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Week 1

Anth 315 Notes
Theory of Evolution: * Gradualism * Speciation * Exchange genes. * Common ancestry. All species go back to a common ancestry. * Natural Selection * Variation * Inherited * Selection * Population will become better adapted to a particular environment.
Evolutionary Psychology - 1992
An evolutionary psychological approach: 1. Humans are part of biology. 2. There is nothing special about the human brain 3. Human nature is innate 4. Human behavior is the product of both innate human nature and the environment.
Cognitive Psychology 1. Actions are caused by mental processes. 2. The mind is a computer. 3. Humans descended from an ape like ancestor.
Heredity
1. Makes offspring look like parents. 2. Genes are written in a molecule called DNA. 3. Children obtain 50 % of their genetic make-up from each parent.
Mutations:
1. Mutations occur when a gene inside a cell changes.
The evolution of the mind:
Cognitive psychology and evolutionary biology meet when we begin discussing the mind evolving through the process of natural selection.
What were the adaptive problems faced by our hominid ancestors? 1. Shelter 2. Food
The Savannah Principal 1. The savannah principle holds that the human brain has undergone virtually little or no change in the last 10,000, years.
Sugars and fats contain calories for survival.

Week # 2
Sexual Selection
Choosing a mate or mates is one of the most important decisions that one will make in one’s lifetime and one of Darwin’s main components of sexual selection.
Female Choice (pretty male strategy)
Peahens (females) choose peacocks (male) who have long, attractive trains.
Only the peacocks with the healthiest genes can grow long and attractive trains.
Male Choice: Voluptuous Breasts
Fertile Years
Ovulatory potential
Among primates, it only occurs when a female nurses.
Male-Male Competition

The winning male excludes the rival from breeding.
It is the macho male strategy that leads men to kill other men.
Mating Strategies for Men and Women
The costs of reproduction for males of most species are much lower than for females.
Sexual selection favors the genes of males who have more offspring
Men can fertilize a different woman almost every day
Have offspring with as many females as possible fighting off rivals and attracting females.

Costs of reproduction are higher for women.
Women must be careful in choosing a mate.
Parental Investment
A parents investment that increases the offspring’s chances of survival and reproductive success (benefit) at the cost of the parent’s ability to invest in other offspring.

Mothers carry their undorb for 8 months.

Amon hunter gatehers mothers must ibnvets yekj k years escculislvey in each child .

Among mammal sfemales always have had a heaviuers
Burden in termof offspring.
Women seek “dads” - long term partners.
Cads use the short term strategies.

Evolutionary Arms Race in Mating
Men lie to their mates
Natural selection assists mates to detect liars
Men come up with new lies

Creativity is more important to human females. Creativity indicates good genes.
Women at peak fertility preferred the creative but poor artist.
The men and women who might be the best dads are not always the ones who can provide the best genes to potential offspring.
Anthro Week #3
Chimps and gorillas share 97.9.
Humans and chimps are closer than chimps and gorillas. (@98.4) 1. Great apes and humans share common genes affecting our social behavior. 2. The more closely related each species of apes is to humans, the more genes and behavior we share in common. 3. Behaviors of apes and humans are likely to be instinctive and to have been inherited by all species from a common ancestor than to have evolved separately.

Difference Between Humans and Apes 1. Reproductive strategy - Chimps and bonobos share females. 2. Estrus Period - Period of Heat (at pregnancy the females would stop sexual activity). Estrus period would return 3 or 4 years later after weening young. Visually apparent in chimps. 3. Humans adaptations to bipedalism
The Evolution of primates 1. Earliest primates climbed in trees 60 million years ago. 2. Sel. Pressures favored a # of traITS THAT BENEFITED AN ARBOREAL HABITAT. a. BETTER VISION/COLOR VISION b. As vision improved, smell decreased. Occurred at neurological level. c. Improved tactile ability. Ability to feel textures. d. Flexible hands, fingers, toes, and feet. e. Increased Neocortex region of the brain.

The Social Structure of Early Primates
Old World Monkeys * The soc. Str. Of Old World monkeys is organized around intergenerational matrilines of realted females and male dominance hierarchical societies, giving monkey organization a fairly tight-knit and stable structure. * The structure remains sustained over many generations because only males transfer out of their natal group at puberty, while females remain in close proximity to mothers and related female kin.
Apes.
In all species of apes, however, adolescent females transfer out of their mother’s group at puberty, thereby destroying and capacity to build structure through intergenerational matrilines.
Social network ties among living apes are loose and fluid instructure. Apes have few strong social ties.
Social Structure Among Apes.
Orangutans - solitary life.
Chimpanzees lack stable adult groups.
Gorillas live in groups, but their social networks are still composed of only a few strong and many weak ties.
Lack of Social Structure in Apes and humans
-As is common to all mammals, apes have ties between mothers and their younger offspring. They do not have strong and stable ties as monkeys to build social structures.
First Apes on the African Woodlan and Savannahs 1. Large brain - 2. Skeletal Modifications 3. Lack of tight knight social relations.
Human Adaptations to Survive on the Savannahes 1. Bipedalism 2. See over gress 3. Arms and hangs free 4. More energy - efficient model of locomotion 5. Secure highenergy food resources.
Week # 4 Jealousy

Jealousy defined. 1. Involves the real or imagined loss of a partner to a third partner.
Myths about jealousy.
Social Construction.
Capitalistic Society.
Invokes low self esteem immaturity or character defects.
Pathology.
Coevolutionary at Work.
Paternity and Maternity
A man experiences paternity uncertainty if his female mate commits sexual infidelity.
Women are 100% sure about maternity.

Jealousy of Emotional attachment.
Women become most jealousy when their mates become emotionally attached to other women.
Jealousy of Sexual Act
Men get very jealous when their female mates engage in sexual intercourse with other men.
Jealousy of Rivals.
Men are most jealous of dominant rivals.
Women are most jealous of physically attractive and young rivals.
Othello Syndrome
Buss questions the diagnosis of the Othelloe Syndrom (morbid jealousy) placed on many people. It may be that some people posses an ancient wisdom.
Error managemen thoeyr.
Be suspicious of an infidelity (jealous( when there is no fidelity
Be trusting (no jealousy) when there is an infidelity.
Commitment Gauge
Relative Effort Scale measures who is more commited
Less desirable partner is more jealous.

Is Domestic Violence Adaptive?
Possibly for deterrence and control.
Men Lack positive incentives (resources) to keep their mates from leaving.
They may resort to violence as a last-ditch effort.

Stalking: Adaptive?
Romantic involvement
Primarily Women get stalked.
Homicide
Jealousy is the primary motive for killing partners and rivals.
An evolutionary explanation for killing mates.
“Slip-up hypothesis” (daly and Wilson)
Mate-killing module (duntley and buss)
Mate-killing Module.
Prevent other wives from doing the same
Salvaging lost honor
Damage rivals reproductvive success
Irrevocable loss of the relationship

Why is infidelity anyways?
Women feel that spending time with someone of the oppositve sex and keeping secrets from one’s partner constitutes infidelity.
Men feel that sexual relationship with another person is an infidelity.

Clues of infidelity.
Physical signs.
Behavioral changes.
Emotional infidelity.
Why do men have affairs?
Men want to increase their reproductive success.
Why do women have affairs.
Better genes.
Sexy sons.
Mate insurance.
Trading up.
Supplemental Resources.

To Stray of not to stay
Women benefit by having affairds.
Male jealousy get in the way of a womans sexual strategy.
Th solustion was to conceal ovulation, so that husbands would have a difficult time guarding their female mates during the fertile period of the menstrual cycle.
Why straying may be costly.
How to cope with jealousy.
Visist a therapy.
Culturally prescribed coping strategies (clitoridectomy and infibulation)
Self-enhancement
Giving gifts.
Jealously: an adaptive emotion
Jealousy exists so we can love.
Testing Bonds.
Results of Buss’s Work.
Signs of morbid jealousy were actually signs of love.
Principle of Error Management
Failing to detect an actual infidelity is more costly than mistakingly accusing an innocent partnet of betrayal.

Week # 5
Why do men assaulyt their mates?
Why do men hurt the woman they say they love and the mother of his children - who are his DNA.
Feminist persepctive:
Feminists believe that domestic violence is a result of partirarchy They say men abuse their wives to control them.

Criticism of the feminist perspective.
Wilson and Daly say that feminists don’t offer an explanation as to why the young and fetiel women are often times the victims and why some men are more controlling than others.
Evolutionary Perspective of Domestic Violence
Male sexual proprietariness evolved in the human brain and mind. This means that men are motivated to “lay cliam to particular women”
A man is prone to become aggressive if a male rival makes advances toward his female partner.
The agression is justifibale since men feel that they have rights over a female.
The form of sanctions (actions taken by men in repsonse yto this adcnace varies from culture to culture)
Who are the perpetrators of Domestic Violence?
Older Men
Jealous men
Men who lose control of their spouse.
Men who lack material resources to retain spouse.

Who are Victims of Domestic Violence?
Women between 20-40 years of age (fertile years)
Assault in Humans and Chimps
The victim is not a stranger
Chimps
Like the human batterer the male chimp seeks to isolate and ctonrol a female who is known to him.
Assailant and victim are not strangers but members of the same community.

Humans
Among humans the relationship is much closer.
Unlike chumps men and women for pair bonds or stabel

Humans Human assaults occur when men and women are facing each other.
Males assulat their female partners in the region of the eyes nose and mouth.
Chimp
Chimps do not assulat facing each other, but on the back of the skull while females are fleeing.
Male chimps hit or bite the back of the females head (rodseth and novak)

Benefits to Woman Human face to face contact
Rodseth and Novak hypothesize that women fight face to face because w oman can defend herself and even retaliate againast a male. A woman can grad a man and use a knife to defend herself.
Men have a greater tendency of stiking any sex in the face
Men tend to strike opponents to damane the persobn face thus make them less attractive.
Men are able to cindine female structurally.

Claustration is the practice whereby men confine women. MATE GUARDING (Wilson and Daly)
Types of Claustration
Veils
Chaperonin
Claustration and Status of Women
According to Wilson and daly clasuse pratice are statu graded meaning the highe rht womans status the more restrictions put upon her.
Baboons mate guard their females at all times. Most importatnyl, female baboons will remain with an abusive male if he protects her and the offspring from other males. Similar to humans.
Solutions to Domestic Violence
According to Wilson and Daly, positive incentives might be more effective for men to keep their wives.
However wife beating often occurs to men who lose control of their spouses and lack the material to retsin her.

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