Free Essay

Paracetamol Poisoning

In: Science

Submitted By Mrdobson
Words 1128
Pages 5
SECTION 1. POISONING IN THE EMERGENCY SETTING

Definition

A poison is any substance which, when taken into the body in sufficient quantity, may either endanger life or seriously impair body functions (IHCD 1999).

Introduction

Poisons come in many forms and can enter the body in many ways: Inhalation – fumes, gases; Ingestion – liquids or solids by mouth; Injection – needles, animal and insect bites; Absorption – pesticides or herbicides through the skin and eyes.
In the field of accident and emergency we see cases of poisoning that are both accidental and intentional. A massive 85% of these cases involve just three types of drug: Paracetamol 45% Benzodiazepines 20% Antidepressants 20% (Daly; Harrison, 2001).

As the majority of our cases come from these non-corrosive types of poisons the author will concentrate only on overdoses of drugs, with the second section solely devoted to the most common of these; Paracetamol.

Clinical Signs of Poisoning

The majority of drugs effect the nervous system and produce some common signs: ▪ Slow, shallow respiration’s ▪ Lethargy and reduction in activity ▪ Vomiting and diarrhoea ▪ Loss of consciousness
Some drugs though, such as Paracetamol are asymptomatic during the early stages of poisoning.

Although in the majority of cases our treatment in the field for poisoning will be the same irrespective of the drug involved, certain signs can point to the type of drug taken. Below are some examples of these.

➢ Eyes: Pinpoint – opioids. Dilated – tricylics, cocaine. ➢ CNS Drowsiness – alcohol, sedatives, opioids, hypnotics. ➢ Confusion/Ataxia/Excitability – alcohol, tricyclics, antihistimines, salbutamol, solvents. ➢ Dystonia – metaclopramide, phenothiazenes ➢ Cardiac arrythmias – tricyclics, amphetamines, digoxin, blockers. ➢ Hypertension with tachycardia – amphetamines. ➢ Hypertension – sedatives, narcotics, hypnotics, tricyclics, alcohol. ➢ Sweating – salicylates (e.g. aspirin). ➢ Hyperventilation – salicylates, opioids, sedatives, hypnotics. ➢ Hypothermia – amphetamines, salicylates, ecstacy, alcohol. (BAEM, 1997)

MANAGEMENT

✓ Ensure open airway ✓ Administer 100% oxygen ✓ Assist ventilation if necessary ✓ Carry out CPR if required ✓ Do not induce vomiting, if pt does vomit keep sample for hospital analysis ✓ Provide milk or water to dilute and delay absorption if the poison is unknown. This must not delay transport to hospital. ✓ Place in recovery position if unconscious. ✓ Keep pt still and quiet to reduce pulse rate ✓ Not allowing pt to walk (IHCD, 1997)
It would also be sensible to attach the pt to an ECG. If paramedic available the pt could be cannulated for IV access. If opiate overdose is evident, the paramedic should administer naloxone titrated against response up to 1600mcg.
Remember to treat other associated conditions, such as hypothermia and hypotension following WAST guidelines.

As part of good management it is important to gain an accurate history. This should include what was taken, the time it was taken and the amount. The pt statement as to these should be accepted with caution. They may give false information (intentionally or otherwise), therefore any circumstantial evidence should be looked for: i.e. empty bottles/wrappers, loose tablets. All should be retained and taken to hospital with the pt. It is also sometimes difficult to get history from children. In paediatric cases suspect diagnosis of overdose from abnormal behaviour, convulsions, ataxia and GI disturbance (BAEM, 1997).

SECTION 2. PARACETAMOL POISONING.

Introduction

Paracetamol is the most widely used pharmaceutical analgesic and antipyretic drug in the world, and the most common pharmaceutical associated with both accidental and intentional poisoning (Farrell, 2002). The drug is also known as Acetimophen and
N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP).

Harrison/Daly; state that there are 70,000 cases of APAP poisoning cases in the UK every year. Out of these 70,000 approximately 200 patients die due to liver damage.

Pathophysiology

The maximum daily dose of APAP is 4g in adults and 90mg/kg in children. The dose at which paracetamol becomes toxic seems to be a matter of debate. Farrell suggests that a toxic dose in adults is 7g, while Harrison/Daly state that a dose of 10-15g is needed to produce severe liver damage. They do agree though that in adults ingestion of 150mg/kg in one dose is a toxic amount.

Taken in normal amounts, APAP is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine. In the liver it is metabolised to non-toxic agents, these are then eliminated in the urine. In acute or accumulated overdose the normal metabolic method is saturated, therefore the APAP is metabolised by the liver in to a toxic agent; N-acetyl-p-benzoquinine-imine (NAPQI). In small amounts this toxin binds with other agents in the body to be rapidly removed from the system. In excess NAPQI cannot be removed so readily, and so it is free to bind to vital proteins and the lipid bilayer of hepatocytes, resulting in necrosis in the liver.

Mortality:
With supportive care and antidotal therapy the majority of patients survive.
Fewer than 4% of patients who suffer hepatoxicity develop liver failure; fatalities or liver transplant occur in less than half of these patients (Farrell, 2002).

Patients with malnutrition, aids, alcohol abuse or anorexia nervosa are all at increased risk from APAP overdose. While paediatrics under 5 appear to fare better than adults after APAP poisoning.

Signs and Symptoms

These vary depending on the phase of toxicity; they can therefore give an estimate of time since ingestion.

Phase 1 (0-24 hours)

• Asymptomatic • Malaise • Diaphoresis • Nausea • Vomiting (very low incidence, Ferren; 2002)

Phase 2 (18-72 hours)

• Right upper abdo pain • Tachycardia • Hypotension

Phase 3 (72-96 hours)

• Tender hepatic edge • Jaundice • GI bleed • Hepatic encephalopathy • Renal failure • Fatality

Treatment

Care prior to reaching Accident and Emergency is the same as mentioned in Section 1 under management.

Once in the A&E department there are several methods of treatment.

• Supportive therapy: IV fluids, oxygen therapy, cardiac monitoring.

• Gastric decontamination: If the patient presents with 1-2hours post ingestion oralactivated charcoal is given to absorb the drug. If an inhibiting co-ingestant may have been involved it can be administered later.

Oral activated charcoal should also be administered if the time of ingestion is unknown. There is a minimal benefit if post ingestion is greater than 4 hours.

• Administer N-acetylcysteine (NAC): This is the antidote also known as Parvolex. It works by a number of protective mechanisms. Early after overdose it will prevent the formation and accumulation of the toxin NAPQI. The drug also function as an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant and has positive inotropic and vasodilating effects, improving microcirculation and oxygen delivery to tissues. Vasodilating effects decrease morbidity even when hepatoxicity is well established.

NAC is most effective when administered within 8 hours of ingestion. (Farrell, 2002)

REFERENCES

Farrell, SE. 2002. Toxicity, Acetaminophen. EMedicine Journal. (vol 3, No 1)

Harrison R; Daly, L. 2001. Acute Medical Emergencies. A Nursing guide. Churchill/livingstone.

Herren, K. 2002. Vomiting In Paracetamol Overdose. EMJ. (June Ed, p.248)

Oxford. 1998. Concise Medical Dictionary (5th Ed). Oxford University Press.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Pestel Analysis of Pharmaceutical Industry

...org by Queen Mary & Westfield on 03/14/11. For personal use only. POISONING L. F. Prescott and J. A. J. H Critchley Regional Poisoning Treatment Centre, and University Department of Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology, The Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, EH3 9YW, Scotland INTRODUCTION Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, 4-hydroxyacetani­ lide) is a non-prescription antipyretic analgesic that was first introduced into clinical medicine towards the end of the last century (1). It attracted little interest until it was found to be the major metabolite of both acetani­ lide and phenacetin (2, 3) and in recent years it has become an increasingly popular substitute for aspirin. Acetaminophen seemed to be remarkably safe when taken in recommended doses and formal toxicity studies were never carried out. In 1964 Eder (4) first reported liver damage in cats given 25-50 mglKg of acetaminophen daily for 26 weeks, and two years later Boyd & Bereczky described extensive hepatic necrosis in acute toxicity studies in rats (5). At the same time liver damage was first reported in man following acetaminophen overdosage (6, 7). The use of acetaminophen for self-poisoning has since increased dramatically in many countries and acute hepatic necrosis, sometimes fatal, has attracted much attention as the major complication (8-16). CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS AND COMPLICATIONS OF ACETAMINOPHEN POISONING Apart from nausea and vomiting there are no specific early signs......

Words: 7818 - Pages: 32

Free Essay

Pain Medications: the Way We Cope

...Pain Medications: The Way We Cope All of us have lived with pain sometime in our lives. We would all like to have a magic pill to take all the pain away, but in modern medicine there isn’t anything like that. There are several different types of medication that can help. Depending on the pain severity, medications vary from your nonnarcotic analgesic drugs which include (salicylate analgesic drugs, nonsalicylate analgesic drugs, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and narcotic analgesic drugs. In the following paragraphs I am going to explain the pain medication I am on for my Rheumatoid Arthritis which is Tramadol. Another name for it is Ultram and it falls under the category of a nonsalicylate analgesic drug. When you are in pain, the one thing you want is the relief to be fast. Tramadol delivers. It has been on the market for years, offering fast relief to moderate to severe pain. How come it is so effective? It is because it is a synthetic form of the more powerful opiate drugs. This gives you most of the pain relief without the side effects. Tramadol works by having your body change the way it senses pain. It does this by inhibiting your neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin, while it also “activates narcotic receptors in the brain and spinal cord to relieve pain.” (Turley, 2010) Tramadol binds to opioid receptors in the brain, which are receptors that transmit the sensation of pain throughout the body. My Rheumatologist started me on......

Words: 736 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Health Care Matrix

...University of Phoenix Material Health Care Marketing Information Matrix There are a variety of information sources that may be used by consumers to obtain information relating to the marketing of health care products and services. The following matrix is intended to assist you in organizing the information contained in these sources. Consider the types of marketing messages that these information sources may contain and the reliability of the marketing message. Following the provided example, identify three examples of your own. |Source of Health Information |Type of Health-Related |Marketing Messages |How the Consumer May Assess the Accuracy or | | |Information | |Reliability of the Marketing Messages | |List the information source, such as Internet websites, WebMD, MedLine, or the news media. |Type of information |List at least one |List one approach the consumer may use to | | |provided by the source |marketing message being |verify the accuracy of the marketing message.| | | ...

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Brain Headaches

...Headache and Migraine Effects on Brain People have always wondered why they have headaches and migraines. With all the different causes of headaches, will a headache enable your brain functions? However there are many different reasons you can have headaches and migraines. Researchers say migraines and headaches start in brain stem. Female having headaches can come from there hormones, and estrogen. There is a type of headache called clusters headaches which make your eyes hurt. The hippocampus controls this type of headache. Also smoking and drinking can trigger this headache. Most people take over the counter drugs to treat a headache. If you use this method you have to take drug when first signal the brain sends. You can also take a nap to let your brain cure the headache inflammation. Another way is to put warm towel on your head so it cools brain nerves. This helps relieves muscles in your head which helps the headache. Migraines have effects on the brain stem. If migraines are painful enough it can cause brain stem infractions. Although migraines cannot cause permanent damage to the brain. Exercise that causes adrenaline can help make migraines go away. Headaches and migraines can be caused by cerebrovascular accidents. People don’t know what yet exactly causes headaches. It may be caused by nerve cells on the brain. It also can be over stimulated blood vessels, which leads to inflammation. Estrogen and progesterone can cause migraine and headache in women.......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Mississippi Childhood Obesity

...Is Tylenol Really Safe 1 Is Tylenol Really Safe Pallis Wilson Professor King Devry University 2 Is Tylenol Really Safe Is Tylenol really safe? Tylenol an over-the-counter pain killer developed by McNeil Laboratories and acquired by Johnson and Johnson in the 1950’s. Its active ingredient consists of acetaminophen. Acetaminophen used to relieve headaches, muscle aches, menstrual periods, colds, sore throats, toothaches, backaches, and reactions to vaccination shots. Acetaminophen is in a class of medication called analgesics (pain reliever) and antipyretics (fever reducer). It is a known fact the drug gives greater results after surgery than before surgery. Tylenol purpose is to change the way the body senses pain and by cooling the body. However, Tylenol is the most highly recommended over the counter drug by physicians. Is Tylenol really safe? Being the most highly recommended over the counter drug, it does have risky side effects when taken for an extended amount of time. Many people from all ages use this medication to relieve pain. I for one feel the medication is quite helpful when experiencing some discomfort from pain. Any drug you may consume could possibly lead to side affect, especially when unaware of unknown allergies. Studies have shown due to its active drug Acetaminophen (Tylenol) has caused bodily, rashes, hives, itching, difficulty breathing and swallow, even death in the 1980’s due to evidence of the compound cyanide, yet......

Words: 573 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Chronic Arthritis in the Elderly

...Chronic Arthritis in the Elderly Management 6/1/2013 By: Kendra Chapman Topic: Management of Chronic Arthritis in the Elderly University Of Phoenix HCA/220 Date: June 1, 2013 By: Kendra When reading this article on the Management of Chronic Arthritis in the elderly I found that when you hit the half way mark that arthritis is one of the main diseases that they might have to face and is also one of the number one causes that concerns the elderly. Arthritis is inflammation of one or more joints. A joint is the area where two bones meet. It affects the musculoskeletal system, especially the joints and it is the main cause of disability among people over fifty-five years of age in the industrialized countries. There also can be causes of chronic pain; advanced age increases the risk of certain health disorders that causes chronic pain. For older adults who live independently chronic pain can have devastating and wide-spread effects, threating the quality of life, imposing steep economics and social costs and also leading to personal strain. Compliance with drug therapy can be a challenge. Many elderly mistakenly think they should take analgesics only when pain becomes unbearable, and some fear they will become addicted to them. But the emphasize the importance of taking pain medication to keep ahead of pain rather than waiting until the pain becomes unbearable. When they use Nonpharmacologic pain management they become more open to using this method to......

Words: 461 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Suplly Deman Chihuahua

...JOHNSON & JOHNSON AND THE TYLENOL POISONING A bottle of Tylenol is a common feature of any medicine cabinet as a safe and reliable painkiller, but in the fall of 1982, this household brand was driven to the point of near extinction along with the fortunes of parent company Johnson & Johnson as a result of a product tampering case that has never been solved. On September 29, 1982, seven people in the Chicago area died after taking Extra-Strength Tylenol capsules that had been laced with cyanide. Investigators later determined that the bottles of Tylenol had been purchased or shoplifted from seven or eight drugstores and supermarkets and then replaced on shelves after the capsules in the bottle had been removed, emptied of their acetaminophen powder, and filled with cyanide. The motive for the killings was never established, although a grudge against Johnson & Johnson or the retail chains selling the brand was suspected. A man called James Lewis attempted to profit from the event by sending an extortion letter to Johnson & Johnson, presumably inspired by the $100,000 reward the company had posted, but the police dismissed him as a serious suspect. He was jailed for 13 years for the extortion but never charged with the murders. The response of Johnson & Johnson to the potential destruction of its most profitable product line has since become business legend and is taught today as a classic case study in crisis management at universities all over the world. Company chairman......

Words: 1373 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Pain Medication

...Funmi Ajakaiye Application Paper 2 Pain Medication Pain is an unpleasant feeling which signals to an injury. Pain can be of different forms. It can be acute or chronic pain. Each and every person has a different tolerance level towards pain. It can be treated in different ways, but the relief from the pain differs from person to person. There are different kinds of medications that a person can take, which includes prescription or non-prescription medications. All medications regardless of what they are or what they do should be taken with caution. Non-prescription medications include “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including Tylenol, Excedrin, Ibuprofen, Motrin, Aleve, Advil, etc. Then you have prescription medications which are Corticosteroids, Opioids, Antidepressants, Anticonvulsants (anti-seizure medications) and many others”. These can be used to get rid of the common headache, arthritis, or muscle and joint pain. In some cases it may take weeks before a specific medication starts to work, therefore making a person turn to another option (WebMD, 2008).      Morphine is a narcotic pain drug indicated for the relief of pain in patients who require opioid analgesics for more than a few days. Morphine interacts predominantly with the opioid mu-receptor. “These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the human brain, with high densities in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas.......

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

"Otc" over the Counter, Which Is the Best Otc Pain Killer of Choice

...“OTC” The Ideal Choice Abstract: This paper will focus on comparing the positives and negatives of taking 3 OTC painkillers, Motrin, Tylenol, and Bayer, and will determine which of these is the safest, most beneficial, OTC painkiller. Sources include FDA Reports, a research study, manufacturer’s information and other medical documentation. Nikkos Jackson GE117 Composition 1 It’s 3:15a.m., and you just woke up with a pounding headache. You are running a slight fever, and all you want to do is go to bed. You go into your bathroom cabinet to retrieve some medicine, and in front of you sit Motrin, Tylenol, and Bayer. Which do you choose? What will eliminate all of your symptoms? What is the safest OTC pain reliever that you can take? These are just a few of the questions you may have when deciding which OTC pain reliever is the right choice for you. Although, Motrin, Tylenol, and Bayer serve similar purposes, there are many differences in each drug that makes them affect your body differently, including active ingredients, dosages, and side effects. Motrin is a general use pain reliever and fever reducer. This drug is intended to relieve fever, minor aches and pains throughout the body, as well as headache pain. The active ingredient in Motrin is Ibuprofen. This pain reliever is taken orally, and comes in several different forms. The original form is a tablet, but there have been other forms introduced such as the capsule, and gel capsule. It is recommended that this......

Words: 1429 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Fever Management

...MANAGEMENT OF THE CHILD WITH FEVER Aim To manage the symptoms of fever so as to reduce the child's discomfort. Key points 1. Fever is a sign of illness/inflammation. Uncomplicated fever is relatively harmless, and is fact an important immunologic defence mechanism 2. The cause of the fever should be the focus of treatment. Indications to intervene 1. The intervention has the potential to increase the child’s comfort level (or decrease their discomfort). 2. The purpose of intervening can be clearly identified. 3. Reduction of parental anxiety could arise from the intervention. 4. Any harm that might result from intervening (e.g. increased discomfort or risk of liver damage) has been balanced against the expected benefits. 5. Symptoms associated with fever which may respond to nursing intervention include: • Flushing of the skin • Skin feels warm to touch • Thirst • Sweating • Headache • Weakness and aching of body parts • Irritability or restlessness • Dehydration associated with vomiting and or diarrhoea 6. In the case of high temperatures disorientation and convulsions may also be observed PROCEDURE To enable the effectiveness of interventions to be assessed, a baseline temperature should be taken before implementing any care. 1. Assess the need to intervene Interventions should be directed toward reducing the child’s discomfort, not the fever. Interventions should always be assessed in terms of potential risks. 2. In the first instance: • • • Remove excess clothing or......

Words: 1062 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Production and Manufacture of Aspirin

...The production and manufacture of Aspirin Aspirin is one of the most consumed painkillers created up to this date due to its reliability and low expense. It is often used to relieve minor aches and pains, reduce fever and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Due to its wide range of uses, the demand for this pharmaceutical is very high. As a result, manufacturers who produce this drug must be efficient in order to reduce the time taken to produce this drug and produce the in very high quantities. Industrial production of Aspirin is dependent on the company producing the drug; however the general method of production is known as slugging or dry-granulation. In this method, corn starch is mixed with pure water and is then heated and stirred till a transparent paste is formed. This paste is then mixed with lubricant and the active ingredient, which is acetylsalicylic acid in a machine called and Glenn mixer. This removes any air trapped in the mixture. This mixture is then separated into units known as slugs. Next, large batches of these slugs are filtered through a machine called a Fitzpatrick Mill. The remaining lubricant is then added to the mixture which is then blended in a rotary granulator. Finally, the mixture is compressed into tablets by a rotary tablet machine. The mixture is fed into a number of dye cavities on a steel plate. The mixture is then punched by two punches above and below the dye cavities. The punch above the dye cavity compresses the mixture into a...

Words: 735 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Migraine Stopper Glass

...Migraine Stopper-Band HealthCare Technology Innovation HEALTH CARE OPRTNS/INFO TECHNOLOGY Technology Created by SDSP INC Table of contents: 1. Disease description and unmet needs 2 2. Current Treatments 2 3. Migraine Stopper-Band 3 4. Clincal and Economic benefits 3 5. Pricing Model 4 6. Market Access and Expansion Strategies 4 7. References 5 Migraine and other benign recurrent headache disorders are a major public health problem.They are associated with substantial personal suffering, disabil- ity, and societal expense. 1 In the United States, a number of public health surveillance systems and pri- vately funded studies have collected information on the prevalence, impact, and treatment of headache and migraine. Disease Description and Unmet needs Migraine and other benign recurrent headaches are a major public health problem. They are associated with substantial personal suffering, disability and societal expense. Migraine is considered a chronic disorder with episodic attacks [1], with two major subtypes differentiated based on attack frequency. Episodic migraine is characterized by attacks that occur fewer than 15 days per month. Chronic migraine is broadly defined by the presence of migraine in a person with headaches on at least 15 days per month. Diagnosis of primary headache disorders is primarily based on the presence, frequency, and severity of clinical features used......

Words: 601 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research

...| 2014 | | Assignment 1 Advanced Marketing | [The Johnson & Johnson Tylenol case study] | | Before the crisis, Tylenol was the most successful over-the-counter product in the United States with over one hundred million users. Tylenol was responsible for 19 percent of Johnson & Johnson's corporate profits during the first 3 quarters of 1982. Tylenol accounted for 13 percent of Johnson & Johnson's year-to-year sales growth and 33 percent of the company's year-to-year profit growth. Tylenol was the absolute leader in the painkiller field accounting for a 37 percent market share, outselling the next four leading painkillers combined, including Anacin, Bayer, Bufferin, and Excedrin. During the fall of 1982, for reasons not known, a malevolent person or persons, presumably unknown, replaced Tylenol Extra-Strength capsules with cyanide-laced capsules, resealed the packages, and deposited them on the shelves of at least a half-dozen or so pharmacies, and food stores in the Chicago area. The poison capsules were purchased, and seven unsuspecting people died a horrible death. Johnson & Johnson, parent company of McNeil Consumer Products Company which makes Tylenol, suddenly, and with no warning, had to explain to the world why its trusted product was suddenly killing people. Robert Andrews, assistant director for public relations at Johnson & Johnson recalls how the company reacted in the first days of the crisis: "We got a call from a......

Words: 673 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

On Listening

...I have nothing to live for.” Helen spoke softly. A bright and articulate woman at 86, this was the first time in 20 years that I had heard these words from her. She suffered from chronic osteoarthritic pain in her joints, and fatigue and dizziness related to difficult-to-control congestive heart failure. Her nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had been withdrawn because of heart failure and her cardiac medications resulted in symptomatic hypotension. Her medication regimen involved a delicate trade-off between effective treatment and adverse effects. “I can no longer travel. I can hardly walk. My kids are grown and have moved away. They don't need me any more. I sometimes wonder why we are trying so hard to keep me around. My life has no purpose, no meaning.” Helen looked away tearfully. Silence. My resident Lisa appeared uncomfortable. “Yes you do! You have purpose,” Lisa chirped. “Tell Dr. Lee what's happening this afternoon! Who's coming this afternoon?” Helen smiled. “My newest grandchild from Denmark. My son will be visiting this afternoon.” She paused. “I do look forward to holding him. But … they don't need me. All my life I've cared for others. I can't do that anymore.” Lisa's words reminded me of some of my own, perhaps 20 years ago. I can well remember the discomfort of wanting to fix problems for which there were no fixable solutions, of wanting to provide comfort to the suffering patient but not knowing the “right” words to use. Those awkward periods of......

Words: 877 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

First Aid

...Splinters / Foreign Objects in the Body You can usually safely remove a small foreign object ,such as a wood splinter, thorn, fiberglass or glass that's just under the surface of the skin: • Wash your hands and clean the area well with soap and water. • Use tweezers cleaned with rubbing alcohol to remove the object. A magnifying glass may help you see better. • If the object is under the surface of the skin, sterilize a clean, sharp needle by wiping it with rubbing alcohol. Use the needle to gently lift or break the skin over the object. Lift the tip of the object out and grasp it with your tweezers. • Squeeze the wound gently to allow bleeding to wash out germs. • Wash the area again and pat dry. Apply an antibiotic ointment. Lacerations (Cuts) * Wash your hands. This helps avoid infection. Also put on disposable protective gloves if they're available. Stop the bleeding. Minor cuts and scrapes usually stop bleeding on their own. If not, apply gentle pressure with a sterile bandage or clean cloth and elevate the wound. * Clean the wound. Use clear water to rinse the wound. Keep soap out of the wound, as it can cause irritation. If dirt or debris remains in the wound after washing, use tweezers cleaned with alcohol to remove the particles. * Apply an antibiotic. Apply a thin layer of an antibiotic cream or ointment to help keep the surface moist. These products don't make the wound heal faster. But they...

Words: 1436 - Pages: 6