Submitted By Hugol09

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Words 399

Pages 2

Parametric and Nonparametric Data Identification Assignment

Label each of the following situations “P” if it is an example of parametric data or “NP” if it is an example of nonparametric data.

1. A manufacturer produces a batch of memory chips (RAM) and measures the mean-time-between-failures (MTBF). The manufacturer then changes a manufacturing process and produces another batch and again measures the MTBF. Did the change to the process improve the MTBF? __NP__

2. From a written survey where the respondents were asked to rate an individual on a scale of 1 to 5, one group rated an individual a 3.7, another group rated the individual a 4.3. Is the difference statistically significant? __P__

1. A catering company is buying equipment in order to set up their own store. They have a choice of two ovens that they can purchase for the store. The used oven is $100 less than the new oven, but its heating calibration is off by 20 degrees. Which one is a better buy for them? _NP___

2. Jim Smith owns three real estate offices in Anytown. He has decided to open one more office, but he cannot decide between Hometown or Uptown as the town where he wants to locate. He will be comparing the mean number of homes sold per real estate agent, and the mean commission percentage earned by agents in the two towns to make his decision. __P__

3. A study to determine if job absenteeism is distributed evenly over the week. __NP__

4. Mel’s Diner has been surveying their customers for the past couple of years about their dining experience in the restaurant. The survey uses a scale of one to five, five being best to indicate customer satisfaction. Mel’s customer satisfaction averaged 2.5 last year, but this year it is 2.9. Is this difference statistically significant? __P__

5. Sally’s Beauty Salon just opened for business. Sally assigns the…...

...Martin Luther King once said that “non-violence is a just and powerful weapon; a sword that heals; it cuts without wounding and ennobles the man who wields it.” Nov violence is more effective than violent confrontations in the fight for justice, fairness and equality. The use of violence to fight for justice in most cases escalate to the point where the fighters remaining agenda is vengeance, victory and self-defense. When violence is the tool for getting justice, any moral arguments of the people fighting for justice are rendered irrelevant. Having used violent means, the opponent is justified to retaliate violently. The irony in all these is that each side of the divide is usually able to argue as to who started the violence (Miller 2005). The use of violence usually leads to the loss of innocent lives, the destruction of property, and in most instances, do not achieve the objective that it set out to achieve. Non-violence methods, such as those castigated by Martin Luther King and Mahatma Gandhi try to avoid this trap by evading any violent confrontations. Far from being termed as cowardice, non-violence requires tremendous self-control, courage and a ready heart to endure pain, suffering and death. Non-violent strategies dwell on the strength that they reduce the moral legitimacy of those who persist in their use of violence against non-violence. This loss of legitimacy is a double sword in that it leads to efforts in coalition building that eventually leads to the...

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...DISTINGUISH BETWEEN PARAMETRIC AND NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS AND DISCUSS WHEN TO USE EACH METHOD IN ANALYSIS OF DATA The word parametric comes from “metric” meaning to measure, and “para” meaning beside or closely related. The combined term refers to the assumptions about the population from which the measurements were obtained. The two classes of statistical tests are: Parametric Statistics Nonparametric Statistics i. Parametric Statistics: Parametric statistics are statistical tests for population parameters such as means, variances and proportions that involve assumptions about the populations from which the samples were selected. These assumptions include: Observations must be independent i.e. when values in one set are different and unrelated from another set Observations must be drawn from normally distributed populations The populations must have the same variances The sample must be random Use of Parametric Statistics in Data Analysis: Parametric tests are used when the above parametric assumptions are met. Parametric tests are also used to analyze interval and ratio data. Interval data are numerical data in which we not only know the order but also the exact differences between the values e.g. the time interval between the starts of years 1981 and 1982 is the same as that between 1983 and 1984 which is 365 days. Ratio data on the other hand describe measurements with attributes that have the qualities of nominal, ordinal and interval data...

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... UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND EXTERNAL STUDIES SCHOOL OF CONTINUING AND DISTANCE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF EXTRA-MURAL STUDIES. NYERI EXTRAMURAL CENTRE MASTER IN PROJECT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT COURSE: LDP 603: RESEARCH METHODS ASSIGNMENT STUDENT; GITHUNDI BEDAN. ADMISSION REF-27086/2013 LECTURER; Dr. Lilian Otieno, Resident Lecturer I am tasked to distinguish between parametric and non-parametric statistics and explain when to use each method in analysis of data. I shall first seek to define what parametric and non-parametric statistics mean and then compare and contrast them in the analysis of data. Parametric statistics is a branch of statistics that assumes that the data has come from a type of probability distribution and makes inferences about the parameters of the distribution. Most well-known elementary statistical methods are parametric. (According to Wikipedia, the online dictionary). In statistical analysis, parametric significance tests are only valid if certain assumptions are met. If they are not, nonparametric tests can be used. A parameter is a measure of an entire population, such as the mean height of every man in London. In statistical analysis, one practically never has measurements from a whole population and has to infer the characteristics of the population from a sample. Generally speaking parametric methods make more assumptions than non-parametric methods. If those extra assumptions are correct, parametric methods can...

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...Non-profit medical group Saint Thomas Physician Services (STPS) is a medical group based in Nashville, TN. STPS forms part of the Saint Thomas Health Network (STHS), which in turn belongs to one of the largest Catholic and non-profit systems in the United States, Ascension Health. Sources of revenue STPS is made of approximately 150 physicians who practice under one of the main two groups housed under STPS, Baptist Healthcare Group (BHG) and Saint Thomas Heart (STHT). While BHG houses physicians with different specialties and STHT strictly cardiologists, they both tend to the same type of patient, primarily the indigent. Although as a non-profit organization, STPS main mission is to serve those who are poor, the majority of its revenue still comes from third party payers (Barton, 2010). Financial information As a non-for-profit entity, STPS currently offers a 40% discount to all of their uninsured patients and if the patient is able to pay the balance at the time of service, he/she will receive an additional 20% discount. In addition to the previously mentioned incentives, STPS does have a charity program in place. In order for a patient to qualify for financial assistance he/she must have a credit score under 650 and fall below the federal poverty level. With this in mind, the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), who is responsible for the all the financial activities of the entity (Gapenski, 2012) requires reports that will help him project the dollar amount that...

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...#Problem 2 #Part 2 B=1000 sample_med_vars=numeric() CIs = character() n_values = c(10,100,1000) for (i in 1:3) { sample_meds=replicate(B, median(rnorm(n_values[i],1, 1))) sample_med_vars[i] = var(sample_meds) CIs[i] = paste(mean(sample_meds)-1.96*sd(sample_meds), mean(sample_meds)+1.96*sd(sample_meds)) } sample_med_vars #0.132826885 0.015370697 0.001603544 CIs ("0.265111943430679 1.69377252141066") #n=10 ("0.757126210069845 1.24312238725003") #n=100 ("0.922210181934582 1.07918375732663") #n=1000 #Part 3 theoretical_vars=numeric() n_values=c(10,100,1000) for (i in 1:3){ var_samplemed= (pi*(1)^2)/(2*n_values[i]) theoretical_vars[i] = var_samplemed } theoretical_vars #0.157079633 0.015707963 0.001570796 sample_mean_vars #0.132826885 0.015370697 0.001603544 *from Part 2 #The two types of variances seem to yield very similar values with very slight discrepancies. #variance of sample mean n_values=c(10,100,1000) var_sample.mean=1/n_values #0.100 0.010 0.001 #Compared to the variance of sample means, the variance of sample medians are greater in value on average. #Part 4 n=1000 sample_mean = mean(rnorm(n,1, 1)) pboot_vars=numeric() n_values = c(10,100,1000) for (i in 1:3) { pboot_vars[i] = var(replicate(B, median((rnorm(n_values[i],sample_mean, 1))))) } pboot_vars #0.131888264 0.016435213 0.001627244 sample_med_vars #0.132826885 0.015370697 0.001603544 *from Part 2 #Comparing the 2 results, we observe that #the parametric boostrap variances arevery similar to the sample median...

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... process, silicon has recently emerged as a highly attractive material for nonlinear photonic integration. Compact all-optical devices based on twophoton absorption [1–3], free-carrier dispersion [4, 5], the Raman effect [6–12], and the Kerr effect [1,2,13–16] have all been demonstrated in silicon. For parametric processes such as selfphase modulation [1, 13, 14, 17, 18], cross-phase modulation [15, 19, 20], and FWM [21–29] the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) [1, 30–32] is a critical parameter, which deﬁnes conditions, for example, for solitonic or non-solitonic behavior and phase-matching [33]. In fact, a pulsed experiment using anomalous-GVD in appropriately scaled silicon waveguides recently demonstrated broad-bandwidth parametric gain via FWM [26]. In experiments, optimization of continuous-wave (CW) FWM in silicon has focused on the waveguide length and free carrierlifetime [23–25,27,29], but little attention has been paid to optimizing phase-matching through GVD [22, 26, 28]. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate highly broad-band frequency conversion using FWM in silicon nanowavegudies. We demonstrate 3-dB conversion bandwidths as large as 150 nm with peak conversion efﬁciencies of -9.6 dB. Utilizing a waveguide with low third-order dispersion (TOD) and low GVD, we are able to tune the pump throughout the C-band while maintaining conversion bandwidths > 100 nm. Pumping close to the zero-GVD point of one waveguide, we ﬁnd the phase-matching bandwidth......

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...6 - NONPARAMETRIC TESTS FOR COMPARING TWO POPULATIONS In situations where the normality of the population(s) is suspect or the sample sizes are so small that checking normality is not really feasible, it is sometimes preferable to use nonparametric tests to make inferences about “average” value. Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test (a.k.a. Mann-Whitney U Test) This test is an alternative to the two-sample t-test for comparing the “average” value of two populations where the samples from each population are taken independently. The hypotheses tested can be stated as follows: [pic] The distribution of population 1 and population 2 are identical. If the populations are symmetric (but not necessarily normal) the null hypothesis can be expressed in terms of the population medians as: [pic] [pic] The distribution of population 1 and population 2 are different. (two-tailed) [pic] or [pic] The distribution of population 1 is shifted to the right of the distribution for population 2, i.e. the population 1 values are generally larger than the population 2 values. (right-tailed) [pic] or [pic] The distribution of population 1 is shifted to the left of the distribution for population 2, i.e. the population 1 values are generally smaller than the population 2 values. (left-tailed) [pic] The tests statistic is based on the sum of the ranks assigned...

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...BTM8107-8 Week 7 Activity Apply Non-Parametric Tests Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/btm8107-8-week-7-activity-apply-non-parametric-tests/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com You will submit one Word document. In the first part your assignment document, provide short answers to the following questions (250 wordsor less). Part A. Questions about non-parametric procedures 1. What are the most common reasons you would select a non-parametric test over the parametric alternative? 2. Discuss the issue of statistical power in non-parametric tests (as compared to their parametric counterparts). Which type tends to be more powerful? Why? 3. For each of the following parametric tests, identify the appropriate non-parametric counterpart: a. Dependent t test b. Independent samples t test c. Repeated measures ANOVA (one-variable) d. One-way ANOVA (independent) e. Pearson Correlation Part B. SPSS Assignment In this part of the assignment you will perform the non-parametric version of the tests you used in Week 4. In each case, assume that youopted to use the non-parametric equivalent rather than the parametric test. Using the data files from earlier assignment, complete the following tests and paste your results into a Word document: 1. Week 4 Activity 6, Part A: non-parametric version of the dependent t test 2. Week 4 Activity6, Part B: non-parametric version of the independent t test 3. 3Week 4 Activity6, Part C: non-parametric version of the single...

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...They have the two characteristics of public goods. Non-excludability. Once you provide flood defences for a city, everyone in that city will benefit and be protected. (People will be protected whether or not they have have contributed towards the cost). Non-rivalry. If you enjoy a city defended from rising flood waters, it doesn’t reduce the amount of flood defences for other people. (It’s not like eating emergency rations, which do reduce the amount available for other people.) Failure of the free market Difficulty in provision. There is little, if any, incentive for a firm to provide flood defences through charging local residents. There is a big free rider problem. People on flood plains may have a vested interest in better flood defences, but there is temptation to avoid paying and hoping someone else will pay. Another difficulty is that flooding has no predictability. Building roads (a quasi public good) gives a predictable return. Spending money on police and justice also give a predictable return. But, you could spend millions on flood defences and not need it for 30 years. Another difficulty is that flood defences can be quite difficult to build. Dredging rivers done annually is expensive, though at least manegable. But, other flood defences may be more difficult, such as building relief canals to take excess water. This may need government help to purchase the necessary land. Occasions where public good can be provided by the free market Despite the...

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...BTM8107-8 Week 7 Activity Apply Non-Parametric Tests Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/btm8107-8-week-7-activity-apply-non-parametric-tests/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com You will submit one Word document. In the first part your assignment document, provide short answers to the following questions (250 wordsor less). Part A. Questions about non-parametric procedures 1. What are the most common reasons you would select a non-parametric test over the parametric alternative? 2. Discuss the issue of statistical power in non-parametric tests (as compared to their parametric counterparts). Which type tends to be more powerful? Why? 3. For each of the following parametric tests, identify the appropriate non-parametric counterpart: a. Dependent t test b. Independent samples t test c. Repeated measures ANOVA (one-variable) d. One-way ANOVA (independent) e. Pearson Correlation Part B. SPSS Assignment In this part of the assignment you will perform the non-parametric version of the tests you used in Week 4. In each case, assume that youopted to use the non-parametric equivalent rather than the parametric test. Using the data files from earlier assignment, complete the following tests and paste your results into a Word document: 1. Week 4 Activity 6, Part A: non-parametric version of the dependent t test 2. Week 4 Activity6, Part B: non-parametric version of the independent t test 3. 3Week 4 Activity6, Part C: non-parametric version of the single...

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...One day I hope to be able to create my own non-profit. The goal for this organization would be to open and maintain teaching hospitals in developing countries that suffer largely from the “brain- drain”. The brain drain is a phenomenon in which intelligent people that want an education leave their home country in search of a better life and prosperous education. These people would greatly benefit their native country if they could learn and practice medicine (often the occupation of choice) there instead of going to Europe or America where there is already an abundance of medical care facilitators. This is non-profit is different from organizations that already exist because existing programs bring in volunteers who come in and take up jobs from native people and as soon as resources are gone have to leave. This is unsustainable in many areas and often leaves the cities in more need then before outside sources had come in. This is not a “feel-good” organization; it is not supposed to make outsiders feel like they are helping and being good people. It is supposed to help the people that already have the ambition to practice and study medicine, be able to accomplish that with residencies and then inspire other people in the area to do the same. The first part of Drucker’s Managing the Nonprofit Organization explains what makes up a good mission and the benefits of sticking true to it. The mission statement for the organization that I have yet to create will...

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...BTM8107-8 Week 7 Activity Apply Non-Parametric Tests Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/btm8107-8-week-7-activity-apply-non-parametric-tests/ Or Visit www.hwcampus.com You will submit one Word document. In the first part your assignment document, provide short answers to the following questions (250 wordsor less). Part A. Questions about non-parametric procedures 1. What are the most common reasons you would select a non-parametric test over the parametric alternative? 2. Discuss the issue of statistical power in non-parametric tests (as compared to their parametric counterparts). Which type tends to be more powerful? Why? 3. For each of the following parametric tests, identify the appropriate non-parametric counterpart: a. Dependent t test b. Independent samples t test c. Repeated measures ANOVA (one-variable) d. One-way ANOVA (independent) e. Pearson Correlation Part B. SPSS Assignment In this part of the assignment you will perform the non-parametric version of the tests you used in Week 4. In each case, assume that youopted to use the non-parametric equivalent rather than the parametric test. Using the data files from earlier assignment, complete the following tests and paste your results into a Word document: 1. Week 4 Activity 6, Part A: non-parametric version of the dependent t test 2. Week 4 Activity6, Part B: non-parametric version of the independent t test 3. 3Week 4 Activity6, Part C: non-parametric version of the single...

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

Words: 471 - Pages: 2

...There has been a dramatic increase since the past half century mothers has entered the workforce and take the roles of mother and father. In today’s society both parents take on the role of being a breadwinner and those we are seeking the roles to better their education. Having full time work and childcare assistance is the hardest to come by. 60 % of children ages from 0-6 and 50 % of children ages 6-14 only receive part time or full time alternative other than from their parents. The statistics raises the question to researchers who whether or not children in day care setting are at any advantages or disadvantages because of the time they spend most time away from home. Describing three different kinds of non-parental childcare and analyze the influences it may have in a child’s psychological, social and cognitive development. With today’s economy, many parents cannot afford childcare so they seeking for at homecare with a family member. The child may or may not being getting the same behavior or activities that a school or day care will provides. There are some studies about children care that indicated a childcare center they are more likely would do better when they start school and develops their social skills with others. Social skills is a main factor for a child development, they need to have the knowledge of what is acceptable and what is not. Many parents do feel that they children are a lot safer with a family member than with a person they do not know much...

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...Challenges of Managing Non-Profit Organizations There are different challenges a non-profit organization face, although I believe that these challenges are also faced by for profit organization at the same similar level. Trust is an issue that both non-profit and for profit organizations encounter at some point in their business, therefore transparency is very important. Transparency warrants organizations to provide clear statements of where their money goes, how it is utilized, and how it is making the organization accomplish their goals. These are not the only factors that are essential to make the stakeholders or anyone interested in the cause to trust the organization. For a non-profit organization trust is a key element to engage volunteers, donors and other business; without trust chances are that the organization might fail to achieve their mission by raising funds. Trust is acquire by performing the goals you have set for your mission and not deviating from it, at least not too far from achieving the organizations goals either for non-profit or for profit organization. It is also important to have a plan (Taylor-Hamm) in case there is a catastrophic event that might jeopardize your organization, it will help you foresee adverse situations and you will be better prepared in case your first plan fails. Performance challenges are faced in the same manner on both types of organizations non-profit and for profit organization. However they might be measured in a...

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