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Paper Charcoal Effectiveness

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hapter 1
INTRODUCTION
A. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is said that “A shoe is not only a design, but it's a part of your body language, the way you walk. The way you're going to move is quite dictated by your shoes” just an evident of how intricate a shoe is-in yourself and in the eyes of the people around you. Going back to history, in societal belief, the person with a high-profiled has an identity of having polished-leathered shoes in his/her feet. At this modern era, everyone has its decision whether to use shoe polisher or not, something that diminished the gap between the so-called high people and lower ones.
Shoe polish used to polish, shine, and waterproof leather shoes or boots to extend the footwear's life, and restore, maintain and improve their appearance (thefreedictionary). Shoe polish had been widely used even before the twentieth century, during the medieval times, dubbin- a waxy product, was used to soften and waterproof leather but did not made the leather shine until they tried to mixed the beeswax and lanolin as bases that until now major company of boot polish is using. Another historical file, the popularity of shoe polish paralleled a general rise in leather and synthetic shoe production, beginning in the 19th century and continuing into the 20th. The World Wars saw a surge in demand for the product, in order to polish army boots and contributed to its fame all over the globe.
Focusing to our study, we will use the banana peel extract and coconut husk ashes in making true our research. Coconut is the fruit of the most economically important member of the great palm family, Palmae. The genus cocos is Southeast Asian and contains only one species, C. nucifera .Cultivated in tropical lowlands, almost always near the sea. For centuries, the coconut tree has supplied the pacific islands with food, drinks, shelter and most of their needs. The root furnishes as a dye; the trunks are used for post in buildings and outnumbered uses of it. Undeniable of its title-“Tree of Life”
A banana is an edible fruit produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa. Musa species are native to tropical Indomalaya and Australia, and are likely to have been first domesticated in Papua New Guinea. They are grown in at least 107 countries, primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent to make fiber, banana wine and as ornamental plants. In 2013 bananas were fourth among the main world food crops (after rice, wheat, and maize) in financial value. The word banana is thought to be of West African origin, possibly from the Wolof word banaana, and passed into English via Spanish or Portuguese
By the application of these materials we can at least lessen the squandered dirt especially the coconut husk for it was proven that these are one of the main hinders in the continuous water system flow in our town that lead to a disastrous flooding thus collaborating the government in pursuing our place, a safer one to settle in and we also look-forward, if ever this study provide a positive outcome, to cooperate to the government to make a livelihood that will promote usage of this shoe polish tracing from our study for it is an eco-friendly product. Various researches had concluded that commercial boot-polish that is made of synthetic materials has become one of the endemic pollutants because of its chemical substance called Nitrobenzene that was mixed.

B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study aims to make an effective shoe polish out of burned coconut husk with banana peel extract. Specifically, the study endeavor to answer the following questions:
1. How effective is the experimented shoe polish in term of the shine it gives?
2. Does its effectiveness last for a long time?
3. How long does the shoe polish effectiveness bring?
4. Does it give satisfying color when apply to the shoes?
5. Is the made polish a quick-dry one for the dust not to precipitate on the shoes?
6. Is there a thin-layer formation observed on the shoes that will serve as the barrier between the polished surface and the moisture filled environment?
7. Does it give pleasing odor?
8. Will this product be an economical shoe polish for the people?
9. What is the difference between the shoe polish available in the market from the shoe polish out of burned coconut husk with banana peel extract?
C. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
One of the main benefits of a shoe shine is that it helps preserve the material that shoes are made out of. Polishing products also provides the coating of wax on the leather that helps in keeping it waterproof and reduces the dirt accumulated on the leather. Shoe polish also gives a moisturizing effect to the leather and proper care may help in lasting the shoes for several years.
The result of this research will categorically help the different sector of our community and can be a basis of improvement for the refinement of this product.
The findings of this study will be significant to the following entities:
FAMILY. The result of this study will benefit them to encourage this unit to promote an eco-friendly product and to use the harmless yet effective output than the commercialized product. Also, an affordable one by them if ever.
COMMUNITY. The outcome will give an idea to them that a waste that block the water system flow can be a sufficient product to its member and can will help to minimize or even prevent the effects of flooding.
LGU. The findings can be an insight to make a new livelihood program, regarding this study, to the people and provide a better idea for local government on what intervention is appropriate in health safety of its constituents.
FUTURE RESEARCHERS. It will serve as a tool, reference, and guide in the conducting related research.

The researchers profound the hypothesis on the study on;
Ho: there is no significant difference between the efficiency of the shoe polish made of coconut husk ash with banana peel extract to commercial shoe polish that was sold on the market.
Ha: there is a significant difference between the efficiency of the shoe polish made of coconut husk ash with banana peel extract to commercial shoe polish that was sold on the market.

E. SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The cored-study is the comparison of shoe polish out of coconut husk ashes with banana peel extract from the commercial shoe polish. This was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the shoe polish out of coconut husk ash with banana peel extract in term of its properties-gloss, odor, effectiveness in measure of time span, color, thin-layer formation, and quick-dry. In addition, the cost of this product compare to the commercial shoe polish. The shoe polish would only be applicable on the black leather shoes. For the validity of the result, ten random respondents from Ragay, Camarines Sur will be choosing. The investigation will consumed four days including the preparation of materials, making of the said output and the observation of the respondents.
F. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES INTERVENING VARIABLES DEPENDENT VARIABLES
The shoe polish out of coconut husk ash with banana peel extract. The dissimilarity of the shoes that will be applied by the shoe polish in terms of texture, and its condition. General properties--gloss, odor, effectiveness in measure of time span, color, thin-layer formation, and quick-dry, which modified the shoe.
Figure 1
Theoretical framework of the Study

The table has shown the three main variables in the research study, namely the independent variable, intervening variable, and the dependent variable.
The independent variable is the shoe polish out of coconut husk ash with banana peel extract. For this can be manipulated by the researcher to came with an ideal result.
An intervening variable that can alter the end results of an experiment or test, but which are extremely hard to control is the dissimilarities of shoes which will be applied by the shoe polish in terms of texture and condition
The dependent variable which will be the output of the manipulation of independent variable is the effect of application of the shoe polish being experimented in the general properties of shoe polish.
G. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Shoe polish(boot polish)- a substance used to produce a shiny protective surface on footwear.
Dubbin- a waxy product, was used to soften and waterproof leather
Banana peel-the skin of a banana (especially when it is stripped off and discarded)
Coconut Husk-are the rough exterior shells of the coconut.
Ash-The grayish-white to black powdery residue left when something is burned.
Nitrobenzene- A yellow aromatic liquid (C6H5.NO2), produced by the action of nitric acid on benzene, and called from its odor imitation oil of bitter almonds, or essence of mirbane. It is used in perfumery, and is manufactured in large quantities in the preparation of aniline. Formerly called also nitrobenzol.
Kerosene-is also known as paraffin or paraffin oil which is a kind of petroleum. It is a substance that shines to the polished shoe.

Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDY
For the purpose of comparison and analysis various materials such as books, periodicals, magazines, and studies related to the present endeavor had been reviewed in order for the researcher to gain an in-depth of enlightenment on the conditions of the study.

Related Literature
Uganda Investment Authority (2013) ,Activated Carbon from burned coconut husk is an amorphous form of carbon, which when treated, produces a highly porous structure with a very large internal surface area. This gives the ability to activated carbon to absorb gases and vapors in gaseous phase and attain the property of quick dry. niir.organization (2008) said that activated carbon use in air conditioning systems to control odours and industrial recovery and control of vapours has been very significant of activated carbon has boost up its market potential existing at present & has much under scope in future. And when it applies as shoe polish, it can control the odor that the paraffin wax could give and remains the moisture of wax.
Extraordinary Uses for Ordinary Things. Reader's Digest. 2004,Published an article that banana has the potential substance that give gloss to leather. UK Competition Commission (2007) Concluded that the oils and the potassium in the banana polish helps preserve your shoes and strengthen the leather quality of shoes. In addition, Diy Doctor (November 27, 2007) said that banana peel emits a wax or oily impregnation. The application of the wax or oil gives a depth of colour which cannot be duplicated by surface colour and will age beautifully over-time.
CASE STUDY
P.B. Madakson D.S. Yawas and A. Apasi (2006)concluded that the coconut husk ash can withstand a high temperature with a density of 2. 5g/cm³. That means this ash can be use in production light weight MMCs component with good thermal resistance. And if used as an active ingredient in making of shoe polish, it can give better protection on the footwear for it can control too much heat that can destroy the quality of the shoes. Also, Karpagavallie ( 2009) emphasize that activated carbon from the ash of coconut husk exhibits good adsorption characteristics that make the polish coat the shoe for longer time carl alfred sagala (2013) found out that coconut hush ash is has an slight effect on terms of its general properties- gloss, odor, effectiveness in measure of time span, color, thin-layer formation, and quick-dry compares to the commercial shoe polish.
Hannah Gabrielle Doncillo (2013) Shown on their result that banana peel has no significant effects on shoe polish making and said that it can be a potential ingredients for a shoe polish thus making some modification on materials.
Marjorie G. Dela Cruz, Irish Joy R. Dela Vega, Jean Pauline H. Layug, Ralp Lawrence B. Perez (2009) .The researchers confirmed that banana peel can be made into a shoe polish but the commercial shoe polish has a slight difference from the banana (Musa Paradisiaca) peel shoe polish. Therefore, it can only serve as an alternative shoe polish.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
• Uganda Investment Authority (2013) “Activated Carbon from Coconut Shell” retrieved from http:// http://www.ugandainvest.go.ug/index.php/manufacturing/fuel-and-lubricants/activated-carbon-from-coconut-shell
• Extraordinary Uses for Ordinary Things. Reader's Digest. 2004. p. 77. ISBN 0-7621-0705-7
• Diy Doctor (November 27, 2007). Stain Removal, Waxes, Polishes and Cleaners. Harvard Universuty,United States
• P.B. Madakson D.S. Yawas and A. Apasi (2006)“Characterization of Coconut Shell Ash for Potential Utilization in Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications,”
• niir.organization (2008) “
• Activated Carbon From Rice Husk, Saw Dust & Coconut husk” retrieved from http://www.niir.org/profiles/profiles/rice-husk-rice-hull-rice-husk-ash-agricultural-waste-based-projects/z,,81,0,a/
• Karpagavallie ( 2009) “Coconut Shell Ash - A Novel Adsorbent” p.29-30 Bavaria, Germany
• Marjorie G. Dela Cruz, Irish Joy R. Dela Vega, Jean Pauline H. Layug, Ralp Lawrence B. Perez (2009) investigatory project: Banana (Musa Paradisiaca) Peel Shoe Polish, DOST Region III
• UK Competition Commission (2007) “conclusions of a report on Sara Lee and the shoe polish market in general” United Kingdom
• carl alfred sagala (2013) abstract from “Coconut Shells as a Shoe Polish Science Investigatory Project” Manila, Philippines
• Hannah Gabrielle Doncillo (2013) abstract from “Banana Peeling as an Alternative Shoe Polish
“ Cebu City, Philippines
• Marjorie G. Dela Cruz, Irish Joy R. Dela Vega, Jean Pauline H. Layug, Ralp Lawrence B. Perez (2009) investigatory project: Banana (Musa Paradisiaca) Peel Shoe Polish, DOST Region III

D. HYPOTHESIS

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...BIOMASS ENERGY POLICY The Policy Vision for Biomass is: To transform traditional biomass energy to modern energy in order to use the available biomass resources sustainably The policy goal for Biomass is: To increase the modern use of biomass energy from 10% to 86% of total energy consumption in Uganda by the year 2020 Table of Contents BIOMASS POLICY 4 1.0 Introduction 4 1.1 Biomass 5 1.1.1 Biomass energy flows 6 1.1.1.1 Forestry 6 1.1.1.2 Agriculture 7 1.1.1.2 Agricultural residues 7 1.1.1.4 Live stock 8 1.1.2 Biogas through anaerobic digestion 10 1.1.3 Biofuels for Transport by fermentation 11 1.1.4 Direct combustion for generation of electricity 12 1.1.5 Pyrolysis 12 1.1.6 Gasification 13 1.1.7 Transesterification 13 1.2 Benefits of using biomass 13 1.3 Barriers to efficient use of Biomass 14 1.4 Advantages of Biomass Energy 15 2.0 THE POLICY VISION, GOAL, PRINCIPLES, OBJECTIVES, STRATEGIES AND TARGETS 17 2.1 The Policy Vision 17 2.2 The Policy Goal 17 2.3 The Key Policy Principles 17 2.4 The Policy Objectives 18 2.5 The Policy Strategies 19 2.5.1 Legal and Institutional Framework 19 2.5.2 Data Acquisition, Information Dissemination (Awareness) and Capacity Building, Monitoring and Evaluation 20 2.5.3 Financing and Fiscal Policy 20 2.5.4 Poverty Eradication, Equitable Distribution, Social Services and Gender 21 2.5.5 Research and Development...

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