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Words 399

Pages 2

Parametric and Nonparametric Data Identification Assignment

Label each of the following situations “P” if it is an example of parametric data or “NP” if it is an example of nonparametric data.

1. A manufacturer produces a batch of memory chips (RAM) and measures the mean-time-between-failures (MTBF). The manufacturer then changes a manufacturing process and produces another batch and again measures the MTBF. Did the change to the process improve the MTBF? __NP__

2. From a written survey where the respondents were asked to rate an individual on a scale of 1 to 5, one group rated an individual a 3.7, another group rated the individual a 4.3. Is the difference statistically significant? __P__

1. A catering company is buying equipment in order to set up their own store. They have a choice of two ovens that they can purchase for the store. The used oven is $100 less than the new oven, but its heating calibration is off by 20 degrees. Which one is a better buy for them? _NP___

2. Jim Smith owns three real estate offices in Anytown. He has decided to open one more office, but he cannot decide between Hometown or Uptown as the town where he wants to locate. He will be comparing the mean number of homes sold per real estate agent, and the mean commission percentage earned by agents in the two towns to make his decision. __P__

3. A study to determine if job absenteeism is distributed evenly over the week. __NP__

4. Mel’s Diner has been surveying their customers for the past couple of years about their dining experience in the restaurant. The survey uses a scale of one to five, five being best to indicate customer satisfaction. Mel’s customer satisfaction averaged 2.5 last year, but this year it is 2.9. Is this difference statistically significant? __P__

5. Sally’s Beauty Salon just opened for business. Sally assigns the…...

...DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PARAMETRIC AND NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS AND DISCUSS WHEN TO USE EACH METHOD IN ANALYSIS OF DATA The word parametric comes from “metric” meaning to measure, and “para” meaning beside or closely related. The combined term refers to the assumptions about the population from which the measurements were obtained. The two classes of statistical tests are: Parametric Statistics Nonparametric Statistics i. Parametric Statistics: Parametric statistics are statistical tests for population parameters such as means, variances and proportions that involve assumptions about the populations from which the samples were selected. These assumptions include: Observations must be independent i.e. when values in one set are different and unrelated from another set Observations must be drawn from normally distributed populations The populations must have the same variances The sample must be random Use of Parametric Statistics in Data Analysis: Parametric tests are used when the above parametric assumptions are met. Parametric tests are also used to analyze interval and ratio data. Interval data are numerical data in which we not only know the order but also the exact differences between the values e.g. the time interval between the starts of years 1981 and 1982 is the same as that between 1983 and 1984 which is 365 days. Ratio data on the other hand describe measurements with attributes that have the qualities of nominal, ordinal and interval data......

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... Lilian Otieno, Resident Lecturer I am tasked to distinguish between parametric and non-parametric statistics and explain when to use each method in analysis of data. I shall first seek to define what parametric and non-parametric statistics mean and then compare and contrast them in the analysis of data. Parametric statistics is a branch of statistics that assumes that the data has come from a type of probability distribution and makes inferences about the parameters of the distribution. Most well-known elementary statistical methods are parametric. (According to Wikipedia, the online dictionary). In statistical analysis, parametric significance tests are only valid if certain assumptions are met. If they are not, nonparametric tests can be used. A parameter is a measure of an entire population, such as the mean height of every man in London. In statistical analysis, one practically never has measurements from a whole population and has to infer the characteristics of the population from a sample. Generally speaking parametric methods make more assumptions than non-parametric methods. If those extra assumptions are correct, parametric methods can produce more accurate and precise estimates. They are said to have more statistical power. However, if assumptions are incorrect, parametric methods can be very misleading. For that reason they are often not considered robust. On the other hand, parametric formulae are often simpler to write down and faster to compute. In some,...

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...Issues and Problems Faced by Non Profit Organizations: Funding for Non Profit Organizations “Funding for Non-Profit Organizations” Introduction In general, non-profit organizations conduct business activities and actually raise revenues but their surplus funds are not distributed to owners or shareholders. They operate with the help of some staff who are, although paid salaries, do not earn as much as those who are employed in business corporations that operate for profit. There are also volunteers who provide manpower, skills and talents but are usually paid minimally or get no payment at all. As such, non-profit organizations are exempted from income and property taxation. While businesses and corporations are a source of funding, volunteerism renders the necessary fuel to keep non-profit organizations moving. By and large, non-profit organizations operate relying heavily on volunteer workers and generating funds through the assistance of business benefactors and foundations as well as through fund-raising activities. The number of people or staff that they maintain varies according to the size of the organization, but one thing that can be said about most of them is that they are generally understaffed primarily because of limited funds. DISCUSSION There are many existing international, national and local non-profit organizations. One common thread about them is that they exist for a cause,......

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...0.015707963 0.001570796 sample_mean_vars #0.132826885 0.015370697 0.001603544 *from Part 2 #The two types of variances seem to yield very similar values with very slight discrepancies. #variance of sample mean n_values=c(10,100,1000) var_sample.mean=1/n_values #0.100 0.010 0.001 #Compared to the variance of sample means, the variance of sample medians are greater in value on average. #Part 4 n=1000 sample_mean = mean(rnorm(n,1, 1)) pboot_vars=numeric() n_values = c(10,100,1000) for (i in 1:3) { pboot_vars[i] = var(replicate(B, median((rnorm(n_values[i],sample_mean, 1))))) } pboot_vars #0.131888264 0.016435213 0.001627244 sample_med_vars #0.132826885 0.015370697 0.001603544 *from Part 2 #Comparing the 2 results, we observe that #the parametric boostrap variances arevery similar to the sample median variances obtained from part 2. #Part 5 pivotalCIs = numeric() n_values = c(10,100,1000) for (i in 1:3) { pboot.meds=replicate(B, median(rnorm(n_values[i],sample_mean, 1))) pboot.percentile=quantile(pboot.meds, prob = c(.025, .975)) pboot.hat = median(rnorm(n_values[i],sample_mean,1)) pboot.CI = paste(2*pboot.hat -pboot.percentile[2], 2*pboot.hat pboot.percentile[1] ) pivotalCIs[i]=pboot.CI } pivotalCIs #("0.316571394209908, 1.74238781441729") #n=10 ("0.587680704469166, 1.07943416747069") #n=100 ("0.892268791169873, 1.04776628329487") #n=1000 CIs ("0.265111943430679 1.69377252141066") #n=10 ("0.757126210069845 1.24312238725003") #n=100 ("0.922210181934582 1.07918375732663")......

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...article was published October 1958 in The Ecological Society of America 2. Find five terms that you do not know the meaning of in the paper. DEFINE these terms Non parametric statistics: is defined to be a function on a sample that has no dependency on a parameter, and whose interpretation does not depend on the population fitting any parametrized distributions. Statistics based on the ranks of observations are one example of such statistics and these play a central role in many non-parametric approaches. Stippled Area: is the creation of a pattern simulating varying degrees of solidity or shading by using small dots. Such a pattern may occur in nature and these effects are frequently emulated by artists. The term stipple can also apply to a random pattern of small depressions applied to a surface to increase the friction and make the surface easier to grip. Hawking: is a feeding strategy in birds which involves catching flying insects in the air. The term usually refers to a technique of sallying out from a perch to snatch an insect and then returning to the same or a different perch. This technique is called “fly catching” and some birds known for it are several families of “flycatchers”, for example Old World flycatchers, Monarch flycatchers, and Tyrant flycatchers. Allopatric: Occurring in separate, non-overlapping geographic areas. Allopatric populations of related organisms are unable to interbreed because of geographic separation. The development......

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...RES 342 Week 4 Individual Assignment Parametric and Nonparametric Data Identification Assignment Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser https://hwguiders.com/downloads/res-342-week-4-individual-assignment-parametric-nonparametric-data-identification-assignment/ For More Courses and Exams use this form ( http://hwguiders.com/contact-us/ ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar (http://hwguiders.com/ ) Resources: Parametric and Nonparametric Data Identification Assignment Complete the University Material, Parametric and Nonparametric Data Identification Assignment located on your student website. RES 342 Week 4 Individual Assignment Parametric and Nonparametric Data Identification Assignment Get Tutorial by Clicking on the link below or Copy Paste Link in Your Browser https://hwguiders.com/downloads/res-342-week-4-individual-assignment-parametric-nonparametric-data-identification-assignment/ For More Courses and Exams use this form ( http://hwguiders.com/contact-us/ ) Feel Free to Search your Class through Our Product Categories or From Our Search Bar (http://hwguiders.com/ ) Resources: Parametric and Nonparametric Data Identification Assignment Complete the University Material, Parametric and Nonparametric Data Identification Assignment located on your student website. RES 342 Week 4 Individual Assignment Parametric and Nonparametric Data......

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...Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides Mark A. Foster1 , Amy C. Turner2 , Reza Salem1 , Michal Lipson2 , and Alexander L. Gaeta1 1 School 2 School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 alg3@cornell.edu Abstract: We demonstrate highly broad-band frequency conversion via four-wave mixing in silicon nanowaveguides. Through appropriate engineering of the waveguide dimensions, conversion bandwidths greater than 150 nm are achieved and peak conversion efﬁciencies of -9.6 dB are demonstrated. Furthermore, utilizing fourth-order dispersion, wavelength conversion across four telecommunication bands from 1477 nm (S-band) to 1672 nm (U-band) is demonstrated with an efﬁciency of -12 dB. © 2007 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (190.4380) Four-wave mixing; (130.5990) Semiconductors; (130.4310) Nonlinear; (130.3060) Infrared References and links 1. H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µ m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002). 2. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003). 3. T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G.......

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...6 - NONPARAMETRIC TESTS FOR COMPARING TWO POPULATIONS In situations where the normality of the population(s) is suspect or the sample sizes are so small that checking normality is not really feasible, it is sometimes preferable to use nonparametric tests to make inferences about “average” value. Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test (a.k.a. Mann-Whitney U Test) This test is an alternative to the two-sample t-test for comparing the “average” value of two populations where the samples from each population are taken independently. The hypotheses tested can be stated as follows: [pic] The distribution of population 1 and population 2 are identical. If the populations are symmetric (but not necessarily normal) the null hypothesis can be expressed in terms of the population medians as: [pic] [pic] The distribution of population 1 and population 2 are different. (two-tailed) [pic] or [pic] The distribution of population 1 is shifted to the right of the distribution for population 2, i.e. the population 1 values are generally larger than the population 2 values. (right-tailed) [pic] or [pic] The distribution of population 1 is shifted to the left of the distribution for population 2, i.e. the population 1 values are generally smaller than the population 2 values. (left-tailed) [pic] The tests statistic is based on the sum of the ranks assigned to...

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...How to Value Tangible Non Current Assets How to value tangible non current assets “Valuing tangible non-current assets is subjective and complex and can therefore result in different companies valuing similar assets very differently.” Discuss this statement with specific regard to your knowledge of how tangible non-current assets discussion. Valuing tangible non-current assets can be subjective and complicated. This essay explains it from two aspects, costs of PPE and depreciation respectively, under the international accounting standards. Property, plant and equipment are the representative of tangible non-current assets which commonly are held by business entity. When to value assets the definition from the outset that should be understood is carrying account. According to IAS16, carrying amount is defined as” the amount at which an asset is recognized after deducting any accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses”. Therefore, subjectivity of valuing tangible non-current assets can be attributed to recognized cost, accumulated depreciation. From the outset the cost should be measured after assets are recognized. This is the first step that confirms initial costs. When buying same assets, the costs can be totally different. For example, the items of assets can have many spare parts which may be minor or major for corporation usage. However, if the corporation defines that this spare parts is important-major spare parts, this amount should......

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...BTM8107-8 Week 7 Activity Apply Non-Parametric Tests Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/btm8107-8-week-7-activity-apply-non-parametric-tests/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com You will submit one Word document. In the first part your assignment document, provide short answers to the following questions (250 wordsor less). Part A. Questions about non-parametric procedures 1. What are the most common reasons you would select a non-parametric test over the parametric alternative? 2. Discuss the issue of statistical power in non-parametric tests (as compared to their parametric counterparts). Which type tends to be more powerful? Why? 3. For each of the following parametric tests, identify the appropriate non-parametric counterpart: a. Dependent t test b. Independent samples t test c. Repeated measures ANOVA (one-variable) d. One-way ANOVA (independent) e. Pearson Correlation Part B. SPSS Assignment In this part of the assignment you will perform the non-parametric version of the tests you used in Week 4. In each case, assume that youopted to use the non-parametric equivalent rather than the parametric test. Using the data files from earlier assignment, complete the following tests and paste your results into a Word document: 1. Week 4 Activity 6, Part A: non-parametric version of the dependent t test 2. Week 4 Activity6, Part B: non-parametric version of the independent t test 3. 3Week 4 Activity6, Part C: non-parametric version of the single factor......

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...BTM8107-8 Week 7 Activity Apply Non-Parametric Tests Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/btm8107-8-week-7-activity-apply-non-parametric-tests/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com You will submit one Word document. In the first part your assignment document, provide short answers to the following questions (250 wordsor less). Part A. Questions about non-parametric procedures 1. What are the most common reasons you would select a non-parametric test over the parametric alternative? 2. Discuss the issue of statistical power in non-parametric tests (as compared to their parametric counterparts). Which type tends to be more powerful? Why? 3. For each of the following parametric tests, identify the appropriate non-parametric counterpart: a. Dependent t test b. Independent samples t test c. Repeated measures ANOVA (one-variable) d. One-way ANOVA (independent) e. Pearson Correlation Part B. SPSS Assignment In this part of the assignment you will perform the non-parametric version of the tests you used in Week 4. In each case, assume that youopted to use the non-parametric equivalent rather than the parametric test. Using the data files from earlier assignment, complete the following tests and paste your results into a Word document: 1. Week 4 Activity 6, Part A: non-parametric version of the dependent t test 2. Week 4 Activity6, Part B: non-parametric version of the independent t test 3. 3Week 4 Activity6, Part C: non-parametric version of the single factor......

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...BTM8107-8 Week 7 Activity Apply Non-Parametric Tests Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/btm8107-8-week-7-activity-apply-non-parametric-tests/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com You will submit one Word document. In the first part your assignment document, provide short answers to the following questions (250 wordsor less). Part A. Questions about non-parametric procedures 1. What are the most common reasons you would select a non-parametric test over the parametric alternative? 2. Discuss the issue of statistical power in non-parametric tests (as compared to their parametric counterparts). Which type tends to be more powerful? Why? 3. For each of the following parametric tests, identify the appropriate non-parametric counterpart: a. Dependent t test b. Independent samples t test c. Repeated measures ANOVA (one-variable) d. One-way ANOVA (independent) e. Pearson Correlation Part B. SPSS Assignment In this part of the assignment you will perform the non-parametric version of the tests you used in Week 4. In each case, assume that youopted to use the non-parametric equivalent rather than the parametric test. Using the data files from earlier assignment, complete the following tests and paste your results into a Word document: 1. Week 4 Activity 6, Part A: non-parametric version of the dependent t test 2. Week 4 Activity6, Part B: non-parametric version of the independent t test 3. 3Week 4 Activity6, Part C: non-parametric version of the single factor......

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

...Label each of the following situations “P” if it is an example of parametric data or “NP” if it is an example of nonparametric data. 1. A manufacturer produces a batch of memory chips (RAM) and measures the mean-time-between-failures (MTBF). The manufacturer then changes a manufacturing process and produces another batch and again measures the MTBF. Did the change to the process improve the MTBF? __P__ 2. From a written survey where the respondents were asked to rate an individual on a scale of 1 to 5, one group rated an individual a 3.7, another group rated the individual a 4.3. Is the difference statistically significant? __NP__ 3. A catering company is buying equipment in order to set up their own store. They have a choice of two ovens that they can purchase for the store. The used oven is $100 less than the new oven, but its heating calibration is off by 20 degrees. Which one is a better buy for them? __P__ 4. Jim Smith owns three real estate offices in Anytown. He has decided to open one more office, but he cannot decide between Hometown or Uptown as the town where he wants to locate. He will be comparing the mean number of homes sold per real estate agent, and the mean commission percentage earned by agents in the two towns to make his decision. __P__ 5. A study to determine if job absenteeism is distributed evenly over the week. __NP__ 6. Mel’s Diner has been surveying their customers for the past couple of years about their dining experience in the......

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... University of Phoenix Material Parametric and Nonparametric Data Identification Assignment Label each of the following situations “P” if it is an example of parametric data or “NP” if it is an example of nonparametric data. 1. A manufacturer produces a batch of memory chips (RAM) and measures the mean-time-between-failures (MTBF). The manufacturer then changes a manufacturing process and produces another batch and again measures the MTBF. Did the change to the process improve the MTBF? _P___ 2. From a written survey where the respondents were asked to rate an individual on a scale of 1 to 5, one group rated an individual a 3.7, another group rated the individual a 4.3. Is the difference statistically significant? __NP__ 1. A catering company is buying equipment in order to set up their own store. They have a choice of two ovens that they can purchase for the store. The used oven is $100 less than the new oven, but its heating calibration is off by 20 degrees. Which one is a better buy for them? _NP___ 2. Jim Smith owns three real estate offices in Anytown. He has decided to open one more office, but he cannot decide between Hometown or Uptown as the town where he wants to locate. He will be comparing the mean number of homes sold per real estate agent, and the mean commission percentage earned by agents in the two towns to make his decision. _NP__ 3. A study to determine if job absenteeism is distributed evenly over the week. _P___ 4. Mel’s Diner has been surveying......

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