Premium Essay

P&G Intermediate Ii

In: Business and Management

Submitted By tylermcclarren
Words 1810
Pages 8
CHAPTER 4

a) What type of income statement format does P&G use? Indicate why this format might be used to present income statement information.

The type of income statement format that P&G uses is the single-step income statement format. This format is often used by companies to report revenues, gains, expenses, and losses. In this particular format, expenses are deducted from revenues in order to arrive at a net income or a net loss which is where the term “single-step” came from. The companies that do use the single-step income statement use it because of its simplicity. The main advantage of using the single-step income statement is that the format is presented in a very simple way and the fact that it is not important what type of revenue or expense has main priority. The single-step format eliminates any potential classification problems as well.

b) What are P&G’s primary revenue sources?

P&G’s primary revenue sources include beauty and health because at the end of 2006 their ending revenue was $17,870, and in 2007their ending revenue was $18,302. Beauty and health had net sales of $31.9 billion. Another source of primary revenue is Gillette GBU, with and ending revenue of $21,539 and an ending revenue of $22,031 in 2007. Gillette had net sales by GBU of $9.3 billion, and a third revenue source is household care with net sales of $36.2 billion.

c) Compute P&G’s gross profit for each of the years 2005-2007. Explain why gross profit increased in 2007.

2005-$56,741 - $27,872 = $28,869
2006- $68,222 - $33,125 = $35,097
2007- $76,476 - $36,686 = $39,790
*Amounts in millions
Gross profit actually increased from 2005 to 2006, and then again in 2007. The reason why gross profit increased is because the net sales increased a significant amount through the three years, and cost of goods sold increased in…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Soot Framework

...help of intermediate representation provided by The Soot Framework. The team also aims to develop a host program to test the shared variables. The findings of the project are to be submitted at the end of the semester. 3. The Soot Framework The simplest way to use The Soot Framework is to install it on top of Eclipse IDE – an integrated IDE suited for java programming. The following describes the steps necessary to be ready to use The Soot Framework. 3.1. Installation Guide i. Install Eclipse3.3 ii. Help > Software Updates > Find and install > Search for new Features to install iii. Click new remote site a. Input Name as Soot and URL as http://www.sable.mcgill.ca/soot/eclipse/updates/  iv. Click “Finish” v. Restart Ecilpse. 3.2 Soot Phase The execution of Soot is working through several phases which are called packs. First Soot generates the Jimple code and parse jimple code or java files. Then, Result of parsing code is passing to the various packs through the Jimple Body(jp) pack. Table 1 shows the pack naming scheme. For instance, Jap means Jimple annotation pack containing all the things from intra-procedural analyses. S | Shimple | J | Jimple | B | Baf | G | Grimp | O | Optimization | T | User-defined transformations | A | Annotation | P | Pack (end of pack) | Table 1 pack naming 3.3 How to use Soot ( Null Pointer Analysis) i. click Run Soot : This will pop up the Soot option dialog. ii.......

Words: 1674 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Final Exam Schedule of Spring 2015-2016

...GLOBAL ECONOMY INTRODUCTION TO ECONOMICS PUBLIC SPEAKING POWER STATIONS Released on March 29, 2016 SECTIONS A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,O,P,Q,R A,B,C,D,E A A,B A A A,B A,C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8 A A A,B,C A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I A,B,C B,C,D,I,J A,B A A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O F1 A A A,C,D A,B,C,E,F,G,H,I, A,B,C,E,F,G,H,I A A,B,C A A N,O,P,Q A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M A A A A,B,C,D,E,F,G Day 2: April 24, 2016 (Sunday) TIME Building 1, 5 & 4 BUSINESS MATHEMATICS – 1 BASICS IN NATURAL SCIENCE ISLAMIC FINANCE & BANKING CONTEMPORARY ARCH. THEORY Building 7 COMPUTER NETWORKS MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS ANALOG ELECTRONICS 1 9:3011:30 INTERMEDIATE MICROECONOMICS BIOMEDICAL INST. MEASUREMENT & DESIGN SALES MANAGEMENT [MKT.] INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY LOGIC AND PHILISOPHY 12-2 BUSINESS MATHEMATICS – 2 TEACHING READING FUNDAMENTALS OF MATHEMATICS INTRODUCTION TO PURCHASING & PROCUREMENT OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY MGMT [HRM] STRUCTURE-III: (STEEL & TIMBER STRUCTURES) STRATEGIC MARKETING [MKT.] ALGORITHMS INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT [BUILDING 2] [BUILDING 2] ANIMATION PRODUCTION ANALOG ELECTRONICS 2 ELECTRONIC DEVICES A,B A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K A,B,C,D,E,G,H A,C,D,E,F,G A A,B,C,D,E,G A,B,C,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M A,B,C,D,E,F,I A,B,D,E,F,G,H,I ALL A,D1 A A A [BUILDING 2] [BUILDING 2] [BUILDING 2] PHYSICS 1 COMPUTER GRAPHICS [CS] COMPUTER GRAPHICS......

Words: 1987 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Diamond Foods, Inc.: Anatomy and Motivations of Earnings Manipulation

...approximately $1.4 million and incentive compensation of more than $2.6 million, while Neil received bonuses totaling more than $875,000 and incentive compensation worth more than $1.1 million (Henning 2012). In fiscal 2009, 2010, and 2011, $2.6 million of Mendes’ $4.1 million in annual bonus was paid because Diamond beat its EPS goal, according to regulatory filings (Huffington Post 2012). Plans for a More Prosperous Future: Diamond’s Attempts to Acquire Pringlest On the heels of the past fruitful acquisitions and successful integration of Kettle Brandt Chips in Diamond’s operations, the Company embarked upon an even more ambitious target, Pringlest. Beginning in May 2010, Diamond submitted several purchase offers to Proctor & Gamble (P&G) to purchase Pringlest. The Pringlest acquisition would make Diamond the second-largest snack food company, only behind PepsiCo’s Frito-Layt. Although Proctor & Gamble initially rejected Diamond’s offers, negotiations resumed in February 2011. On April 5, 2011, Diamond reached an agreement to acquire Pringlest by exchanging $1.5 billion of Diamond’s stock and paying $850 million in cash toward the total purchase price of $2.35 billion. The transaction had a ‘‘cash collar,’’ such that if the price of Diamond’s stock dropped, Diamond would increase the cash component to as high as $1.05 billion, and if the stock price rose, the cash component would be reduced to as low as $700 million. In the Issues in Accounting Education Volume 30, No.......

Words: 9535 - Pages: 39

Free Essay

Bhjjnkj

...Dependent/Language independent) Compilation process is partitioned into no-of-sub processes called ‘phases’. Department of CSE -5- JRE Group of Institutions Lexical Analysis:LA or Scanners reads the source program one character at a time, carving the source program into a sequence of automic units called tokens. Syntax Analysis:The second stage of translation is called Syntax analysis or parsing. In this phase expressions, statements, declarations etc… are identified by using the results of lexical analysis. Syntax analysis is aided by using techniques based on formal grammar of the programming language. Intermediate Code Generations:An intermediate representation of the final machine language code is produced. This phase bridges the analysis and synthesis phases of translation. Code Optimization :This is optional phase described to improve the intermediate code so that the output runs faster and takes less space. Code Generation:The last phase of translation is code generation. A number of optimizations to reduce the length of machine language program are carried out during this phase. The output of the code generator is the machine language program of the specified computer. Table Management (or) Book-keeping:- Department of CSE -6- JRE Group of Institutions This is the portion to keep the names used by the program and records essential information about each. The data structure used to record this information called a „Symbol Table‟. Error Handlers:It is......

Words: 14721 - Pages: 59

Premium Essay

Midterm Sample 1

...ECON 100B – INTERMEDIATE MACROECONOMICS Professor Thomas Wu Spring 2011 First Midterm (April 22, 2011) Name: _________________________________ Instructions: i. You have 1 hour and 10 minutes to finish this exam; ii. No questions will be taken (it is your job to interpret and understand the question); iii. The exam is supposed to be long, so do not panic if you feel like you are not going to finish it (probably all other students are feeling the same way); iv. No cheating will be tolerated! Don’t talk to any other student, don’t look at any other exam, don’t leave any book or notes open around you, and don’t use calculators, cell phones or MP3 players. Any suspicious activity will result in receiving a ZERO on the exam! v. You MUST write your answer in the indicated space in order to get credit. vi. Good luck and remember: just try the best you can. Part I – Multiple Choices (2 points each, 8 points total) 1) A firm's value added equals: A) its revenue minus its cost of intermediate goods. B) its revenue minus all of its costs. C) its revenue minus its wages. D) its revenue minus its wages and profit. E) none of the above. Answer: ___ 2) Suppose C = 200 + 0.75YD. How much of an increase in government spending must occur for equilibrium output to increase by 1200? A) 300 B) 400 C) 800 D) 900 E) 1200 Answer: ___ Page 1 of 12 3) Suppose that the firms’ markup over cost is 100%, and the wage setting equation is W = P(0.6 – u), where u is the unemployment rate. What......

Words: 1072 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Work/Life Balance at Baxter

...12-2 PHYSICS 2 STRUCTURE-II (REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN) STRUCTURE-I (BASIC MECHANICS OF SOLIDS) CONTROL SYSTEM DATA WAREHOUSING AND DATA MINING [CS] PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY LANGUAGE TESTING FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS BASICS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT MUSIC APPRICATION GLOBAL OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT MULTIMEDIA SYSTEMS [CS] TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT COMPUTER VISION & PATTERN RECOGNITION 3-5 VISUAL ENVIRONMENT SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT ENG. STATISTICS & PROBABILITY INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS [ECO] POWER STATIONS RURAL MARKETING ADVERTISING AND PUBLIC POLICY INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLINGUISTICS CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN GLOBAL ECONOMY [ECO] Campus 7 SECTIONS A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H A,B,D A A A A,B A,B,B1,B2,B3,B4,B6,B8,B9,B10, C1,C2, C3,C5,C6,C7,C4,D A A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H A A A A A,B A,B,C,D A A,B,D,E B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L A A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N A A A,B,C,D,G A A A A,B A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,L,M A,B,C,E,F,G,H,I A A A A,B A A A A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K A A,B,C,D,E,F,G A A A A 9:3011:30 Released on February 04, 2014 Day 2: March 02, 2014( Sunday) TIME Campus 1, 5 & 4 MATHEMATICS -1 (ECO) MATHEMATICS -2 (ECO) FUNDAMENTALS OF MATHEMATICS BUSINESS MATHEMATICS – 1 BASICS IN NATURAL SCIENCE ISLAMIC FINANCE & BANKING PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE ADMINISTRATIVE BEHAVIOR DIGITAL IMAGING Campus 7 SECTIONS H1 A A A,A1,A3,A4,A5,A7,A8,A10 A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K A A A,B A A,B,C,D A,C,D,E,F,G.I A A,B,C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7,C8 A,B A A,B,D,E,F,G,H,J A,B,E,F,G,H,L A,B,C,D,E,F A A......

Words: 1880 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Mr Babak Soltani

...control management, Disal Inc., Chemical equipment producer (pressure vessel, Heat exchanger and …) Resident Weld Inspector in Shaghayegh, Saaleh Aabaad And Damavand‐Khaghani Bridge projects with VinaVares Co. . Teaching experiences Casting Laboratory to mechanical Eng. B.S Scholars in Shiraz university y g y Heat treatment Laboratory to material Eng. B.S Scholars in Shiraz university NDT Laboratory for material Eng. B.S Scholars in Shiraz university Engineering software’s courses to material technicians  Scholars in Najaf Aabaad Islamic Azad university Computer programming course to material Eng. B.S Scholars in Najaf Aabaad Islamic Azad university From Oct‐12 Sep‐02 to Sep‐05 Sep‐1998 to Sep‐02 Mar‐10 to Mar‐12 Feb‐09 to Ma‐10 Sep‐08 to Feb‐09 Jun‐08 to Sep‐08 Jan‐03 to Jun‐03 p Sep‐03 to Jan‐04 Jan‐04 to Jun‐04 Sep‐07 to Jun‐08 Jan‐08 to Jun‐08 Babak Soltani  MBA Student M.Sc of Material Engineering Page 2 of 2    Jan‐02 to Sep‐02  Jan‐04 to Sep‐05 Sep‐05 to Dec‐05 Sep 05 to Dec 05 Jun‐05 to Sep‐05 Sep‐05 to Dec‐05 Jan‐05 to Dec‐05 Foreign languages General IELTS Certificated: Score Band 6 French courses: Intermediate(TCF Certificate B2) German : Intermediate (DaF 405‐B1) Researches Study of Flash butt welding tearing under tensile stresses  Nonlinear finite element simulation of CK45 closed‐die hot forging process in Abzaaran Co. 3D nonlinear finite volume simulation of open‐die hot‐forging process of DIN1.1141 Cast steel slabs open die hot forging......

Words: 955 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Cma Syllabus 2012

...law of demand, elasticity of demand- price, income and cross elasticity) and Supply ( meaning , determinants, law of supply and elasticity of supply) (f) Equilibrium (g) Theory of Production ( meaning , factors, laws of production- law of variable proportion, laws of returns to scale) (h) Cost of Production ( concept of costs, short-run and long-run costs, average and marginal costs, total, fixed and variable costs) 2. Forms of Market (a) Various forms of market- monopoly, perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, duopoly (b) Pricing strategies in various markets 3. National Income (a) Gross National Product (b) Net National Product (c) Measurement of National Income (d) Economic growth and fluctuations (e) Consumptions, Savings and Investment 4. Money (a) Definition and functions of money (b) Quantity theory of money (c) Inflation and effect of inflation on production and distribution of wealth (d) Control of Inflation (e) Money Supply (f) Liquidity preference and marginal efficiency (g) Rate of Interest and Investment 5. Banking (a) Definition (b) Functions and utility of Banking (c) Principles of Commercial Banking (d) Essentials of sound Banking system (e) Multiple credit creation (f) Functions of Central Bank (g) Measures of credit control and Money Market (h) National & International Financial Institutions The Institute of Cost Accountants of India (Statutory Body under an Act of......

Words: 18528 - Pages: 75

Premium Essay

English Profeciency

...Testing at UCLA E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e P r o f i c i e n c y A s s e s s m e n t i n t h e n at i o n i Acknowledgments Authors and Contributors Jim Bauman, Center for Applied Linguistics Tim Boals, University of Wisconsin – Madison Michael Bunch, Measurement Incorporated Alyssa Buteux, Educational Testing Service Mathina Calliope, American Institutes for Research Yeonsuk Cho, Ballard Tighe Elizabeth Cranley, University of Wisconsin – Madison Steve Ferrara, American Institutes for Research Richard Figueroa, University of California, Davis David J. Francis, University of Houston Cathy George, California Department of Education Margo Gottlieb, Illinois Resource Center Maurice Hauck, Educational Testing Service Kevin Joldersma, Measurement Incorporated Dorry Kenyon, Center for Applied Linguistics Rebecca Kopriva, C-SAVE Julia Lara, Consultant Robert Linquanti, WestEd Ginger Mathews, Measured Progress Christine Mills, Educational Testing Service Veena Nambiar, University of California, Davis Susan G. Porter, University of California, Davis Theodor Rebarber, AccountabilityWorks Mabel O. Rivera, Texas Institute for Measurement, Evaluation, and Statistics Paul Rybinski, Educational Testing Service Robin Scarcella, University of California, Irvine Diana Sewell, Louisiana Department of Education Lisa Sullivan, University of California, Davis Jisel Vega, University of California, Davis Joyce Wang, Educational Testing Service Phoebe Winter, Consultant ii UNI V E RSITY OF......

Words: 115272 - Pages: 462

Free Essay

Its a Course Manual Useful for Enigineering Students of 4th Sem

...unit which gives an output reading or signal according to the unknown variable (measured) applied to it. - In more complex measurement situation a measuring instrument may consist of several separate elements. These separate elements may consist of traducing element which converts the measured to analogies. The analogies signal is then processed by some intermediate means and then fed to the end devices. To presents the results of the measurement for the propose of display and control. - The above mention component might be contained neither one or more boxes and the boxes holding individual measurement elements might be either close together or physically separate. - Because of this modular nature of the component contain it; it is common to refer the measuring instrument as a measurement system or instrumentation system. - The history of development of instrument encompainses three phases:(i) Mechanical Instrument:- First instrument use by man kind. - Very reliable for static and stable condition but unable to responds to dynamic and transient conditions. - having moving parts that are rigid, heavy and bulky has a large mass. (ii) Electrical Instruments:- A faster response. - A greater flexibity. - Lower weight. - Lower power consumption. (iv) A higher degree reliability. Instrumentation System A system that comprises of input, signal, conditioning and processing and the output is known as instrumentation system. Components of Instrumentation system:Components of......

Words: 3324 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Laboratory Report: Structure and Function

... This ends your introduction. If your paper is long, about five to six pages, it would help the reader if you will write a short paragraph outlining the sections of your paper. (10) II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Our skeletal frame sets the muscles and organs in our body: the skull gives the place for the eyes, the ribs for the lungs, and the pelvis for the muscles that make us stand. In a similar way, the variables in the theoretical framework give the place for the measurable and the desired quantities. The measurable quantities are those that you directly measure in the laboratory, while the desired quantities are those that are reflected in your title. For example, if your title is “Angular displacement of a pendulum in an accelerating car,” then your desired quantities are the angular displacement and the acceleration a of the car. The measurable quantities would be (a) the mass of the pendulum, (b) the angle that the pendulum makes with the vertical, and (c) the position x of the car in time t. The connection between the measurable and the desired quantities may be as short as a single equation. For example, the acceleration a of a car is related to the angle that the pendulum bob makes with the vertical:1 a = g tan , (1) where g is the constant gravitational acceleration on the surface of the earth. See Fig. 1. Let us dissect (1) (we refer to equations by their numbers). The acceleration a is alone on the left...

Words: 1370 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Hi I Am Very Simple Boy. I Like to Meet New People.

...AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY-BANGLADESH Summer’ 2012-2013 FINAL EXAM SCHEDULE (Released on July 13, 2013) Day 1: July 29, 2013 (Monday) TIME CAMPUS 1 ,4 & 5 GLOBAL TRADE HEALTH AND SAFETY FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING E-GOVERNANCE URBAN DESIGN-2 E-MARKETING AUDITING CAMPUS 7 SECTIONS ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L ALL ALL ALL M,N,O,P,Q,R,S,T,U ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL 9:3011:30 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 1 ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS 2 ELECTRICAL MACHINES-1 ADVANCE MACRO ECONOMICS POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION STATISTICS FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT BANK FUND MANAGEMENT SOCIETY & THE ARCH. OF BENGAL BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS 12-2 INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH POETRY COMPILER DESIGN MACRO ECONOMICS BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS ELECTRICAL MACHINES -2 MANAGEMENT AND MEDIA MARKETING TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSIS OPERATING SYSTEM-2 DISCRETE MATHEMATICS FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ALGORITHMS 3-5 AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS DESIGN THEORY-I MATH METH OF ENG’G VLSI CIRCUIT DESIGN Released on July 13, 2013 Day 2: July 30, 2013 (Tuesday) TIME CAMPUS 1 ,4 & 5 WEB TECHNOLOGIES TAXATION FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPENSATION BRAND & PRODUCT MGMT. INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE 1 (CS) CAMPUS 7 SECTIONS ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL ALL......

Words: 1161 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Prevalance of Penicillin Resistant

...antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumonia. ii. Findings can lead to the formation of antibiotic resistance surveillance program which will collect data on antimicrobial resistance that can be use as the bases for the formation of preventative programs or policy which will reduce if not prevent future deaths that are associated with antibiotic resistance bacteria. iii. Information about resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae will be important in defining prognosis for infected patients. 3.5Limitations The date for this study is obtained strictly from various hospital log book in Guyana over a period of five years .However this study relies solely on the availability of these hospital records. Efforts were made by the researcher to minimize this by introducing a time frame of five years. 3.6Research Questions i. What is the prevalence of Penicillin resistance S.pneumoniae in the Guyanese population? ii. What is the pattern of prevalence as it relates to the increase in age? iii. What is the prevalence of Penicillin resistance Gram positive Cocci in the Male and Female population of Guyana? iv. Prevalence of penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in both invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae? 3.7Definition of Terms I. Antimicrobial agents- Are compounds that inhibit or slows down the growth of microbes II. Multidrug-resistant--Is use to......

Words: 3244 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Accounting

...Assignment of All Chapters A Course in Game Theory Osborne and Rubinstein A FIRST COURSE IN DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH MODELING APPLICATION 7TH EDITION BY DENNIS G. ZILL A First Course In Probability Solution Manual,Ross 6th A First Course In Probability Solution Manual,Ross 8th A First Course in Abstract Algebra 7th by Fraleigh A First Course in Differential Equations with Modeling Applications (7th ed.) and Zill & ; Cullen s Diferential Equations with Boundary-Value Problems (5th ed.) zill A First Course in Probability: SOLUTIONS MANUAL (7th Edition) by sheldon ross A First Course in String Theory chapter 1 to 16 A First Course in the Finite Element Method, 4th Edition Daryl L. Logan A Friendly Introduction to Number Theory 3rd by Silverman A Guide to Physics Problems, Part 1 - Mechanics, Relativity, and Electrodynamics A Guide to Physics Problems, Part 2 - Thermodynamics, Statistical Physics, and Quantum Mechanics A Practical Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithm analysis 2nd edition by Clifford A. Shaffer A Quantum Approach to Condensed Matter Physics Solutions by philip l. Taylor Abnormal Psychology The Problem of Maladaptive Behavior 11e by Irwin G. Sarason instructor manual Abnormal Psychology The Problem of Maladaptive Behavior 11e by Irwin G. Sarason test bank Absolute Java, 3rd Ed by W. Savitch instructor manual and test bank Absolute Java, 4th Ed by W. Savitch solution manual Accounting Concepts......

Words: 18533 - Pages: 75

Premium Essay

A Finite Element Analysis Model for the Behaviour of Cold-Formed Steel Channel Columns Under Axial Thrust

...channel sections with different stiffener sizes and one channel section with intermediate stiffener at the web were modelled using finite element analysis with each channel have three specimens. All nine specimens have a constant value of thickness, 1.0mm, a nominal width of the web of 75 mm and nominal width of the flange of 45mm and the length range from 500mm to 1000mm and lip size, 10mm. Meanwhile, the size of intermediate stiffener for web stiffener and flange stiffener are 45mm and 25mm respectively. A numerical analysis is undertaken to determine the ultimate loading capacity and mode of deformation of cold-formed steel channel columns. The finite element method was used to investigate the structural behaviour of the steel channel columns. From the analysis, it has found that the ultimate loading capacity for specimen designated as S-500 gave the highest value compared to others of specimen. The result presented shown that loading capacities increased proportionally with shape of the channel and intermediate stiffener provide strongest value of loading capacity. Besides that, the result also shows that the increment in length give lesser value of ultimate load. A comparison of results calculated using various international standards using these models shows good agreement with finite element analysis results. Keywords: Cold-formed Steel Section, local buckling, lipped channel, intermediate stiffeners. ii TABLE OF CONTENT CONTENT Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENT......

Words: 19871 - Pages: 80