimah Lea, S. Course and year: BSED 1st 1.What is dance? Dance is a performance art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolicvalue, and is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture.[nb 1] Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period orplace of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical andparticipatory dance,[4] although these two categories are not always completely separate; both may have special functions, whether social,ceremonial, competitive, erotic, martial, or sacred/liturgical. Others disciplines of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, gymnastics, figure skating, synchronized swimming and many other forms of athletics. 2. What are the types/kinds of dances? Types of Dance - Categories Here are some of the most popular dance categories and types: Ballroom Dances These dances started appearing first in Italy, during the early years of Renaissance. Popularity of this kind of entertainment quickly swept over the Europe, United States and the World. Although many other simpler and more easily preformed types of dances caused the ballroom dances to lose some of their influence, modern worldwide dancing audience started resurrecting these immortal dances in ever increasing pace...

Words: 6745 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Overall Operations Analysis of a Garments Factory in Bangladesh

...industry is one of those sectors. After the emergence of Bangladesh, radical change has come to our garments sector. At present there are about 3000 garments industries in the country and 75 percent of them are in Dhaka. This industry has employed fifty lacks of people and 85 percent of them are illiterate rural women. About 76 percent of our export earning comes from this sector. The tremendous success of readymade garments exports from Bangladesh over the last two decades has surpassed the most optimistic expectations. Today the apparel export sector is a multi-billion-dollar manufacturing and export industry in the country. The overall impact of the readymade garments exports is certainly one of the most significant social and economic developments in contemporary Bangladesh. Azim Group of Bangladesh was one of the very pioneers of the garments sector in this country. The group itself was founded on 1975 although the readymade garments division of Azim Group started at 1982.That division was the third garments factory in Bangladesh and the first sweater and woven cloths manufacturer in Bangladesh. With an almost $200 million revenue per year and 100% export oriented business strategy, the readymade garments division has become a very profitable venture. Every successful venture depends on the operation it conducts to run the business and Azim Group is no different. The goal of this report would be to shed light upon the operations management of the company...

Words: 2142 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Divercity

...Di Wu 2010–06–04 Chapter 6 native Americans In this chapter, we learn about history and development of Native American. This chapter consist of three parts , history of native; how federal polices effect on native American ; what situation the native American in today. After reading this chapter, I think racism is a very painful problem in the United States. of the first acts of racism in American was against the Native Americans. At first, the Native Americans were the Europeans’ friends. The Native Americans showed the Europeans how to farm, hunt and live off the land in this new America. As time went by and the Europeans became comfortable, they no longer need the Native American people. The Native American people were in the way, they had land that the growing population of the Europeans wanted and needed. This was the start of many treaties that the American Government would make the Native people, and the start for racism against them. Out of all the treaties that the American Government made with the Native People, they kept all of them, but the United States only kept half of the treaties. For federal policies, American government gives an immense amount of respect to such diverse cultures and groups, but where is the respect for the Indians. When the United States first became an independent nation, it adopted the European policies towards these native peoples, but over the course of two centuries the U.S. adapted its own widely varying policies regarding the......

Words: 2208 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Amorepacific: from Local to Global Beauty Case

...In 2005, Suh Kyung-Bae, President and CEO of South Korean cosmetics company AmorePacific, surveyed a map in his office in downtown Seoul: We have held off major multinational players, the L’Oréals and Estée Lauders, in Korea and are competing successfully with them around the world. We went to France, the Mecca of beauty products, and developed the #4 fragrance in that country, Lolita Lempicka. In China, our cosmetics line is sold in more than 100 department stores in 70 cities and business is finally growing. And we have opened a flagship spa in New York that is doing very well. For 2004, AmorePacific reported 3,300 employees and sales of 1,272 billion Korean Won (KRW), equivalent to US$1,111 million. Cosmetics and toiletries generated four-fifths of sales (and green tea and health care the rest), placing the company among the top 30 worldwide. AmorePacific held a share of more than 30% of the Korean market for cosmetics, versus 8% for its leading local competitor, LG Household and Health Care, and 4% for L’Oréal, the world’s largest beauty products company and the leading multinational competitor in Korea.1 But although AmorePacific’s share of the Korean market had reached record levels and its overall operating margins of 15%+ ranked among the highest in the sector, its sales fell by 5% from 2003 to 2004—and its operating income by 7%—mostly because of the contraction and continued restructuring of the Korean market. International sales crossed KRW 100......

Words: 12002 - Pages: 49

Free Essay

Samsung

...Kun Hee Lee, chairman of the Samsung Group, contemplated his company’s strategy while sitting in the basement office of his home. His office had a one hundred-inch screen on the wall, and in front of the screen there was a short desk, just one foot in height. Lee spent much of his day in this room, studying the strategies of his competitors and overseeing multibillion-dollar investment decisions. Beside his desk were hundreds of DVDs and videos, many examining his competitors’ histories and strategies. Every new product made by Samsung and its competitors sat along the walls. Trained as an engineer, Lee eagerly picked apart every product, examining its design and quality of manufacturing.1 As he sat next to his low desk and sipped a cup of Korean green tea, Lee wondered whether his legion of Samsung employees was following his stern advice to always demand superiority in product design and process efficiency. He had grave concerns about complacency in his company. He remembered how he mentioned in a senior management meeting: “To an outsider, reprimanding a manager whose division racked up [billions of dollars] in profit might seem bizarre. But I don’t see it that way. Our abilities and efforts did play a role in our success, but we must realize that most of it came from the leading companies’ negligence, pure luck, and our predecessors’ sacrifice.”2 Under Lee’s leadership, Samsung had risen to become the world’s leading memory producer for all types of PCs, digital cameras,......

Words: 12199 - Pages: 49

Free Essay

Asdasdasd

...[pic] FIRST ARMY EQUAL OPPORTUNITY REPRESENTATIVE COURSE STUDENT GUIDE TO CULTURAL AWARENESS INDEX LESSON TITLE PAGE 1 Philosophical Aspects of Culture SG- 3 C1 Native American Experience SG- 4 C2 White American Experience SG- 23 C3 Arab American Experience SG- 43 C4 Hispanic American Experience SG- 53 C5 Black American Experience SG- 76 C6 Asian American Experience SG-109 C7 Jewish American Experience SG-126 C8 Women in the Military SG-150 C9 Extremist Organizations/Gangs SG-167 STUDENTS ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR BEING FAMILIARIZED WITH ALL CLASS MATERIAL PRIOR TO CLASS. INFORMATION PAPER ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL ASPECTS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE Developed by Edwin J. Nichols, Ph.D. |Ethnic Groups/ |Axiology |Epistemology |Logic |Process | |World Views | | | | | |European |Member-Object |Cognitive |Dichotomous |Technology | |Euro-American |The highest value lies in the object |One knows through counting......

Words: 63019 - Pages: 253

Premium Essay

Cosmetic's Global Market

...Beauty Market Attracts Investors” by Jamadil Akhir & “Saudi Arabia and UAE top world list in consumption of cosmetics” "Route to Market: Saudi Arabia" "Chapter 4: Ughmuri Ahasisaki: Cosmetics and Personal Care Products" by Roni Zirinski Article Summary: Japan “Blueprint for a Cosmetics Empire” by Terrie Lloyd “Exploring International Cosmetics Advertising in Japan” by Bradley Barnes & Maki Yamamoto “Face Time: A Digital Makeover for Japan’s Cosmetics Industry” by Kiyoshi Miura, Ian St-Maurice, Brian Salsberg Article Summary: China Understanding the Chinese Cosmetics Market - Dr. Mark Mobius Investigating the Impact of International Cosmetics in China - Bradley R. Barnes Western cosmetics in the gendered development of consumer culture in China - Barbara Hopkins Article Summary: Germany Trends in the European Cosmetic Market- Tereza Roubalikova Vivness 2015: The place to be for the global natural cosmetics industry Beauty Around The World- Germany - Eternal Voyageur Article Summary: United States of America “FDA official says cosmetics industry is trying to undercut government regulations” by Brady Dennis “Profit vs Wellbeing: How the Mass Media is shaping the Self-Image of Teens” by Natalie Componvo “What the U.S. Can—and Can't—Learn From Israel's Ban on Ultra-Thin Models” by Tayla Minsberg Conclusions Works Cited Appendix Introduction: According to IBISWorld, global cosmetics industry revenue is valued at $255......

Words: 7713 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

Art and Humanities Paper

...Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities Pennsylvania Department of Education 22 Pa. Code, Chapter 4, Appendix D (#006-276) Final Form-Annex A July 18, 2002 Academic Standards for the Arts and Humanities XXV. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction………………………………………….……. XXVI. THE ACADEMIC STANDARDS Production, Performance and Exhibition of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts…………..……………… A. Elements and Principles in each Art Form B. Demonstration of Dance, Music, Theatre and Visual Arts C. Vocabulary Within each Art Form D. Styles in Production, Performance and Exhibition E. Themes in Art Forms F. Historical and Cultural Production, Performance and Exhibition G. Function and Analysis of Rehearsals and Practice Sessions H. Safety Issues in the Arts I. Community Performances and Exhibitions J. Technologies in the Arts K. Technologies in the Humanities Historical and Cultural Contexts..……………………….. A. Context of Works in the Arts B. Chronology of Works in the Arts C. Styles and Genre in the Arts D. Historical and Cultural Perspectives E. Historical and Cultural Impact on Works in the Arts 9.1. F. Vocabulary for Historical and Cultural Context G. Geographic regions in the arts H. Pennsylvania artists I. Philosophical context of works in the arts J. Historical differences of works in the arts K. Traditions within works in the arts L. Common themes in works in the Arts Critical Response…………………………………………. A. Critical Processes B. Criteria C. Classifications D. Vocabulary......

Words: 4526 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Abcd

...Recently more research has focused on the relationship between color and psychological functioning. _____ (Q) Two further experiments establish the link between red and avoidance motivation as indicated by behavioral (i.e., task choice) and psychophysiological (i.e., cortical activation) measures.    _____ (R) Four experiments, in fact, demonstrate that the brief perception of red prior to an important test (e.g., an IQ test) impairs performance, and this effect appears to take place outside of participants' conscious awareness.   _____ (S) Red impairs performance on achievement tasks, because red is associated with the danger of failure in achievement contexts and evokes avoidance motivation.   _____ (T) All of these findings suggest that care must be taken in how red is used in achievement contexts and illustrate how color can act as a subtle environmental cue that has important influences on behavior.  _____ (U) Indeed, startling findings occurred in regard to the relationship between red and performance attainment.  2,5,3,1,4 Recently more research has focused on the relationship between color and psychological functioning. _____ (Q) Two further experiments establish the link between red and avoidance motivation as indicated by behavioral (i.e., task choice) and psychophysiological (i.e., cortical activation) measures.    _____ (R) Four experiments, in fact, demonstrate that the brief perception of red prior to an important test (e.g., an IQ......

Words: 8888 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

Computer Vision

...Learning OpenCV Gary Bradski and Adrian Kaehler Beijing · Cambridge · Farnham · Köln · Sebastopol · Taipei · Tokyo Learning OpenCV by Gary Bradski and Adrian Kaehler Copyright © 2008 Gary Bradski and Adrian Kaehler. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc., 1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol, CA 95472. O’Reilly books may be purchased for educational, business, or sales promotional use. Online editions are also available for most titles (safari.oreilly.com). For more information, contact our corporate/institutional sales department: (800) 998-9938 or corporate@oreilly.com. Editor: Mike Loukides Production Editor: Rachel Monaghan Production Services: Newgen Publishing and Data Services Cover Designer: Karen Montgomery Interior Designer: David Futato Illustrator: Robert Romano Printing History: September 2008: First Edition. Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O’Reilly logo are registered trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Learning OpenCV, the image of a giant peacock moth, and related trade dress are trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and O’Reilly Media, Inc. was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in caps or initial caps. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of......

Words: 150684 - Pages: 603

Premium Essay

Tessa Wright and Anna Pollert

...Research Paper The experience of ethnic minority workers in the hotel and catering industry: Routes to support and advice on workplace problems Ref: 03/06 2006 Prepared by: Tessa Wright and Anna Pollert (Working Lives Research Institute, London Metropolitan University) Funded by Acas and the European Social Fund For any further information on this study, or other aspects of the Acas Research and Evaluation programme, please telephone 020 7210 3673 or email research@acas.org.uk Acas research publications can be found at http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=405 ISBN 0-9554830-0-X ISBN 978-0-9554830-0-4 The Experience of Ethnic Minority Workers in the Hotel and Catering Industry: Routes to Support and Advice on Workplace Problems Ref: 03/06 2006 Prepared by: Tessa Wright and Anna Pollert (Working Lives Research Institute, London Metropolitan University) Funded by Acas and the European Social Fund Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the European Social Fund and Acas for providing financial support to the project, and Acas staff also for their guidance during the project, in particular Margaret Fox, Anthony Gould and Gill Dix. The project benefited greatly from the contributions of the Project Advisory Group, both in suggestions made on methodology, access and content at meetings, and help in accessing research participants. Many individuals and organisations helped us in gaining access to workers to......

Words: 28672 - Pages: 115

Premium Essay

Sir James

...Brand Strategy What can a brand do to stay profitable during a recession? Here are some realistic possibilities: • Add a lower-price item with fewer features to your product line. You might even launch it under a different brand name. Most companies should produce a line of products at different price points. • Add some additional value to the offer, such as free shipping or installation. • Maintain the current price but advertise heavily as to why customers should pay more for this brand. Procter & Gamble (P&G) uses this strategy with Tide, instead of cutting the price. • Change the brand’s image through a new campaign. Dove introduced its “Real Beauty” campaign in China in 2011 based on the notion that most women have real beauty—and Dove can help them realize it. • Innovate something new. Apple introduced its iPhone just before the Great Recession and caused Nokia’s market share to decline from 50 percent to 10 percent in five years. • Shift to win the low price position but maintain the brand value and promise. Insurance provider Geico sells auto insurance mainly online and, as a well-known brand, owns the low-cost position. Top Twelve Branding Keys For 2012 by Derrick Daye The 12th year of the 21st century is close upon us, bringing not just a new slate, but also a sense of significance: the very number 12 commands a lot of attention, in different ways. For product brands it’s a unit of trade – 12 units to a dozen, said to be cheaper than......

Words: 8228 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Diversification

...Revised and Final Draft January 2015 Not to be quoted Strategy for Export Diversification 2015-2020 Breaking into new markets with new products Dr. Zaidi Sattar Policy Research Institute of Bangladesh Prepared as a Background paper for the Seventh Five Year Plan 1 Table of Contents List of Tables .............................................................................................................................ii List of Figures ...........................................................................................................................ii List of Boxes .............................................................................................................................iii Acronyms .................................................................................................................................. iv I. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 1 II. CHALLENGE OF EXPORT DIVERSIFICATION ....................................................... 1 III. EXPORT PERFORMANCE AND PROGRESS OR LACK IN DIVERSIFICATION .................................................................................................... 3 Exploiting Non-traditional Markets for Exports ............................................................................... 14 IV. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS LEARNT ............................... 18 V. CONSTRAINTS TO EXPORT......

Words: 28195 - Pages: 113