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* Aviation looked foolish until World War I * Mail was flown during day light hours until 1923 * In 1925 Clyde Kelly introduced and signed Airmail Act of 1925 * Morrow Report commissioned in 1924 recommended aviation be regulated and military and civilian operate separately * Air Commerce Act encourage the growth of the aviation industry through establishment of airways and navigation aids * Pilots and mechanics were licensed * May 1927 Lindbergh made his flight across the Atlantic * 1928 the first airmail route radio stations were installed * Archie Leagues nations first air traffic controller * 1934 Bureau of Air Commerce responsible for the regulation of traffic along the nation’s airways * In March 1945, the Air Coordination Committee (ACC) was established to plan for the nations growth in aviation. * The ACC requested the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) to form a task force to predict future needs of the ATC system. RTCA formed SC-31 (1948). * SC-31 report recommended a common ATC system be developed to serve the needs of military and civilian pilots. * In the late 1950’s air traffic controllers were leaving the FAA because of long working hours and low pay. * Early 1960’s labor unrest began to appear again within the FAA. Several early unions were formed. * The FAA realized it was one of the few federal agencies whose operation was vital to the well being of the country, but whose workforce was permitted to unionize. * In 1963 the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) was formed. * On April 1, 1967, a cabinet level coordinating agency became a reality, the Department of Transportation (DOT) was created. * The Federal Aviation Agency was merged into the new DOT and became the Federal Aviation Administration. * The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) was created at the same time, the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB), was also merged into DOT with responsibilities limited to commercial routes and fares. * In 1978 the Airline Deregulation Act was enacted. * It reduced the influence of the CAB and eventually eliminated. * Airlines were free to determine own fares and routes without government approval. * Forced airlines to compete for passengers. * New airlines formed overnight in direct competition with older airlines. Fares were reduced to all-time lows * Many major airlines adopted “hub-and-spoke route systems overwhelm the ATC system. * August 3, 1981, PATCO staged an illegal strike, 2 days later after controllers disregarded a presidential order to return to work over 10,000 controllers were fired. * Temporary flight restrictions were necessary to reduce workload. A system of reservations was established to reduce to flow of air traffic into major airports. * This system became “flow control”, that restricted aircraft departures until it was determined that sufficient airspace was available for each aircraft. * In after math of the strike FAA claimed that staffing levels would be restored in 2 years, it took 10 years. Takes 3-5 years to train in normal conditions. * At the same time control towers were being introduced, aircraft designers began building aircraft that were faster, flew higher and they were equipped with advanced radio navigation and instrumentation that would permit pilots to fly in weather conditions that made navigation impossible just 10 years previously. * Using these instruments and ground based navigation installed by the federal government, airlines began to conduct flights of hundreds of miles through clouds, and fog with no outside reference. * These flights conditions became know as instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), or also know as IFR * Radio Communication – the modern system of air traffic control was born at the Cleveland, Ohio airport when the city constructed a control tower on top of an old hanger and equipped the facility with radio transmitting and receiving equipment. *

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