Premium Essay

Other Descriptive Research Methods

In: English and Literature

Submitted By TheRealJoselle
Words 981
Pages 4
Other Descriptive Research Methods

l Developmental research l Case study l Job analysis l Observational research l Correlational studies

~Developmental Research l Is the study of changes in behaviors across years. l Infancy, childhood, adolescence, as well as, elderly.� The total human life span. l Longitudinal � follow same individuals over time l Cross-sectional � select different participants at each age level

~Longitudinal designs l Are time-consuming l Drop out rate l Participants become increasingly familiar with the test items l Items may cause a change in behavior

~Cross-Sectional Studies l Are less time-consuming l A cohort problem exists: are the environmental circumstances the same for all the cohorts l Either the longitudinal or cross-sectional studies can also be experimental as well as developmental (covered in chapter 17)

~Methodological Problems of Developmental Research l Unrepresented scores:
Called outliers
Occur in all research but more common in developmental research (children and seniors)
Caused from shorter attention spans, distraction, and lack of motivation to do the task.�
Plan the testing session within a reasonable time
Prevent distractions
Retest when one occurs Unclear Semantics
Using words that the children will understand
Understanding what is expected of them must be a concern

Lack of reliability
In younger children�s response
Performances should be the same when retested

Statistical Problems
For cross-sectional studies use ANOVA
For longitudinal studies an ANOVA with repeated measures

~Protecting Participants
Parents or Guardians must grant permission for minors to participate in the study
Informed consent forms are for the parents or guardians, but if the child is old enough to understand a copy of the informed consent form should…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...Statistical Research: Descriptive and Inferential Week 5 RES/351 The articles that describe each method, one is for descriptive statistical and the other is for inferential. With the descriptive statistical method in Statistical Primer for Cardiovascular Research by Martin G Larson 2007, uses the descriptive method to determine the cases of acute myocardial infarction cases during 2006. The inferential method in the article, Determination of Predictors of Cause of Mortality in HIV Cohorts from years 2002 to 2011, by Kennedy N Otwombe (Feb 2014), using the statistical method of determining exactly mortality rates in HIV cases. The specific situation with Mortality rates in HIV cases would be to find the variation methods over time to determine either binary dependant variable and the independent predictor for the HIV causing death to patients with no opinion of what caused the death. But with Cardiovascular research the differences of BMI, overweight and underweight all determining factors on the causes of the primers. As well as diet to play a major role in helping with the research. With the differences in descriptive statistics and inferential, the descriptive in the Cardiovascular research compares in a more mathematical way of determining if the diet, BMI, overweight and underweight determine their health condition. This method can also be not as accurate as other methods by using measure of central tendency and is about small portion observations by rounding or...

Words: 670 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research Method

...RESEARCH METHOD This study utilized the descriptive method of research. As widely accepted, the descriptive method of research is a fact-finding study that involves adequate and accurate interpretation of findings. Descriptive research describes a certain present condition. Relatively, the method is appropriate to this study since it aims to describe the present condition of technical analysis as it is used in the stock market. The technique that was used under descriptive method is the normative survey approach and evaluation, which is commonly used to explore opinions according to respondents that can represent a whole population. The survey is appropriate in this study because it enables the researcher in formulation of generalizations. The purpose of employing the descriptive method is to describe the nature of a condition, as it takes place during the time of the study and to explore the cause or causes of a particular condition. The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire to acquire first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study. According to Creswell (1994), the descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.  Since this study is focused on the perception or evaluation of the consultancy firm's effective human resource management, the descriptive method is the most appropriate method to use. Two types of data were used:......

Words: 356 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Article Review

...Descriptive research plays an important role in educational research because it has greatly increased our knowledge about what happens in the classroom. What is descriptive research? Descriptive research can involve collecting quantitative information, or it can describe categories of information such as patterns of interaction when using technology in the classroom. Although it may employ fundamentals of both quantitative and qualitative research, descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of either quantitative or qualitative research methodology. Descriptive research takes a “what is” approach. Types of questions that may be addressed using descriptive research include: What is the best way to provide access to computer equipment in schools? Do teachers hold favorable attitudes toward using computers in schools? What have been the reactions of school administrators to technological innovations in teaching? Using descriptive research methodologies with the educational setting may be advantageous for several reasons. Educational research and experiences may contain many variables that cannot be realistically controlled, educational research may require observations of life experiences, and data collection may be spread over a large number of people over a large geographic area. Descriptive research may be used most effectively within the educational setting because educational research experiences cannot be as realistically controlled as laboratory...

Words: 1514 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Descriptive Reasearch

...Descriptive Research Many phycologist use different research designs to understand behavior. One major design is descriptive research. “Descriptive research is designed to create a snap shot of the current state of affairs (Stangor, 2010).” There are three types of descriptive research methods including naturalistic observation, case studies, and survey. Naturalistic observation is based on the observation of everyday events. For instance, a scientist who is developing a theory about gender differences may want to spend some time in restaurants, bars, and shopping malls in order to determine which type of gender is most relevant. That scientist is conducting a descriptive research. “The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in their natural environments (Hale, 2011).” This is more beneficial because subjects may respond differently under laboratory conditions when they know that they are in an experiment. Case study on the other hand offers in depth research of an individual or their group. These studies are usually carried out in rare or unusual cases and form the foundation for the development of a hypotheses. However, they are not use to study cause and effect. Finally the survey method involves different participants answering questions through interviews or questionnaires. “After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given (Hale, 2011).” The survey should have unambiguous......

Words: 372 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

...Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Statistics are all-around and used in everyday life. Statistics are used to describe how effective a medication is for a certain disorder to what the most popular color is in the United States. According to Aron, Aron, and Coups, 2009, “statistics is a method of pursuing truth. As a minimum, statistics can tell you the likelihood that your hunch is true in this time and place and with these sorts of people” (p. 2). Psychologist use two branches of statistics to summarize his or her results and those are descriptive and inferential statistics. This paper will discuss the function of statistics, what descriptive and inferential statistics are, and the relationship between descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistics are used in almost every branch of study and is found behind the scenes in many of our normal daily activities. From economic to scientific studies, statistics are utilized in one way or another. Statistics are an essential part of understanding information and expanding knowledge base and is encompasses almost all aspects of enquiry ("7 Most Essential Functions Of Statistics", 2012). Statistics have many functions that we utilize;statisticsprovides for a better understanding of phenomenon of nature and helps in proper and statistical planning in all forms of study. Using statistics helps in collecting useful quantitative data and also aids in presenting difficult or confusing data in an understandable way. Statistics......

Words: 1232 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

4 Types of Research Theories

...The Relationship Between Theory And Research An excerpt from .awcett, J., and Downs, .. (1986). The Relationship of Theory and Reseach. Norwalk, CT: Appleton Century Crofts. [.awcett & Downs teach in a School of Nursing and their examples involve topics of interest to nurses. Your humble instructor has modified this excerpt slightly to maintain terminology consistent with the social sciences]. 1 The close connection between theory and research was implied in the discussion of their functions. Stated explicitly, the initial impetus for research is the search for theory. Theory development relies on research, and research relies on theory. Brown (1977) characterized the relationship between theory and research as a dialectic, a transaction whereby theory determines what data are to be collected and research findings provide challenges to accepted theories. 2 Research, then, is neither more nor less than the vehicle for theory development. It is the method used to gather the data needed for the theory. This is true whether the purpose of the research is to generate a theory or to test one. When the purpose is theory generation, the phenomenon of interest suggests things to look for. .or example, if a theory of clients’ perceptions of factors influencing their adherence to a nursing care plan were to be generated, one source of data would be clients’ perceptions of why they were willing and able to follow the care plan. Conversely, if the purpose is theory testing...

Words: 2192 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Marketing Research

...Definition of research design A research design refers to a master plan, blue print and even a sequence of research task activities. Research design in simple terms is a plan of methods and procedures that is used by researchers to collect and analyze data needed by the manager. They also contain clear objectives, specify information sources on which the data will be collected, the type of data, design technique, sampling methodology and budgets as well. The three types of research design are namely exploratory, descriptive and causal research design. Exploratory research design Exploratory research design is a study which is designed to find out enough about the problem to usefully formulate a hypothesis. It stems from the general problem description such as finding out how consumers make decisions about things like life insurance. Exploratory research design is used when looking for insights into the problem and also to help define hypothesis (but does not test) and key variables. It is also used to identify course of action when information needs are vague and also to establish priorities for further research. Characteristics of exploratory research design Exploratory research design is flexible and unstructured It is used for finding tentative data Used as building block for more research. For example pilot surveys, secondary data and focus groups It is done on small non representative sample Methods used Exploratory research design uses soft......

Words: 861 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Research, Statistics, and Psychology

...Research, Statistics, and Psychology There are different forms involved in the study of psychology. Whether in the field of psychology or any academic field, research is necessary to further society from what it is now into what it will become in the future. Research means expanding current knowledge without progressing, stagnation occurs. Research and statistics are unique tools in psychology because the information is part of the methodology of psychology. In the field of psychology, research is what makes it possible to better understand human behavior and gives the knowledge needed to help others. Research and statistics are tracking methods that must stay accurate. Research must be conducted with precision and accountability it is of utter importance, both ethically and morally or it can lead to disastrous results. The methods of primary, secondary data and the branches of statistical methods are key factors used in research. Research is an attempt to find information in a scientific manner (Word Net,2011). By using the scientific methods the results from the research are valid, reliable, and accurate. The scientific method is a process where secondary data is compiled, analyzed, hypothesized, and tested. Using this method decreases human error and subjective thinking from having a influence on the results and interpretations (Pervez & Gronhaug, 2005). While nothing is without fault by using the scientific method of hypothesizing and testing the hypothesis decreases......

Words: 889 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Business Research

...Understanding Business Research Terms and Concepts: Part 2 Ngoc RES351 April 8, 2015 William Khoepfer Understanding Business Research Terms and Concepts: Part 2 Businesses will always need market research and it generally falls into two different groups. Qualitative and Quantitative. Qualitative research is “Qualitative research is designed to reveal a target audience’s range of behavior and the perceptions that drive it with reference to specific topics or issues. The results of qualitative research are descriptive rather than predictive.” ("What Is Qualitative Research?” 2015). Quantitative research “is about asking people for their opinions in a structured way so that you can produce hard facts and statistics to guide you. To get reliable statistical results, it’s important to survey people in fairly large numbers and to make sure they are a representative sample of your target market.” ("What Is Quantitative Research?” 2015). There also are descriptive and statistical approach’s in this paper that will help with understand what is best for you business research. When constructing a business research there are several sampling methods that can be used. Some sampling methods would be simple random sampling, systematic sampling, cluster sampling and quota sampling and etc. The article I chose to do is called Qualitative and quantitative methods for sampling zooplankton in shallow coastal estuaries. “Many different devices are used for sampling zooplankton. Every......

Words: 1078 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Understanding Business Research Terms and Concepts Part 2

...Understanding Business Research Terms and Concepts: Part 2 Justin Wilson RES 351 Business Research 31 Mar 2015 Biman Ghosh Descriptive statistics is the term given to the analysis of data that helps describe, show or summarize data in a meaningful way such that, for example, patterns might emerge from the data. Descriptive statistics do not, however, allow us to make conclusions beyond the data we have analysed or reach conclusions regarding any hypotheses we might have made. They are simply a way to describe our data. Descriptive statistics are very important because if we simply presented our raw data it would be hard to visulize what the data was showing, especially if there was a lot of it. Descriptive statistics therefore enables us to present the data in a more meaningful way, which allows simpler interpretation of the data. For example, if we had the results of 100 pieces of students' coursework, we may be interested in the overall performance of those students. We would also be interested in the distribution or spread of the marks. Descriptive statistics allow us to do this. How to properly describe data through statistics and graphs is an important topic and discussed in other Laerd Statistics guides. Typically, there are two general types of statistic that are used to describe data: * Measures of central tendency: these are ways of describing the central position of a frequency distribution for a group of data. In this case, the frequency......

Words: 1657 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Consumer Behavior

...Southern Railways. ➢ The other objective of the research was to identify the other needs of commuters with respect to number of trains plying on Beach-Tambaram route. Secondary objective ➢ Do the commuters prefer the new ticket vending machines installed at various suburban stations? ➢ How frequently commuters complain against the deficiency in train services? Research Methodology: Research methodology is the way to systematically solve the research problem. Research methodology not only talks of the methods but also logic behind the methods used in the context of a research study and it explains why a particular method has been used in the preference of the other methods. Research design: Research design is important primarily because of the increased complexity in the market as well as marketing approaches available to the researchers. In fact, it is the key to the evolution of successful marketing strategies and programmers. It is an important tool to study buyer’s behaviour, consumption pattern, brand loyalty, and focus market changes. A research design specifies the methods and procedures for conducting a particular study. According to Kerlinger, “Research Design is a plan, conceptual structure, and strategy of investigation conceived as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. Types of research: • Descriptive Research The type of research adopted for study is descriptive. Descriptive studies are......

Words: 2552 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Theories of Development

...MANAGEMENT LDP 603: RESEARCH METHODS LECTURER: PROFESSOR GAKUU GROUP 2 ASSIGNMENT PRESENTED BY: NAMES REGISTRATION NUMBER MUSYOKA BENEDETTA NTHENYA : L50/79819/2015 ANN WAMBUI GICHORA : L50/79827/2015 GITOBU MWIRIGI JAMES : L50/79831/2015 MICHENI MERIBA MWENDE : L50/79816/2015 DONALD SAMUEL OLUOCH : L50/79910/2015 NDUNGU ARTHUR GACHERU : L50/79979/2015 CYNTHIA ONYANGO : L50/79888/2015 IDRIS MOHAMUD : L50/79826/2015 NGARIRA WINNIE : L50/79926/2015 MANIU DANSON : L50/80167/2015 QUESTION: Group 2: Differentiate between the various types of research and research classifications. DUE DATE: 3 August 2015 NTRODUCTION Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods. Inductive methods analyze the observed phenomenon and identify the general principles, structures, or processes underlying the phenomenon observed; deductive methods verify the hypothesized principles through observations. The purposes are different: one is to develop explanations, and the other is to test the validity of the explanations. (Gall, 1996) Research is the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions (oxford dictionary) One thing that we have to pay attention to research is that the heart of the research is not on statistics, but the thinking behind the research. How we really......

Words: 3814 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Conduct Disorder

...Psychology Christy Martin University of Phoenix Social Psychology is a branch of psychology that attempts to discover why people will still respond in certain ways when the presence of others is actual, implied or even imagined (Fiske 2010 p 4). Social psychologists look at how the environment affects how people behave. Many people believe that the behavior of others (and themselves) is related to how their personalities are structured. Social psychologists believe that this is not correct and that the environment can cause people to behavior in a certain way. This concept is called situationalism and this is the type of social phenomena that social psychologists attempt to study and explain (p 7). The strategies that social psychologists use to study things such as situationalism are descriptive research, correlational research, and experimental research. Below is a description of each research method and an example of each. Descriptive research does not compare variables as other methods typically do. Descriptive research only looks at one variable at a time. Simple questions are posed in descriptive research such as the statistics of car accidents on a major interstate, or the pregnancy rate among female teenagers in a particular high school (Fiske 2010 p 53). Correlation research does compare variables and attempts to figure out if a change in one variable will affect another variable (Fiske 2010 p 56). A simple example of this would be if the......

Words: 650 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Social Psychology and Multicultural Psychology Report

...behave in a social context. Social psychology often emphasizes the power of the situation in affecting people. Social psychology can be distinguished from other disciplines, including sociology, clinical psychology, personality psychology, and cognitive psychology; however, social psychology overlaps with each of these disciplines as well. Social psychology may at first appear to be common sense, but common sense often makes contradictory claims, and many of the findings in social psychology would not be predicted by common sense. A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources of information that are drawn on, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection. Methods also vary by whether they collect qualitative data, quantitative data or both. Qualitative psychological research is where the research findings are not arrived at by statistical or other quantitative procedures. Quantitative psychological research is where the research findings result from mathematical modeling and statistical estimation or statistical inference. Since qualitative information can be handled as such statistically, the distinction relates to method, rather than the topic studied. There are three main types of psychological research: 1. Correlational research In statistics, dependence is any statistical relationship between two random variables or two sets of data. Correlation refers to any of a......

Words: 783 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Syllabus 315

...statistics, with particular emphasis in psychology. Both descriptive and inferential statistics are included. In addition, this course provides the basic statistical background and understanding needed. Policies Faculty and students/learners will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: • University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. • Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class. Policies may be slightly different depending on the modality in which you attend class. If you have recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course Materials Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & Coups, E. (2009). Statistics for psychology (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. All electronic materials are available on the student website. |Week One: Research Design and Statistical Terminologies | | |Details |Due |Points | |Objectives |Define research and the scientific method. ......

Words: 1549 - Pages: 7