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Outsourcing

In: Business and Management

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UNIVERZITET U SARAJEVU
EKONOMSKI FAKULTET U SARAJEVU
VISOKA POSLOVNA ŠKOLA – DL STUDIJ

Seminarski rad iz predmeta Osnove organizacije na temu:

Uticaj organizacionog izdvajanja (outsourcing-a) na efikasnost organizacije

SADRŽAJ

1. UVOD 2
2. POJAM OUTSOURCINGA 3
3. RAZLOZI KORIŠTENJA OUTSOURCINGA 4 3.1. Coaseov zakon 5
4. PREDNOSTI I NEDOSTATCI OUTSOURCINGA 5
5. PRIMJERI OUTSOURCINGA 6 5.1. Indija – magnet za američke kompanije 6 5.2. Outsourcing u BiH 9
6. BACKSOURCING 10
7. ZAKLJUČAK 11
8. LITERATURA 12

1. UVOD

Outsourcing, kao vrsta poslovnog procesa, je zastupljen kod većine uspješnih multinacionalnih kompanija, koje su nastojale pravilnom poslovnom politikom odgovarati na sve veće zahtjeve tržišta i postići poslovni uspjeh u nemilosrdnom konkurentskom okruženju. Kao rezultat globalizacije, multinacionalne kompanije su prve počele koristiti razlike u cijenama širom svijeta i to na način da sele proizvodnju u države s jeftinom radnom snagom, istraživanje i razvoj u zemlje koje ih finansijski podstiču, prodaju i marketing u zemlje visokog standarda, a centre uprave u tzv. poreske „rajeve“.
Ovo je ujedno i suština outsourcing poslovnog procesa koji podrazumijeva prepuštanje dijela poslovnih aktivnosti, koje nisu od suštinske važnosti vanjskom partneru, odnosno dobavljaču, o čemu detaljnije govorimo u prvom dijelu rada.

Svjedoci smo enormnog rasta IT industrije i kompleksnosti informacionih sistema, bez kojih je u savremenim uslovima poslovanje nezamislivo. Outsourcing je u ovom slučaju idealno rješenje, što pokazuju i podaci da se najčešće korištene usluge ovog tipa upravo odnose na segment IT.

U idućem dijelu rada govorimo o motivima organizacije, preciznije o pozitivnim i negativnim stranama ovog poslovnog procesa. Organizacija se sve više suočavaju sa dilemom da li povjeriti neke poslovne dužnosti drugom ili ne, što nije nimalo jednostavna odluka. Svaka organizacija je individua za sebe, pa ono što jednoj predstavlja objektivno rješenje, za drugu može rezultirati nepovratnim gubitkom.

Temu smo upotpunili konkretnim primjerima vezanim za najuspješnije svjetske kompanije kao što su Apple, Dell, Microsoft, IBM i mnoge druge, koje su proširile svoje poslovanje u Indiji upravo koristeći outsorcing. Inelektualni kapital Indije je osnovni izvor koji crpe američke kompanije u ovom slučaju, u nastojanju postizanja vrhunskih rezultata i maksimalne fleksibilnosti u odgovaranju na izazove tržišta.

Na kraju rada govorimo o backsourcingu, kao obrnutom procesu outsourcinga, koji ne mora neminovno biti rezultat određenih sukoba i neslaganja među ugovornim partnerima, već može biti rerzultat nove poslovne filozofije organizacije.

2. POJAM OUTSOURCINGA

E-poslovanje omogućava da se sa lakoćom prevaziđu granice koje su tradicionalno definisale poslovnu organizaciju, pa čak i do toga da sam pojam granice postane besmislen. Prvi koraci u tom pravcu odnosili su se na čvršće povezivanje i rušenje barijera za poslovne partnere. Kao rezultat toga, veliki broj kompanija počinje koristiti outsourcing u svom poslovanju u cilju odgovora nadolazećoj globalizaciji. U još uvijek teškim vremenima recesije, outsourcing je jedna od najaktuelnijih tema i najbrže rastući segment globalnog tržišta. To nije proizvod, odnosno usluga, to je novi oblik poslovnog procesa.

Svaki poslovni proces koji nije od suštinske važnosti za poslovanje, zahvaljujući e-poslovanju postaje ozbiljan kandidat za outsourcing. Razlog je jednostavan – zašto da kupujemo cijelu kravu, ako nam je potrebno samo mlijeko. Poslovni procesi koji ne predstavljaju ključni (core) proces danas se povjeravaju provajderima usluga izvan matične organizacije koji onda vode računa o “kravi” i redovno isporučuju “mlijeko”.

Uvođenje outsourcing-a unosi velike promjene ne samo u poslovanje, već i u poziciju svih učesnika u distribucijskom kanalu. U razvijenim zemljama, ovaj način pružanja usluga preuzeo je ogroman udio u ukupnim IT uslugama. Na primjer, u Finskoj preko 60% IT usluga pruža se na ovaj način.

Postoji više definicija outsourcinga, među kojim izdvajamo sljedeće:

Outsourcing predstavlja prepuštanje dijela poslovnih aktivnosti vanjskom partneru odnosno dobavljaču.
Outsourcing je vodeći svjetski trend pružanja kvalitetnih i boljih usluga sa što manjim unutrašnjim troškovima, te fokusiranje na glavne “core businesses” u okviru kompanija.
Outsourcing predstavlja dugoročan pravni odnos kojim jedno pravno lice povjerava trećem licu upravljanje, podršku i unapređenje dijela ili cijelokupne infrastrukture, funkcije, odnosno poslovnog procesa.
Outsourcing predstavlja proces isključivanja (eksternalizacije) svih aktivnosti i poslova iz organizacije koji nisu od strateškog značenja, što znači da se određeni broj aktivnosti prepušta onima koji će ih obaviti brže, bolje i jeftinije, dok se svi raspoloživi resursi preduzeća usmjeravaju na osnovnu djelatnost.

[pic] Slika 1. Procenat outsourcing-a po tipovima organizacije

3. RAZLOZI KORIŠTENJA OUTSOURCINGA

Prijenos pojedinih poslova na izvršitelje složen je i ozbiljan zadatak, gdje imamo višestruke razloge zbog kojih svaka organizacija treba razmotriti outsourcing kao način rasterećenja poslovnog procesa. Kompanije koje su od početka 90.-tih sudjelovale u procesu outsourcinga kao korisnici usluga ubrajaju se u najveće i vrlo uspješne kompanije, među kojima su Bank of America, J.P. Morgan, Texaco, Microsoft, itd.

Outsourcing IT usluga događa se u svim privrednim sektorima. Kompanije moraju dobro razmotriti u ovisnosti od strateškog značaja i rizika prijenosa ključnih funkcija na vanjsku kompaniju, za koji dio poslovanja je najbolje koristiti outsourcing.

Koncept outsourcinga dobio je na globalnom značaju i popularnosti u posljednih par godina kao odgovor ekonomskoj recesiji. Mnogi su razlozi zašto organizacija poseže za outsourcingom, odnosno privremenom ili trajnom izmještanju sekundarnih poslova kompanijama kojima one predstavljaju primarnu djelatnosti, od kojih su najvažniji:

• smanjenje troškova – angažmani outsourcinga su često troškovno učinkovitiji nego realizacija određenih projekata u vlastitom angažmanu

• nedostatak kvalitetnih stručnih kadrova

• povećanje konkurentnosti - fokus na core business – dok se neko drugi brine o proizvodnji specifičnih dijelova proizvoda, preduzeće slobodne resurse i energiju usmjerava u osnovnu djelatnost

• ubrzanje realizacije projekta – specifične vještine posebno specijalizovanih eksternih izvršitelja brže će dovesti do realizacije poslova

3.1. Coaseov zakon

Ronald Coase, dobitnik Nobelove nagrade za ekonomiju 1991. godine je uočio da će kompanije rasti do nivoa do kojeg se troškovi organizacije dodatne operacije unutar firme izjednačavaju sa troškom kupovine (iznošenja) iste operacije na tržištu.
Ta formulacija, poznata kao Coaseov zakon, objašnjava bit outsourcinga. Kako organizacije rastu, one postaju sve komplikovanije i postaje sve skuplje koordinirati te aktivnosti. Coase je primjetio da uvijek postoje kompanije koje mogu proizvesti određene proizvode i usluge ekonomičnije od promatranih kompanija. Ako se oforme efikasnije kompanije, one će ˝istisnuti˝ one koje su nesposobne adekvatno upravljati resursima. Jedini način da neefikasne kompanije prežive je da izdvoje neefikasne funkcije i da njihovo obavljanje prepuste eksternim dobavljačima.

4. PREDNOSTI I NEDOSTATCI OUTSOURCINGA

Sve više kompanija se nalazi u dilemi da li menadžment opteretiti poslovima sekundarne važnosti ili nekom drugom povjeriti ove dužnosti. I jedna i druga opcija ima i svoje vrline i mane.

Osnovne prednosti outsourcinga su:

1. fokus menadžmenta korisnika na core posao

2. fokus menadžmenta izvršitelja na IT

3. smanjenje ulaganja u kompjutersku opremu

4. smanjenje uloženog kapitala u stalna sredstva

5. bolji koeficijent povrata na uložena sredstva (ROI)

6. rasterećenje od upravljanja složenom funkcijom poput IT podrške

7. struktura zaposlenih izvršitelja usmjerena na IT podršku

8. visoka motivacija izvršitelja u IT poslovnom okruženju

9. dugoročno smanjenje troškova korisnika

10. redovna ulaganja izvršitelja u kompjutersku infrastrukturu

Osnovni nedostaci outsourcinga su:

1. izvršitelj gubi kvalitetne IT stručnjake

2. potencijalni porast troškova razvoja aplikacija

3. nemogućnost prenosa softverskih licenci u vlasništvu korisnika na izvršitelja

4. negativna posljedica globalizacije: outsourcing, odnosno premještanje poslova u zemlje Trećeg svijeta, gdje se isti poslovi rade za mnogo manje novca, jedna je od negativnih posljedica globalizacije. Poznat je primjer da se većina svjetskih tenisica poznatih marki ustvari proizvodi u Kini, a internetizacija svijeta omogućava kompanijama da ˝srežu˝ troškove tako što će im za tastaturama raditi neki Indijac ili Malezijac koji radi za ˝kikiriki˝.

PRIMJERI OUTSOURCINGA

5.1. Indija – magnet za američke kompanije

Indijsko tržište dionica je u proteklih pet godina naraslo za 200% i oborilo sve rekorde rasta zahvaljujući milijardama američkih dolara stranih investicija koje se svakodnevno ulijevaju u indijsku privredu. Zahvaljujući stranim investicijama, najdinamičnija i najbrže rastuća grana privrede u Indiji je IT sektor. Naime, neki od najvećih svjetskih IT kompanija, među kojima prednjače one iz SAD-a, u posljednjih su nekoliko godina investirale milijarde dolara u otvaranje svojih pogona u Indiji. Velike kompanije kao što su: Apple, Dell, LogicaCMG, Microsoft, IBM, Cisco systems i General Electric snažno su prisutne u Indiji i ne samo da u toj zemlji otvaraju nove pogone, već u nju i sele mnoge pogone koji su do sada bili u SAD-u. Sve se to pozitivno odrazilo na sferu zapošljavanja obzirom da je mnogo Indijaca uposleno baš u ovim firmama.

Indija, a posebno pokrajina Bangalore, koju mnogi nazivaju indijskom „Silicijskom dolinom“[1], jer je u njoj smješteno najviše domaćih i stranih IT kompanija, tako je postala glavno odredište outsourcing poslovanja američkih IT kompanija. Postoji mnogo razloga za to, a najviše se ističe kvalitetna, obrazovana i jeftina radna snaga koja govori engleski jezik. Na taj način kompanije žele, uz smanjenje troškova poslovanja koje im donosi preseljenje pogona u Indiju, iskoristiti i indijski ˝bazen˝ talenata, pa osim otvaranja call centara i preseljenja svojih manje važnih odjela, u novije vrijeme u Indiju preseljavaju i svoje odjele za razvoj istraživanja, testiranje softvera i za dizajn. Predviđa se da će outsourcing i izvoz softvera Indiji ove godine donijeti zaradu od oko 20 mlrd $, a 60% tog iznosa doći će od američkih kompanija.

Kao što je već navedeno outsourcing, tj. preseljenje poslovanja u inostranstvo i zapošljavanje tamošnje radne snage postaje sve prisutniji način poslovanja američkih kompanija oko čega se u SAD-u javljaju burne reakcije. Američki konzervativci žestoki su protivnici outsourcinga američkih kompanija. Outsourcing pridonosi izjednačavanju snage američke i privreda zemalja Trećeg svijeta kao što su Indija i Kina. Rezultat toga, po njihovom mišljenju, je da Amerikanci gube svoja radna mjesta i da standard američkog srednjeg sloja sve više opada. Kao način spriječavanja korištenja outsourcinga, oni smatraju da bi trebalo uvesti porez na outsourcing, pa se kompanijama ne bi više isplatilo seliti svoje poslove u Indiju ili Kinu. S druge strane, pristalice outsourcinga smatraju da globalno tržište zahtijeva globalne izvore. Glasnogovornik kompanije Dell koja ima svoj centar tehničke podrške u Bangaleoru ističe kako je taj centar što se tiče zadovoljstva korisnika uslugom najbolji od svih 30 centara koliko ih Dell ima širom svijeta. Pristalice također tvrde da će kompanije ušteđena sredstva od korištenja ovog koncepta investirati u domaću privredu i razvoj domaće tehnologije, a američki radnici neće ostati bez posla, već naprotiv zbog toga će se otvoriti nova radna mjesta u SAD-u koja će zahtijevati obrazovaniju i bolje obučenu radnu snagu nego do sada. Snažnu podršku outsourcingu poslovanja američkih kompanija u Indiji nedavno je dao i američki predsjednik George W. Bush izjavom: ˝SAD neće obeshrabrivati outsourcing, nego će boljim sistemom obrazovanja omogućiti da zaposlenici usvoje sve potrebne vještine koje su im potrebne za obavljanje posla u 21. stoljeću!˝

Voditelj poslovanja američke IT kompanije Keane za globalno tržište, Richard Garnick smatra da ušteda vremena i novca nisu jedini razlog za outsourcinga. Kompanije koje su pod stalnim pritiskom praćenja ubrzanog razvoja tehnologije i sve većih zahtjeva tržišta moraju se, kako bi zadržale konkurentnost na globalnom tržištu okrenuti globalnim izvorima.
[pic]
Slika 2. Outsourcing destinacije

1. IBM – od igle do lokomotive

IBM je razvio outsourcing u ogroman biznis. Prodaja usluga, naročito outsourcing IT danas donosi daleko više prihoda. U okviru globalnih usluga IBM je kreirao ponudu za minimalno, djelimično ili potpuno preuzimanje IT funkcija od klijenata. IBM-ov meni sadrži: tehničku podršku, nadgledanje funkcija sistema, upravljanje sigurnošću informacionog sistema, korisničku administraciju, upravljanje bazama podataka, itd. U zavisnosti od izabranih stavki sa menija vrijednost ugovora osnovne ponude usluga kreće se između 100.000 i 10.000.000 $ za period od 5-10 godina. IBM nudi maksimalno prilagođena rješenja koja potpuno odgovaraju klijentovoj poslovnoj strategiji.

5.1.2. Microsoft

Microsoft planira u toku narednih pet godina u Indiju uložiti oko 1,7 milijardi $, te tamo otvoriti 3000 novih radnih mjesta. Prema Bill Gatesu, većina novca će se potrošiti za razvoj i istraživanje, a ova ulaganja samo pokazuju kakva je Microsoftova strategija za budućnost i na koja područja će se u buduće fokusirati.

5.1.3. Apple

Apple Computer namjerava otvoriti call centar u Bangaloreu, u Indiji, koji je nužan zbog sve većeg obima posla, a u planu imaju i otvaranje još takvih centara i u SAD-u. Kompanija Apple je u posljednjih godinu dana stekla milione novih korisnika, te je gradnja ovog centra u Bangaloreu samo odgovor na sve veći broj korisnika i usluga koje Apple pruža. Gradnjom centra u Indiji neće doći do otkaza radnika u SAD-u, naprotiv, i centri u Sacramentu i Austinu će također rasti.
Call centar u Bangaloreu će na početku zapošljavati oko 1.500 ljudi, a taj broj do kraja slijedeće godine trebao bi porasti na čak 3000 zaposlenika. S obzirom na uspješnost Appleova poslovanja , o čemu govori zarada od 13,93 milijarde dolara na kraju prošle fiskalne godine (porast od 68 % u odnosuna prethodnu godinu), vjerovatno je da ovo nije posljednji ovakav centar koji će ta kompanija otvoriti u skoroj budućnosti.

5.1.4. Wipro – Brillian

Wipro je indijska tehnološka kompanija, koja ima razvojno-istraživački ugovor sa američkom kompanijom Brillian iz Arizone. Kompanija Brillian je specijalizovana za displej tehnologiju. Zadatak Wipro-a, u okviru ovog ugovora, je da pribavi dijelove televizora koji će uz tehnologiju kompanije Brillian dovesti do finalnog proizvoda - televizora. Dijelove za TV Wipro naručuje iz Amerike, Japana, Taiwana i Južne Koreje. Nakon dizajniranja i testiranja, montiranje se proslijeđuje kompanijama Flextronics ili Solectron, ugovornim partnerima. Kupci završnog proizvoda - televizora mogu izvršiti plaćanje kreditnom karticom iz Kuala Lumpura, Malezije. Postprodajne usluge mogu obavljati agenti iz indijskog call centra, čime se taj lanac završava. Na ovaj način kompanija Brillian je koristila outsourcing za proizvodnju svog televizora od strane Flextronica ili Solectrona.

Ukupna svota ulaganja u Indiju penje se na velikih 3,8 mlrd $ pa nije čudo da se na nekim IT stranicama u SAD-u već polako govori o ˝United States of India˝.

5.2. Outsourcing u BiH

U BiH praksa outsourcinga je tek na početku. Ipak, predviđa se ekspanzija outsourcinga s obzirom na sve veći broj kompanija koje obavljaju outsourcing usluge (ponudu), ali i porast tražnje kao posljedice osviještenosti korisnika outsourcing usluga zbog mnogobrojnih prednosti i ušteda koje outsourcing omogućava.

Raspoloživost kapaciteta dobavljača u BiH je puno bolja nego što je općeprihvaćeno mišljenje, što pokazuje da veliki broj kompanija ˝outsourca˝ računovodstvo, pristup internetu, izradu web stranica, a sve je više manjih i srednjih kompanija koje nude operativne usluge u IT-u (od podrške i održavanja do izrade poslovnih aplikacija).

Neki smatraju da bi prepreka outsourcingu u BiH mogla biti činjenica da troškovi u javnom sektoru nemaju toliku ulogu koju imaju u razvijenom kapitalizmu, što se dovodi u kontradikciju sa najvažnijom svrhom outsourcinga, a to je reduciranje troškova.

6. BACKSOURCING

Porast potražnje za outsourcingom paralelan je sa padom ekonomije i suprotno, potreba za backsourcingom pojavljuje se u vrijeme ekonomskog rasta kada organizacije žele preuzeti nadzor nad svojim IT operacijama kako bi iskoristile nove prilike na tržištu.

Backsourcing je proces u kojem organizacija ponovo preuzima odgovornost za funkcije koje su prethodno ˝outsourcane˝ i vraća te funkcije u okvire vlastite organizacije. Ovaj proces ne mora biti samo rezultat sukoba između korisnika i dobavljača. Veliki dio prestanka takvih saradnji uzrokovan je promjenom filozofije kompanije o outsourcingu. Važno je da se i u vrijeme raskida saradnje obje strane drže profesionalnih standarda i da se očuvaju interesi kompanije – korisnika, ali i reputacija davatelja outsourcinga. Prekid ugovora o outsourcingu može naštetiti i korisniku i davatelju usluge. Moguće su poslovne štete u obliku prekida operacija, plaćanja kazni zbog neispunjenih obaveza, ugrožavanja ugleda kompanije i njenih odnosa sa korisnicima, partnerima, uposlenima i ulagačima.

Kod svakog planiranja i dogovaranja outsourcing procesa treba imati u vidu nezaobilazni backsourcing, odnosno raskid poslovne veze koji će se sasvim sigurno prije ili kasnije pojaviti. Zbog toga je kod postavljanja svakog outsourcing procesa itekako važno u obzir uzeti proces backsourcinga kada se za njega ukaže potreba. Najbolji put za uspješni backsourcing jeste razvijanje outsourcing strategije i procesa ugovaranja i upravljanja koji omogućava više opcija za kompaniju koje izlazi iz odnosa sa dobavljačem i ponovo preuzima vlasništvo i odgovornost za svoje operacije. Drugim riječima, treba outsourcati s backsourcingom na umu.

7. ZAKLJUČAK

Kao posljedica sveopšte globalizacije pojavio se outsourcing, odnosno prepuštanje dijela posla vanjskom partneru koji će ga obaviti bolje, brže i jeftinije, dok se svi raspoloživi resursi kompanije usmjeravaju na osnovnu djelatnost.

Osnovni razlog i motiv zašto se kompanije odlučuju za outsourcing jeste smanjenje troškova i fokus na ˝core¨ biznis. Outsourcing je najviše zastupljen u IT sektoru. Među najpopularnijim destinacijama za outsourcing posebno se ističe Indija, koja je postala magnet za vodeće američke IT kompanije: IBM, Microsoft, Dell i Apple.

Mišljenje o outsourcingu je podijeljeno: ▪ Na jednoj strani, žestoki protivnici outsourcinga iz razvijenih zemalja smatraju da outsourcing pridonosi izjednačavanju razvijenih i privrede zemalja Trećeg svijeta. Protivnici iz zemalja u razvoju naglašavaju da radnici iz nerazvijenih zemalja rade iste poslove za mnogo manje novca. ▪ Na drugoj strani, pristalice outsourcinga smatraju da globalno tržište zahtijeva globalne izvore, kao i da dovodi do porasta zaposlenih u zemljama destinacijama outsourcinga.

Primjena outsourcing modela u zemljama Centralne i Istočne Evrope je tek na početku, ali se predviđa njegova ekspanzija u budućnosti.

Kod svakog planiranja i dogovaranja outsourcing projekata organizacija treba imati u vidu backsourcing odnosno raskid poslovne veze koji će sasvim sigurno prije ili kasnije doći na dnevni red.

Organizacije koje su pod stalnim pritiskom praćenja ubrzanog razvoja tehnologije i sve većih zahtjeva tržišta moraju se, kako bi zadržale konkurentnost na globalnom tržištu okrenuti globalnim izvorima. S druge strane, zemlje koje žele postati poželjne destinacije outsourcinga moraju se specijalizovati u onom u čemu su najbolje i na taj način postati konkurentne.

Neki smatraju da globalizacija pomaže otvaranju tržišta ka zemljama u razvoju i stvaranju uslova za jednake mogućnosti za rad u bogatim i siromašnijim zemljama. Za druge, ona je samo način da bogati napune svoje džepove na račun siromašnih. Kako god, svijet se mijenja, a i mi usred njega – pitanje nije da li je to pravedno ili ne, već samo ko će najviše zaraditi na toj činjenici.

“Budimo realni, globalizacija neće nestati, a preživjeti mogu samo oni koji joj se najbrže prilagode.”

8. LITERATURA

1. Internet:

1.1. www.birosoft.hr 1.2. www.biznis.hr 1.3. www.bug.hr 1.4. www.ekonomist.co.yu 1.5. www.iskon.hr 1.6. www.itbusiness.ba 1.7. www.matrica.com.hr 1.8. www.moj-posao.net 1.9. www.oaza 1.10. www.trend.hr 1.11. www.webmajstori.net

-----------------------
[1] Silicijska dolina ili Silicon Valley je jedno od ekonomski najrazvijenijih područja svijeta. Nalazi se u SAD-u, a geografski je dio Sjeverne Kalifornije, tačnije, nalazi se na južnom dijelu zaljeva San Francisco u dolini Santa Clara. Jezgru čini grad San Jose (koji je najveći) te 29 drugih gradova sa svojom okolinom. Naziv je dobila po silicijskom čipu koji je izumljen upravo na tom području.

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