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Parabolas

In: Religion Topics

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Parábola, según su sentido griego, el termino parábole, sugiere una comparación, es decir, para significa al lado y bole echar. Este sentido comparativo aparece en los tres evangelios sinópticos sin embargo Juan utiliza otro termino, paroimia, es esta palabra también para significa al lado, pero oimai se traduce por suponer, figurar, pensar, y tradicionalmente se ha traducido en Reina Valera 1960 por alegoría y en Reina Valera Actualizada por figura. Se puede decir que según su sentido griego una parábola es lenguaje figurado que provoca una comparación con el fin de aclarar o iluminar una cosa o idea. A la hora de leer las parábolas se deben tener en cuenta tres cosas. La Historia fijándonos en el contexto histórico y social del momento. Procurando ver la parábola dentro del marco cultural del pueblo de Palestina en los tiempos de Jesús, sobre todo los modos y costumbres. Literaria viendo la parábola como una creación literaria que respeta las normas de composición literaria en cuanto a narrativa, alegoría, retórica, etc. sin caer en una lectura de las parábolas como tratados doctrinales de teología. Finalmente Hermenéutica intenta interpretar la parábola de forma correcta y aplicarla a nuestra realidad hoy. Por esto se puede considerar que las parábolas nos hablan de la intervención de Dios en la historia. Nos retan a dar una respuesta en arrepentimiento y fe, nos invitan a buscar el reino de Dios, por eso dicen que son evangelisticas. Las parábolas de Jesús son aquellas breves narraciones dichas por Jesús de Nazaret que encierran una educación moral y religiosa, revelando una verdad espiritual de forma comparativa. No son fábulas, pues en estas no intervienen personajes animales con características humanas pues se basan en hechos creíbles. Las parábolas se encuentran contenidas en los evangelios canónicos, aunque se pueden encontrar en los evangelios apócrifos, como el de Tomás y de Santiago. La finalidad de las parábolas de Jesús es enseñar como debe actuar una persona para entrar al Reino de los Cielos y, en su mayoría, revelan también sus misterios. En ocasiones Jesús usó las parábolas como armas dialécticas contra líderes religiosos y sociales, como por ejemplo la Parábola del fariseo y el publicano

Lucas 18:9-14 “ A algunos que, confiando en si mismos, se creían justos y que despreciaban a los demás, Jesús les contó esta parábola: Dos hombres subieron al templo a orar; uno era fariseo, y el otro, recaudador de impuestos. El fariseo se puso a orar consigo mismo: “Oh Dios, te doy gracias porque no soy como otros hombres ladrones, malhechores, adúlteros ni mucho menos como el recaudador de impuestos. Ayuno dos veces a la semana y doy la décima parte de todo lo que recibo.” En cambio, el recaudador de impuestos, que se había quedado a cierta distancia, ni siquiera se atrevía a alzar la vista al cielo, sino que se golpeaba el pecho y decía: “! Oh Dios, ten compasión de mi, que soy pecador!” Les digo que este, y no aquel, volvió a su casa justificado ante Dios. Pues todo el que a si mismo se enaltece será humillado, y el que se humilla será enaltecido.”

En la Biblia se encuentran los siguientes textos titulados Propósito de las Parábolas:

Mateo 13:10-17 “ Los discipulos se acercaron y le preguntaron: ¿ Por que le hablas a la gente en parábolas? A ustedes se les ha concedido conocer los secretos del reino de los cielos; pero a ellos no, Al que tiene, se le dará mas, y tendrá en abundancia. Al que no tiene, hasta lo poco que tiene se le quitara. Por eso les hablo a ellos en parábolas: Aunque miran, no ven; aunque oyen, no escuchan ni entienden. En ellos se cumple la profecía de Isaías: “Por mucho que oigan, no entenderán; por mucho que vean, no percibirán. Porque el corazón de este pueblo se ha vuelto insensible; se les han embotado los oídos, y se les han cerrado los ojos. De lo contrario, verían con los ojos, oirían con los oídos, entenderían con el corazón y se convertirían, y yo los sanaría.” Pero dichosos los ojos de ustedes porque ven, y sus oídos porque oyen. Porque les aseguro que muchos profetas y otros justos anhelaron ver lo que ustedes ven, pero no lo vieron; y oír lo que ustedes oyen, pero no lo oyeron.”

Marcos 4:10-12 “ Cuando se quedo solo, los doce y los que estaban alrededor de el le hicieron peguntas sobre las parábolas. A ustedes se les ha revelado el secreto del reino de Dios les contesto; pero a los de afuera todo les llega por medio de parábolas, para que “ por mucho que vean, no perciban; y por mucho que oigan, no entiendan; no sea que se conviertan y sean perdonados.” y

Lucas 8:9-10 “ Sus discipulos le preguntaron cual era el significado de esta parábola. A ustedes se les ha concedido que conozcan los secretos del reino de Dios les contesto; pero a los demás se les habla por medio de parábolas para que “ aunque miren, no vean; aunque oigan, no entiendan.”. Jesús dice que enseña usando parábolas para que comprendan su mensaje sólo aquellos que han aceptado a Dios en su corazón y para que los que tienen "endurecidos sus corazones" y han "cerrado sus ojos" no puedan entender. Por lo tanto comprender el mensaje de Jesús significaría ser un verdadero discípulo suyo y no entenderlo supone que no se está realmente comprometido con Él y por ende no podemos recibir su ayuda ni la de su mensaje. Existen algunos debates sobre si este es el significado original del uso de las parábolas o si en realidad fue agregado por Marcos para reforzar la fe de sus lectores, tal vez cuando se vio perseguido. Esta explicación parece ser esencial para comprender del todo el mensaje real de las parábolas de Jesús, ya que deja claro que es necesario tener fe en Él para entenderlas, o de otro modo se ven confusas. El enfoque principal de las parábolas de Jesús es el reino de los cielos.

Mateo 13:24 “ Jesús les contó otra parábola: El reino de los cielos es como un hombre que sembró buena semilla en su campo.”

Mateo 13:31 “Les contó otra parábola: El reino de los cielos es como un grano de mostaza que un hombre sembró en su campo.”

Mateo 13:44 “El reino de los cielos es como un tesoro escondido en un campo. Cuando un hombre lo descubrió, lo volvió a esconder, y lleno de alegría fue y vendió todo lo que tenia y compro ese campo.”

Mateo 18:23 “ Por eso el reino de los cielos se parece a un rey que quiso ajustar cuentas con sus siervos.” La razón por la cual Jesús siempre enseñaba con parábolas es porque buscaba que el pueblo entendiese los misterios del reino de los cielos, y para ello uso una costumbre típica del pueblo hebreo, enseñar mediante imágenes comunes a la gente, ilustraciones del día a día para poder aclarar el verdadero sentido de vivir según las exigencias del reino.
Salmos 78:2 “Mis labios pronunciaran parábolas y evocaran misterios de antaño,” .

Referencias:

1. Pérez Torres, Rubén. Al Dios no conocido.
2. Biblia Nueva Versión Internacional.

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