Premium Essay

Paraphrasing

In: Other Topics

Submitted By ayko
Words 1542
Pages 7
HIGHER SCORE
TOEFL, TOEIC and IELTS classes for serious students

How to Paraphrase Effectively
Introduction
“Paraphrase” is a verb which means to re-write a phrase or sentence with the same meaning but using different words. Paraphrasing is a very important skill for most English tests, including TOEFL iBT, IELTS and TOEIC Speaking and Writing. In TOEFL iBT, for instance, paraphrasing is an important skill in the reading section, in the listening section and, above all, in the speaking and writing sections of the test. Here is a quick example of paraphrasing using a phrase from the paragraph above: 1. "Paraphrasing is a very important skill for most English tests." 2. "For many tests of English, being skilful at paraphrasing is extremely important." Notice how the paraphrased version (sentence 2) changes some vocabulary (e.g., “extremely” for “very”), changes the word order (e.g., “tests of English” for “English tests”) and changes the grammar (e.g., “being skilful at paraphrasing…” for “Paraphrasing is a very important skill…”) These are the three main ways to paraphrase and by combining all of these methods, you can achieve clear and accurate paraphrased sentences. The next sections will look at these methods in more detail.

Paraphrasing Method 1: Use Different Vocabulary with the Same Meaning
Most students try to use this method, but actually it can be difficult to use. The reason is that although English has many synonyms such as ‘large’ or ‘big’, it is unusual for these words to have exactly the same meaning. So, if you try to use a lot of synonyms when you paraphrase, you might produce sentences that are not natural English. Unnatural sentences are likely to reduce your score more than small mistakes because the reader may not understand what you are trying to say. For example, look at this original sentence and two paraphrased equivalents: 1. "It can...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Paraphrasing

...Paraphrasing Laura Davenport Walden University October 3, 2010 Paraphrasing There is agreement among scholarly writers that paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must be attributed to the original source (Scholarly Writing, 2013). Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. In this paper the following passage will be paraphrased. Original Passage "A good writer is one you can read without breaking a sweat. If you want a workout, you don’t lift a book you lift weights. Yet were brainwashed to believe that the more brilliant the writer, the tougher the going." "The truth is that the reader is always right. Chances are if something you’re reading doesn’t make sense, it’s not your fault it’s the writers. And if something you write doesn’t get your point across, it’s probably not the reader’s fault it’s yours. Too many readers are intimidated and humbled by what they can’t understand and in some cases that are precisely the effect the writer is after. But confusion is not complexity; it’s just confusion. A venerable tradition, dating back to the ancient Greek orators, teaches that if you don’t know what you’re talking about, just ratchet up the level of difficulty and no one will ever know." "Don’t confuse simplicity, though, with simplemindedness. A good writer can express an extremely......

Words: 552 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Tips on Paraphrasing

...Paraphrasing Within academic writing it is advised that a combination of both direct and indirect quotes (paraphrasing) are used. Often it is better to paraphrase what an author has said as opposed to using lengthy direct quotations. But what does it mean ‘to paraphrase’? According to the MacMillan English Dictionary (MacMillan, 2012:online), to paraphrase is “to express what someone else has said or written using different words, especially in order to make it shorter or clearer.” When you paraphrase another author's writing you rewrite their argument using your own words, phrasing and interpreting it in your own way. How to paraphrase • change the vocabulary • reorganise the structure of the argument • cite the author directly, For example the direct quote from Halliday (1978:1) “A child creates, first his child tongue, then his mother tongue, in interaction with that little coterie of people who constitute his meaning group …” • Halliday (1978) claims that children develop their language by interacting with those around them • OR • Children develop their language by interaction with those around them (Halliday, 1978). Some helpful guidelines • As you study and write your notes do not copy chunks of text directly out of the book, instead always write your study notes in your own words. Remember to note which book or article your notes were drawn from for your reference information. •......

Words: 1514 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Paraphrasing Interview

...In the interview, I raised a proper question to Catherine about her satisfactory with her career as a pharmacist. It leads to her responses to reflect what she cares about in her career. I was also successful to ask both open and closed questions to acquire information. My verbal and non-verbal prompts during the interview provided an encouraging and acceptance environment for Catherine to express her feeling freely and comfortably. Paraphrasing and summarizing technique that I used in the interview play a significant role. I used few times to paraphrasing what Catherine said and to summarizing her situation and struggles. After the summary, she showed that she was understood and looked forward to explore the solution. It puts us on the same page....

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Plagiarism and Paraphrasing

...Plagiarism and Paraphrasing Step 1: Identify Plagiarism Plagiarism v. Paraphrasing Plagiarism is the claiming of another’s work as one’s own new and original idea. According to the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), “paraphrasing is the summarizing or rearranging the order of a sentence or changing of some words.” In both cases, plagiarism and paraphrasing, one must give credit to the originating author of the work being presented. Plagiarism is detectable more easily now in the twenty first century with the use of computers and programs that will scan a document for plagiarized material. Another way to detect plagiarism is, if available, to have the original document at hand and view side by side the two documents. Review of Example Provided In the example provided, the writer of the new document, to be submitted, did plagiarize by paraphrasing a portion of the sentencing he/she wrote. For instance, it may have been easier to just quote the author of the original text. Crossen (1994) wrote, “Yet unless there is evidence of misconduct … it is very difficult to discover and virtually impossible to prove that a piece of biomedical research has been tainted by conflict of interest.” The student paraphrased his writing with, “But it is hard to know if a conflict of interest between doctors, researchers, and the drug company stockholders has tainted the results.” By utilizing wording from the original text as one’s own......

Words: 941 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Plagiarism and Paraphrasing

...Plagiarism and Paraphrasing Rebecca Beck Walden University Plagiarism and Paraphrasing According to Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, to “plagiarize” is “to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own, to use (another's production) without crediting the source, to commit literary theft, to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source” (p. 946) and to “paraphrase” is “a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form, the use or process of paraphrasing in studying or teaching composition” (p. 899). One can write in a scholarly voice while maintaining academic integrity through conscientious and meticulous efforts. Effective paraphrasing, proper citation of sources, and citation of one’s self are three ways students can insure their academic integrity. Paraphrasing isn’t simply changing a few words in the information you are trying to convey. To paraphrase effectively, one must restate the information in such a way that it is in your own words. Sometimes, you may have to borrow words or phrases because the author worded them in such a way that you can’t really convey the message without using them. It is okay to do this as long as you give proper credit to the author and their work. Using quotation marks will show that you took that information directly from the original piece of work, and properly citing the information will give credibility to your writing while giving......

Words: 961 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Summating and Paraphrasing

...Summarization and Paraphrasing June 15, 2016 BSHS/385 Introduction Presented is a transcript demonstrating the techniques of summary and paraphrasing. Counselors can use this two technique to encourage participation and as a foundation of trust. When clients acknowledge the effort the counselor has placed in listening; a trusting relationship can begin. Paraphrasing provides simpler repetition of what the client shares in a way that promotes continuous conversation and openness. Summarizing gives both the counselor and the client the opportunity to make any correction on anything discussed, as well as it provides the counselor with an overall story. Transcript: Client (J.S), 88 years of age, is diagnosed with ovarian cancer and is terminally ill. The prognosis is 4-5 months. The client is alert and oriented to self and place. The client is currently living in a nursing facility. The client spouse (R.S) currently resides close by. An interview is conducted with client J.S in references to her condition. Interviewer: Hello Mrs. J. S. my name is Mercedes and I want to thank you for coming today. I see that you look a little bit nervous; are you nervous? J.S: Yes, I am a bit nervous. Interviewer: Can you tell me why you are nervous? J.S: I am afraid. I have a terminal illness, and the doctors are saying I only have about 4-5 months to live. I don’t know what to expect. Interviewer: I see. Are you saying that you are frightened by the news, and you......

Words: 931 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

The Importance Of Paraphrasing A Microbiome

...When a baby is born via Cesarean section, they do not get their mother’s natural vaginal microbiota that can help lead to a healthier life. This bacterium helps develop newborn’s own healthy microbiome that they need to function normally and fight infections. Babies born via C-section are at increased risk of obesity, asthma and autoimmune conditions, which are associated with changes in the microbiome. One solution to replace this bacterium is through a technique called vaginal seeding. Paraphrasing Julie Lamppa, who is a Certified Nursing Midwife working for Mayo Clinic— vaginal seeding is the practice of placing gauze inside the vagina of a woman who is having a C-section. After birth, the gauze is then used to wipe the baby’s mouth, face...

Words: 348 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Prewriting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing

...Prewriting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing Jonathan Carroll December 21, 2013 Part 1: Background of the Problem * As a result of underage college drinking men and women are having unprotected sex while under the influence of alcohol; in some cases they acquire a sexually transmitted disease including herpes and Aids etc. * Violent crimes are being commended on university campuses, because of alcohol use. * Excessive drinking can result in memory loss and could be a gateway to drugs such as marijuana etc. Needs * Preventing alcohol abuse will reduce automobile crashes resulting in death within teens. * Preventing teen drinking will help kids with long lasting health issues that will occur if the teen drinks alcohol excessively. * Preventing alcohol abuse teens will most likely succeed in life. Our Proposed Ideas * Try to avoid bars and people that drink on a regular basis. * Acquire new friends that don’t drink alcohol. * Avoid people that try to peer pressure you to consume alcohol. Benefits * Preventing alcohol use will lower crime rate on campuses across the nation. * Preventing alcohol abuse will help student increase their study behaviors by attending more classes and focusing while in class. * Preventing alcohol abuse on campus will help universities control student deaths related to underage drinking. Implementation * Discuss with your young teens about what alcohol can do to you. * Give teens......

Words: 536 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Harvard

...Supporting innovation in teaching, learning and learner development The Green Room, Library rm 217   www.roehampton.ac.uk/Learningservices         Contents  INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 1  DISCLAIMER ...................................................................................................................................................... 1  ABOUT THIS GUIDE ........................................................................................................................................... 1  WHAT IS REFERENCING, AND WHY SHOULD I DO IT? .................................................................................... 1  PARAPHRASING ................................................................................................................................................. 2  QUOTING ........................................................................................................................................................... 3  CITATIONS  ........................................................................................................................................................ 4  . BIBLIOGRAPHIES OR CITED WORKS/REFERENCE LIST ................................................................................. 4 ......

Words: 23719 - Pages: 95

Free Essay

Personal Development

...on, there will be an explanation on some of the skills below. An example of one of these skills is self-reflection, it is a process that helps students review how they are developing and where there is room for improvement. PDP in Gsm enables students to be better learners, it also teaches them how to reach their full potential. Paraphrasing can be defined as “Expressing the meaning of (something written or spoken) using different words, especially to achieve greater clarity” (Oxford dictionary, 2015), It is a literary tool that helps a student use their own words to convey or incorporate another person’s idea or message into their work without plagiarism. Some other uses of paraphrasing are. Paraphrasing is necessary for academic writing, Universities students need paraphrasing to produce work in that level(Lebedev, 2014).Paraphrasing is a very useful for academic purposes as it shows an understanding of the material and it also shows the student is able to integrate others ideas into their writing. Paraphrasing enhances a learners understanding of English syntax’s, as it requires playing around with the original passage (Lebedev, 2014).Paraphrasing increases a student skill, as it forces the student to use their imagination to recreate and retell the original passage,...

Words: 1415 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Brain

...THIRD PERSON | MAY USE FIRST, SECOND OR THIRD PERSON | AVOID ADDRESSING READERS USING THE SECOND PERSON | MAY ADDRESS READERS USING SECOND PERSON PRONOUNS | AVOID ABBREVIATIONS | MAY USE ABBREVIATIONS | PASSIVE VOICE | ACTIVE VOICE | PARAPHRASING AND SUMMARIZING The terms paraphrasing and summarizing often confuse students of English. This is not surprising since the two mean very similar things with just a slight difference. First off, what are paraphrasing and summarizing? Paraphrasing and summarizing are both indispensable writing tools. They are both techniques of incorporating other writers’ works or ideas into your writing using your own words. Although a writer must always use his/her own ideas when writing, sometimes it becomes necessary to use other writers’ thoughts and concepts. This may be due to one or more of the following reasons: • To provide support to your own ideas • To give reasons of why you agree or disagree with something • To give depth to your writing • To refer to something that led to your ideas • To give a point of view which is different from yours   These same reasons for paraphrasing and summarizing are the cause of the confusion between the two. So what is the difference then? Paraphrasing is re-writing another writer’s words or ideas in your own words without altering the meaning.  The paraphrase is about the same length as the original since the purpose is to rephrase without leaving out anything, and not to shorten.......

Words: 446 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Wk 2 Discussion

...natural it becomes. (Laureate Education, 2010d). Micro skills One micro skill I would use is encouraging. Ivey, Bradford, and Zalaquett (2016) write that the encouraging micro skill is to encourage with short responses that help the client keep talking. (Ivey, Bradford, & Zalaquett, 2016). These responses can be verbal or nonverbal. (Ivey, Bradford, et. al, 2016). I would also use paraphrasing in my counseling sessions. Paraphrasing is described by Ivey, Bradford, et. al, as to shorten or clarify the essence of what has just been said, but be sure to use the client’s main words when you paraphrase. (Ivey, Bradford, et. al, 2016). Paraphrases are often fed back to the client in a questioning tone of voice. (Ivey, Bradford, et. al, 2016). By being encouraging it will help the client to elaborate on the topic which will help me understand more about the client’s situation and hopefully build trust in the therapeutic relationship. (Ivey, Bradford, et. al, 2016). Paraphrasing will help build the therapeutic relationship because the client will feel heard. (Ivey, Bradford, et. al, 2016). Paraphrasing will also help the client...

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Writing an Essay: the College Way

...different techniques of writing a professional essay, like the differences between quoting, paraphrasing and summarizing. In an essay, the student must use the correct types of citation required and know the importance of citing sources properly and the consequences of citing improperly. Many of the courses at the college level require students to write an essay at one point or another. In the process of writing these essays, students will often use quotations to reinforce the argument or position presented in the essay. Quotations must be worded exactly as extracted from its source, and credit must always be given where it’s due. However, sometimes students may use paraphrasing as another way to support an idea. Paraphrasing is basically taking the information from a chosen source and expressing it in one’s own words instead of just repeating it word by word. On another note, summarizing will also be used whilst writing an essay. Instead of including an entire article to back up one’s position, a student can summarize that article by stating the most essential ideas portrayed in a concise manner. It is also a way to go over all the important ideas discussed in the student’s essay and come up with a clear and broad conclusion in order for the reader to grasp the most essential message from the essay. Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing require different types of citations. For paraphrasing and summarizing, one must only cite the...

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Plagiarism

...Research Skills: Citing for Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing It is no secret that the internet has made a lot of things easier for the modern student. Research no longer involves card catalogs at libraries and the frustration of not being able to find certain academic articles. Paper writing happens almost exclusively on laptops and computers, and citing the research is as easy as pushing a button. Still, it is important to know the basics of research: the difference between quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing; the type of citation for each of these and why properly citing is important; and finally, the consequences of improper citations. Quotations, according to Purdue Owl, “must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author” (Driscoll). These are not to be overused, as they are directly lifted from the original text. They should be in quotes – which indicate that the words are attributed to an author other than the paper writer – and the name of the author should follow in parenthesis if operating in MLA format. Either way, the author must be credited on a bibliography or works cited page. Paraphrasing is the smallest departure from the original quote. It is basically putting one’s own spin on the material. Purdue Owl calls defines paraphrasing as “putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be......

Words: 648 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Avoiding Plagarism

...giving credit for the works that are not your own. 2. What elements of writing need to be addressed to ensure academic honesty? 3. The importance of telling the reader where your information is from when you paraphrasing or quoting someone else. 4. The support that a tutor, editor, or proofreader can bring to the process. 5. A conclusion that reflects your perspective after completing the assignment. Avoiding Unintentional Plagiarism After reading the article by R.L. Foster avoiding unintentional plagiarism, I will be discussing the issues of paraphrasing and plagiarism. It is important to avoid plagiarism because it is important to give credit to the original authors, people who show academic honesty are trusted by their peers and professors, and people who make the effort to avoid plagiarism gain writing skills. R.L. Foster says the “following are the three common pitfalls.” 1. Inadequately Citing Original Work Because It Would Require Multiple Citations. This is when several sentences are needed to describe another’s ideas; it seem redundant to place a citation after each sentence, so there are times that a writer will sometimes reference selected ideas and not others 2. Paraphrasing to Avoid Quotation Marks. Foster says “paraphrasing means rephrasing original work such that the ideas are intact but the phrasing is completely different.” Foster also says “to avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use: * another person’s......

Words: 505 - Pages: 3