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Parkinsons Disease

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Parkinsons Disease
Introduction
Defination
Parkinson’s diseases is a slow progressive neurological movement disorder that eventually leads to disability. Its associated with decreased levels of dopamine resulting in distruction of pigmented neuronal cells in the substantia ingrain the basal ganglia region of the brain. (brunner and suddarth eleventh edition)
Signs and symptoms
Tremor is the characterisitic shaking associated with Parkinsons diseas and often begins in the hand. Pill-rolling and bacj and forth rubbing of the thumb and forfinger is alos seen and may occure whrn the hand is at rest.
Slloowed motion is another common sign and symoptom of parkinsons disease, over time there is reduced ability to initiate voluntary movement therefore making simple tasks difficult anf time consuming. This causes the patient to have a short steps while walking and a shuffling walk.
Muscle rigidity is occurs in any part of the body, it may sometimes be so severe that it limits the range of movement s and causes pain.
The posture is impared and there is no balance therefore the patient is seen to have a stooped posture. This causes a problem with balance in later stages of the disease.
Loss of automatic movements such as blinking smiling swinging the arms while walking are diminishes and sometimes even lost
Some patients with Parkinsons disease have a problem with speech they may speak more softly, rapidly or in monotone and sometimes slurring or repeating words is seen. hestitance before speaking is also seen.
. In the later stages of Parkinson's disease, some people develop problems with memory and mental clarity.
Other autonomic symptoms seen include excessive and uncontrolled sweating, paroxysmal flushing orthostatic hypertension, gastric and urinary retention, constipation and sexual dysfunction
Causes/ Predisposing factors
. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but several factors appear to play a role, such as:

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