Free Essay

Passenger Terminal Design

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By kennyinn
Words 3795
Pages 16
Amedeo R. Odoni and Richard de Neufville
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The standard procedures for sizing the spaces for passenger activities in airport terminals are unsatisfactory in that they easily lead to expensive errors. The essential difficulty lies in the nature of the process, and in particular with the several formulas which specify the area per passenger in different parts of the building. The process and these formulas are insensitive both to the variations in the operational characteristics of terminals and to the overall variability in the level and nature of the traffic. This paper presents practical procedures for incorporating stochastic considerations into terminal design, based both on theory and extensive experience internationally at major airports. The approach builds upon detailed consideration of the sequences of flows of the passengers, their likely dwell-time in each facility, and their psychological response to the configuration of the spaces.
The overall objective is to create flexible designs that use space efficiently under the broad range of conditions that may prevail. It entails an iterative process of exploring the response of design options to different patterns of loads. This approach invites computerized models of the performance of terminals with spread-sheet like capability to answer what-if questions rapidly. PASSENGER TERMINAL DESIGN
Amedeo R. Odoni and Richard de Neufville
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Passenger terminals at airports are very expensive, both absolutely and per gate for aircraft. As of 1990, for example, the new International Terminal
Building (ITB) for Sydney will cost about US$ 200 million, or 25 million per gate; the central terminal for the new Milano/Malpensa airport about US$ ???? million or ???? per gate. The cost of fully fitted out space in airport terminals is easily US$ 2000 per sq.m. (about US$ 200 per sq.ft.).
Mistakes are correspondingly costly. For example, the simple, avoidable errors in the original design of the interior spaces for the Air France
Terminal at Paris/Roissy (de Neufville and Grillot, 1982) had an estimated price tag of around US$ 75 million in 1990 terms.
Overdesign, either as a simple expedient for avoiding future congestion or for the aesthetic of open spaces, can also be most expensive. For example, the decision to make the central corridor of the 180 m. long finger pier of the new two-level Sydney ITB 12m. wide, instead of a feasible 6m., implied an extra capital cost of about US$ 4 million.
Cost-effective, efficient design of passenger terminals is thus important, especially in view of the number of new facilities projected. Unfortunately, the standard design procedures for airport terminals are based on handbook formulas insensitive to the realities of each situation. These crude approaches cannot be considered adequate to the task. Worse, it is our observation that the formulas are easy to misunderstand and thus frequently misapplied. A more scientific approach is required, one that incorporates a realistic appreciation both of the dynamics and behavior of sequences of queues, and the the psychology of crowds in such situations. The design process should also recognize that, as we experience deregulation, the elimination of frontier controls, and new airline organizations, the actual levels and needs of future traffic may be quite different from anticipated.
To develop this approach, this paper first examines the nature of the current design process and identifies the three elements most in need of improvement.
It then proposes how each of these elements could be handled better, and concludes by integrating these suggestions into a comprehensive design process for passenger terminals.
Typical Design Process
A more or less standard process has evolved over the years for the design of passenger terminals at airports. It consists of four steps:
1) Forecasting traffic levels for peak hours;
2) Specification of level-of-service standards;
3) Flow Analysis and determination of server and space requirements; and
4) Configuration of servers and space.
The review of these steps provides the basis for understanding why and how the curent design process should be changed.
Forecasting of traffic levels at peak hours: The objective of this exercise is to produce highly detailed, peak-hour demand scenarios for the design day many years ahead. These figures provide the basis for the actual design. It is a most speculative enterprise.
This forecasting process normally first estimates aggregate traffic for the
"target year" for which a new, expanded or modified terminal is being designed. This aggregate forecast, in turn, is converted into a further estimate of traffic for the "design day", normally taken to be as the 30th. or
40th. busiest day of the year, or as something such as the "average weekday of the peak month". This is usually done using a set of "conversion factors", partly based on historical data. Note that the target year is arbitrary, generally a round number; and that the use of conversion factors assumes that the pattern of traffic over twenty years or so is predictable, contrary to our current experience.
Design exercises furthermore frequently develop hour-by-hour traffic scenarios for the design day, down to the level of a specific schedule of flights, for which assumptions must be made concerning the type of aircraft involved, their origin or destination, load factors, percentage of transfer or transit passengers, etc. When one recognizes the difficulty of predicting a flight schedule six months from now, it is clear that its forecast for twenty years hence is close to divination.
Forecasts are in any case demonstrably inaccurate. This has been repeatedly shown by retrospective analyses comparing forecasts to what actually occurred
(U.S. Office of Technology Assessment, 1982; Ascher, 1978; de Neufville,
1976). The six-year forecasts of the U.S. Federal Aviation Adminstration have been, over the years, over 15 to 20 percent different from reality about half the time.
Figure 1 illustrates the situation for aggregate national forecasts. The situation gets worse for more detailed predictions, as one moves to individual airports and then to subsections of the airport activities. It is well known that the higher variability of the detailed forecasts tend to cancel out as they are aggregated. In any event, no confidence should be placed in the detailed forecasts usually generated by the standard design process for airport terminal buildings.
Specification of Level-of-Service Standards: The objective here is to specify explicitly level-of-service (LOS) standards for waiting times and space allocation (i.e., the number of square meters per space occupant) at the processing facilities, the holding areas and the passageways of the terminal.
These standards provide the basis for translating the forecasts into an architectural program.
To specify the LOS standards, the designer must work closely with the airport owner or operator. Higher standards imply more space and cost, and these have to be made compatible with the client's financial objectives. The level of detail at which this step is carried out varies greatly from airport to airport, and the results may also be very different.
The LOS for space are usually defined in terms of "space conversion factors" giving the appropriate space per simultaneous occupant. The best-known and most widely used factors are listed in Table 1. These were originally developed by Transport Canada during the early 1970's, and subsequently adopted jointly by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the
Airport Associations Coordinating Council (AACC), (AACC/IATA, 1981). As can be seen, the factors span a considerable range, from the LOS=A (best) to LOS = E
(worst). A number of other organizations, such as British Airports, the
Aeroport de Paris, and the Australian Department of Housing and Construction
(1985) have developed their own space conversion factors. These are all usually single-valued for any activity and LOS, and roughly equal to those in
Table 1.
Similar factors have been developed for persons flowing through passageways or corridors (Fruin, 1971). They are stated in terms of passengers per foot width per minute (PFM), with typical values of around 16 (LOS = C) and 12 (LOS
= D).
Table 1: Level of Service Standards (sq.m. per occupant)
Source: AACC/IATA (1981)
Level of Service Category
Holding with Bags:
Check-in 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8
Bag Claim Area
Holding w/o Bags:
Holdroom 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6
Wait/Circulate 2.7 2.3 1.9 1.5 1.0
While the specific values of the space conversion factors can certainly be disputed, there is little doubt about the soundness of the general principle of allocating space in proportion to the number of people simultaneously in any particular part of the terminal. In practice, however, this application of this principle has been characterized by widespread misinterpretation and lack of insight.
The concept of dwell time, the amount of time people spend in a particular area, is central to determining the number of simultaneous occupants. For instance, if the flow of passengers through a lobby is relatively uniform over time at a rate of 900 per hour, and if their dwell time is 20 minutes or 1/3 of an hour, then the number of people in the lobby at any time is 900 x 1/3 =
300. Space thus needs to be provided for 300 people, not 900. While this should be obvious, it is surprising how often it is misunderstood.
A most common mistake in practice is to disregard dwell time altogether and use the number of peak hour passengers for the design day (often known as
"typical peak hour passengers" or TPHP) as the number of simultaneous occupants. In our case, this error would result in the provision of 3 times as much space as needed.
It would seem that much of this confusion stems from a set of guidelines ("FAA
Standards", see FAA, 1969) issued a generation ago, which specified space requirements in terms of area per TPHP. See Wright (1984) and Horonjeff and
McKelvey (1985) for details.
For example, these guidelines recommend a total of 24.2 sq.m. per TPHP for a domestic terminal, and 39.2 sq.m. per TPHP for an international terminal, with
1.0 sq.m. allocated to the ticket lobby, 3.3 sq.m. to customs, etc.
Clearly, the "FAA standards" were originally developed for a specific set of conditions regarding how long typical domestic or international passengers spend in the terminal, what percentage of them go through the ticket lobby and use the ticket counters, what type of customs procedures are in effect, etc, etc. Given the major changes that have taken place in airport operations over two decades, the FAA standards are probably inapplicable today, even for the medium-sized U.S. airports from which they were developed. An improved design process for airport terminals thus needs to focus attention on the time passengers actually spend in a space, their dwell time.
A further problem with these standards is that they assume that the space provided for an activity will be useful, no matter how or where it is provided. Implicit in the formula is the idea that the occupants of a space somehow disperse to make use of the entire area. People are not gasses, however, and no such Brownian motion exists for them. The fact is that people tend to congregate in places either because of a focus of attention, such as an information booth or an open check-in counter; or because they perceive them to be convenient, such as the mouth of the baggage shute or the check-in counters in front of the entrance. It thus easily and quite predictably happens that a terminal with enough space by the above criteria, in fact has a number of significant problem areas which make the terminal feel, and thus be, inadequate. Flow Analysis and Determination of Server and Space Requirements:
There are essentially three ways that have been used to analyse the flows and determine the amount of space and the number of servers required:
1) Formal applications of queuing theory;
2) Graphical analyses using cumulative diagrams; and
3) Detailed computer simulations.
The formal applications of pure queuing theory (e.g., Lee, 1966) have not proven efficient for design. This is because the processes in airports are essentially never in a steady-state condition that can be analyzed; they are almost always undergoing some kind of transient. Furthermore, the queues are often undisciplined.
Graphical analyses of the cumulative arrivals and service (Newell, 1971) have proven most effective in analysing and designing quite specific elements of the terminal such as departure lounges (Horonjeff and Paullin, 1969) or ticket-counters (de Neufville and Grillot, 1982). These solutions presume that the pattern of loads is known: they are thus best for the redesign of a particular space within an existing structure. This approach does not tie in well to the process of designing a complete terminal, since each major alternative is likely to change the pattern of flows into a particular activity area.
Simulations provide the means -- in principle at least -- of investigating the flows throughout an entire building. They have so far, however, generally been unsuccessful because the available computer programs have been virtually impossible to use. Most programs derive from a single architypal program,
ALSIM, and require extensive reprogramming to fit with any specific configuration of a terminal; take a long time to process any particular run; and assume that detailed, hour-by-hour forecasts are available (McKelvey,
1989). A designer would be extremely lucky to get this kind of simulation to model a handful of possible scenarios.
Configuration of Servers and Space: The final design integrates the above steps. What happens in practice is that the design team takes a specific level of flows for a peak hour (often associated with a particular schedule, such as the arrival of several Boeing 747-400's); associates these with levelof- service standards for space; and then fits them into an architectural concept. The result is a design that will perform well (if none of the usual mistakes have been made) for a particular scenario. The problem is that neither the client nor the designer has any real idea how the design would perform under the wide range of circumstances that may well occur, and has no way to evaluate the performance of the proposed design with any other design.
Good design should do more than arrive at a feasible solution for a single scenario. It should define solutions that will perform well over the range of possible circumstances, and that can be demonstrated to be preferred to others. This is what we seek to achieve.
Proposed Design Process
An improved design process for passenger terminals would both address the specific analytic issues indicated above, and provide for the capability to assess the performance of any design over the range of circumstances it may encounter. This is what we propose.
Forecasting: Since the future traffic is so uncertain both as to level and its nature, what justification is there to postulate a single scenario at great effort ? The cost-effectiveness of this exercise must be close to zero since the cost is high and the value of the result about nil.
It makes more sense to concentrate professional effort in investigating the effects of the uncertainties. Thus the design effort should create a range of scenarios, with plausible ranges both for the levels of traffic and for key parameters that affect the design. It would, for example, want to consider a range of transfer rates, say from 25 to 75%, since these are known both to change and have a major effect on the design of a terminal (de Neufville and
Rusconi-Clerici, 1978). Likewise, one could investigate the effect of changes in customs and security procedures, etc.
The values of the parameters and the levels of traffic would be nominated for each scenario. When the object is to define the performance of a system over a range of circumstances, it is not necessary to define whether any particular one is most likely. In nominating the values, only a rudimentary effort to justify them needs to be done. This approach thus scraps the very detailed, hour-by-hour speculations about what might happen a generation hence.
Specification of Level of Service Standards: This process would proceed as now, with two exceptions. It would focus attention on the matter of the dwell time, and it would also specifically investigate the possibility that concentrations of traffic at "hot spots" would degrade the overall performance of the terminal.
Dwell Times: ...........Odoni section
Analysis of Traffic Concentrations: Traffic concentrations that degrade the performance of a terminal arise routinely. These "hot spots" then make the overall facility appear inadequate and, in effect, cause premature obsolescence or failure of the terminal. For example, the Air France terminal at Paris/Roissy had been intended to serve 10 aircraft operations per gate per day; however, because of the way passengers naturally tended to cluster around the check-in counters when these opened, thus blocking the passage of other passengers through the terminal, the number of daily operations per gate had to be reduced to about 6. The failure to anticipate this "hot spot", in a terminal for which there was largely enough area per occupant on average, forced the construction of a new terminal many years ahead of schedule (de
Neufville and Grillot, 1982).
The analysis for traffic concentrations is quite simple. The key element is that the designers should put themselves in the shoes of the users of the terminal (Sommer, 1974). Patterns are then usually quite easy to detect, and avoid. People, for example, naturally cluster around information booths, the first queues in front of them, the mouth of the baggage chute, telephone banks, etc. These facilities should thus not be sited where they could cause bottlenecks. Most particularly, they should not be placed at the areas of maximum traffic in a corridor, as they so often are (!!!, see de Neufville and
Grillot, l982), unless the design makes special provision for the presence of these facilities and their queues, as by widening the facility.
Flow Analysis: A computer model is virtually a necessity for exploring the performance of a complex system under a wide range of circumstances. But not just any kind of model will do. As a tool for the design of a system that should be evaluated for scenarios that can only be guessed at, the computer model of the flows should have three characteristics.
First, the model must be flexible. It must permit reconfiguration of the spaces, and thus the patterns of flows, without complex reprogramming. It must allow the design team to ask "what if" questions readily. In this aspect it should be rather like a modern "spread-sheet", which any reasonably computer literate professional can use.
Second, the model must be fast. It must be able to define the performance under all the combinations of conditions that might reasonbly arise, and this number rapidly becomes quite large. For example, if one wishes to consider the performance of the terminal for 3 levels of possible loads, with 3 possible transfer rates and, say 2 different possible customs and check-in routines, we have over a 100 possibilities to investigate -- for each design alternative!
Finally, however, the model need not be enormously precise. If we can only guess at the level of traffic to within 10% (and that would be good compared to the general record over a twenty year life of a terminal building), it is meaningless to try for greater detail in the analysis itself. The designer cannot hope, given the uncertainty of the traffic, to get a precisely accurate assessment of the performance of a terminal. The information that is useful will indicate the relative performance of alternate designs, and their ability to meet the range of possible loads. First or second place accuracy is all that is required.
This requirements argue for a new kind of "simulation" model for airport terminals, almost totally different from the simulation models of fifteen years ago. It would be flexible, not rigid; fast, not slow; aggregate not molecular. Fortunately, it would seem that programming and computer advances now make this possible.
The proposed "mini-simulation" models can be made flexible through the use of object-oriented programming (OOP), a programming style which modularizes classes of objects, and thus permits rapid redefinition. Speed is possible both through the improved hardware now available, and the smaller amount of data that needs to be handled once one recognizes that aggregate analyses suffice. Prototypes of these new "mini-simulation" models are in fact now available. Conclusion
The encouragement and support of the Larry Kiernan of the U.S. Federal
Aviation Administration and of Zale Anis of the U.S. Transportation Systems
Center have stimulated much of our recent thinking about airport terminal design. We also thank Frank McKelvey for sharing his work with us, and John
Pararas for his insights into modern simulation programming.
AACC/IATA (1981) Guidelines for Airport Capacity/Demand Management,
Geneve, Switzerland.
Ascher, W. (1978) Forecasting, an appraisal for policy-makers and planners, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
Australia, Department of Housing and Construction (1985) Airport Terminal
Planning Manual, Canberra. de Neufville, R. (1990) "Successful Siting of Airports,"
ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol.116, No.1, pp. 37-48. de Neufville, R. and Grillot, M. (1982) "Design of Pedestrian Space in
Airport Terminals," ASCE Transportation Engineering Journal, Vol. 108, No.
TE1, pp.87-101. de Neufville, R. and Rusconi-Clerici, I. (1978) "Designing Airport
Terminals for Transfer Passengers," ASCE Journal of Transportation
Engineering, Vol. 104, No. TE6, pp.775-787. de Neufville, R. (1976) Airport Systems Planning: A critical look at the
Methods and Experience, Macmillan and MIT Press, London, England and
Cambridge, MA.
Fruin, J.J. (1971) Pedestrian Planning and Design, Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners, New York, NY.
Horonjeff, R. and McKelvey, F. (1985)
Horonjeff, R. and Paullin, R.H. (1969) "Sizing of Departure Lounges in
Airport Buildings," ASCE Transportation Engineering Journal, Vol. 95, No.
TE2, pp. 267-278.
IATA (1989) Airport Terminal Reference Manual, 7th. edition, Montreal.
Lee, A.M. 91966) Applied Queuing Theory, Macmillan, London and St.Martin's
Press, New York, NY.
McKelvey, F.X. (1989) "A Review of Airport Terminal System Simulation
Models", Report to the U.S.Transportation Systems Center
Newell, G.F. (1971) Applications of Queuing Theory, Barnes and Noble,
Boston, MA and Chapman and Hall, London, England.
Sommer, R. (1974) Tight Spaces: Hard Architecture and How to Humanize it,
Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (1969)
U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (1982) Airport and air traffic control systems, U.S. Congress, Washington, DC.
Wright, (1984)

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The New Generation of Lcct

...CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Research Background The competition between Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carrier is getting intense caused by the process of liberalization in aviation field. In the case of Malaysia, the entries of LCCs, Air Asia, Firefly and Malindo have raised the number of passengers travelling inbound or outboard of the destination. According to Malaysia Airports Holding Berhad (MAHB) Annual Report 2009, the passenger movement of AirAsia for domestic traffic at KLIA increases to 5,588,493 passengers which is an increment of 10.6 percent compare to 2008. For the aviation sector, there is a significant growth of 16.6 percent, from 24.2 million passengers in 2009 to 28.2 million passengers in 2010. No doubts, airlines and airport are tightly related. This can be shown from the statement of Neufville & Odoni (2003), airport systems exist and must be designed in the context of their major clients, the airlines. To build airport facilities that will perform effectively, it is necessary both to appreciate the historical context and to understand the current and prospective needs of the users. Airports and air transport at the start of the twenty-first century constitute an exciting long-term growth industry. The industry is large, innovative, and has excellent prospects. The growth in air transport translates into major airport projects. And about a dozen major programs for airport development, costing over a billion dollars each, have...

Words: 9073 - Pages: 37

Premium Essay

Effective Communication with Passengers with Reduced Mobility in Select Airlines at Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3

...Effective Communication with Passengers with Reduced Mobility in Select Airlines at Ninoy Aquino International Airport Terminal 3 A Thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty of Institute of Liberal Arts and Sciences In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of the Bachelor of Arts Major in Aviation Communication Katrina Angelika T. Natividad 2015 Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction Communication has always been an integral part in every industry. It binds people and helps build connection for greater understanding, safety and for better service. According to Aksoy and Dernadis, in an industry like aviation, grave accidents like aircraft crashes and mid-air collision could happen if there is a miscommunication between persons or lack of communication of important information. (2007) The research is aimed at looking into the effective communication between handicapped passengers and airport and airline personnel. “Persons with disabilities make up a significant and growing percentage of the world’s population and constitute the world’s largest minority. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that this number is increasing through population growth, medical advances and the ageing process.” (“UN International Civil Aviation”, 2013) The researcher wants to know the instruments and materials, procedures and guidelines that the airline and airport use in order to accommodate the handicapped passengers in the airport. 1.2 Related Literature From......

Words: 1506 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...efficiency of the process design. Layout involve utilizing business space via the arrangement between people and equipment and machines in effective manner so that the people movement and information flow are smooth long the process. In many kinds of industry nowadays, the efficiency of business also can be determined by its layout design. As the McDonalds example which succeed create competitive advantages through its layout design, businesses also have to plan well their layout or make changes of the old layout to ensure they can stay competitive in market. However, in determining best layout, company have to consider which there are two primary differences between manufacturing and service layout which it based on the factors of the production flow of the product and the degree of customer contact. I take an example of service layout which have a high degree of customer contact, Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) which as for me LCCT has efficient layout, even old-looks design, not so class as it built for the economy and low budget, suit with it names. LCCT is a fixed position layout whereby all the workers, equipment, planes and passengers come to the LCCT to have the services. In my opinion, like all projects, the kind layout is due to cost which it was a major factor that led to the LCCT being where and what it is today. The site was selected as it had a ready apron to accommodate several aircrafts, and it had ready road and services suitable for a terminal. LCCT was......

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Dial Is a Joint Venture Consortium

...April 4, 2006 with the AAI. The initial term of the concession is 30 years extendable by a further 30 years Besides upgrading the existing terminals, DIAL has already commissioned a new runway 11-29 at IGI Airport on September 25, 2008. It has also inaugurated the new domestic departure terminal 1D (T1D) on 26th February, 2009. T1D will increase the capacity of domestic departures to 10 million passengers per annum. The new terminal has a modern 4 level in-line baggage handling system to eliminate baggage X-ray prior to check in, spacious security hold area with extensive F&B and retail facilities, special contact zone for passengers with special needs and baggage handling area on a separate level allowing greater space for passenger amenities. DIAL is also constructing an integrated passenger terminal (Terminal 3). The first phase of the airport is designed to handle 60 million passengers per annum (mppa). This phase will be completed by 31st March 2010 and will be fully operational before the Commonwealth Games. This development would form just the first phase of the airport expansion. In subsequent stages, the airport will be further developed with the increase in passenger demand and more terminals and runways would be added in a modular manner to form a U shaped complex with an ultimate design capacity of 100 million passengers per annum....

Words: 590 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Research - Ports

...During the initial planning and design process construction and operational requirements of a commercial airport are established. The requirements are governed by the FAA under airport certification requirements identified in 14 CFR 139. Security systems, methods, and procedures within the construction and operational process are the obligation of TSA. The Federal Security Director (FSD) is the designated TSA official that approves the required Airport Security Program (ASP) document, the document identifies how the airport will meet security requirements. The FSD and local FAA Airports Division officials should be consulted during all phases of the project. Airport operators must integrate a Safety Management System process into their overall plan in accordance with FAA rules. Airports must establish hazard reporting systems, a risk assessment process, and a risk mitigation and assurance process with the participation of airport management. The best way to implement security in a facility is through advance planning and continuous monitoring throughout the project. Selecting, constructing, or modifying a facility without considering security for the general public, the facility, passengers, and airport and air carrier personnel can result in costly modifications. All physical security upgrades should be based on applicable Federal, State, and local laws, regulations, and policies to ensure the protection of all persons and assets (including information systems and...

Words: 6328 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Gateway to Singapore of more than 100 international airlines.  Every 90 seconds, a flight departs from or lands at Changi Airport.  Passenger traffic at the airport exceeds 53 million people annually, roughly 10 times the population of Singapore. Changi Airport is not an ordinary airport and is known for its unconventional amenities.  It has a comfortable and clean environment and boasts superior customer service.  There are 350 retail stores and 120 restaurants inside the airport’s three terminals, which accounts for a total business area of roughly 750,000 square feet and 50% of the airport’s revenue (S$2 billion in 2013).  To name a few unique amenities, there are free movie theatres, napping and lounge chairs, karaoke studios, showers, prayer rooms, playgrounds, events for families and children, and gardens housed within the airport, among many other things.  It is viewed “not just as Singapore’s gateway to the world, but also the world’s gateway to Singapore.”  This all makes Changi airport a travel destination rather than merely a transportation hub. When the airport began operations in 1981, Terminal 1 was able to accommodate 12 million passengers on an annual basis.  Constant advancements and improvements now permit Terminal 1 to support a maximum capacity of 21 million passengers a year.  In 1990, Terminal 2 opened with a capacity to support 12 million passengers annually and was later expanded in...

Words: 2354 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Bengaluru International Airport Ltd.

...INFRASTRUCTURE POLICY AND REGULATION Bengaluru International Airport Limited Individual Assignment -1 Anupam Shetty Fourth Batch 2012 - 13 Bengaluru International Airport Limited Contents: 1. Background……………………………………………………………….………………….…….……Page 4 2. Need for the airport…………………………………………………………………………………Page 4 3. Scope of the Project…………………………………………………………………………………Page 5 4. Project Sponsors/Concessionaires……………………………………………………………Page 6 5. Financiers…………………………………………………………………………………………………Page 7 6. Relevant Government Bodies…………………………………………………………………..Page 7 7. EPC Firms………………………………………………………………………………………………….Page 7 8. Regulators………………………………………………………………………………………………..Page 7 9. Concession and CNS/ATM Agreement……………………………………………………..Page 8 10. Financial Arrangements………………………………………………………………………….Page 8 11. Project Conception…………………………………………………………………………………Page 9 12. Bidding Process………………………………………………………………………………………Page 9 13. Project Shaping………………………………………………………………………………………Page 10 14. Master Plan and Projects……………………………………………………………………….Page 11 15. Agreements Signed in Chronological Order……………………………………………Page 12 16. Land & Peripheral Infrastructure……………………………………………………………Page 13 17. Project Execution/Construction……………………………………………………………..Page 13 18. After Completion……………………………………………………………………………………Page 17 19. First Test Flight……………………………………………………………………………………….Page 17 20. Reason......

Words: 6371 - Pages: 26

Free Essay

Denver International Airport

...downtown Denver Colorado. At 53 square miles it is the largest airport in the United States and the second largest airport in the world after King Fahd International Airport. Denver is also known for having one of the longest runways in the United States at 16,000 feet. DIA was built to replace the old an outdated Stapleton International Airport which was Colorado’s primary airport from 1929 to 1995. In September 1989, under the leadership of Denver Mayor, Federal Aviation officials authorized the outlay of the first $60 million for the construction of DIA. Two years later, Mayor Wellington Webb inherited the multi billion-dollar over budget megaproject, scheduled to open on October 29, 1993. Delays caused by poor planning and repeated design changes pushed the opening day back, first to December 1993, then to March and finally to May 15, 1994. In April 1994, the city invited reporters to observe the first test of the new automated baggage system. Reporters ended up watching clothing articles and personal items scattered all over the floor. The mayor cancelled the planned May 15 opening. The airport collects landing fees, rent and other revenues from the airlines to help offset its operating costs. Denver International Airport is owned and operated by the City and County of Denver, but does not operate using tax dollars. Instead, the airport is an "enterprise fund" generating its own revenues in order to cover operating expenses. The airport operates off of revenue......

Words: 1541 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


... Refurbishing Heathrow Airport Terminal 1, On Time, On Budget, With No Disruptions to Travelling Public Background: Dated and In Need of a Revamp, But It has to be Business as Usual... BAA Airports Ltd. was tasked with the refurbishment of Terminal 1, a 40-year-old building within Heathrow Airport, the busiest international airport in the world, whilst constantly keeping the terminal open to the 20 million annual travellers. In 2004 BAA and the Star Alliance network, established in 1997 as the first truly global airline alliance to offer worldwide reach and seamless service to the international traveller, signed a memorandum of understanding that would result in Star Alliance moving into Terminal 1 at Heathrow Airport. Terminal 1 had previously been for short-haul European destinations only, but the introduction of Star Alliance meant that international passengers would now also be using the terminal. This work was required to facilitate the move by a number of Star Alliance airlines who were moving their operations from Terminals 2 and 3 to Terminal 1. The successful completion of this project was the enabler for the complete transformation of Heathrow Airport that is used by more than 90 airlines, which fly to more than 180 destinations worldwide. As well as a commitment to completing the project within a very strict deadline, health and safety issues were also a big concern given that the project had to be delivered within a live operating passenger terminal. Any......

Words: 3308 - Pages: 14

Free Essay

Aerotropolis Project

...ABSTRACT Since 2000 Indian aviation industry has been recording steady growth. The role of the private airline sector has become very significant with the increase in domestic air traffic and the increased purchasing power of the growing middle-class. The arrival of LCCs (Low Cost Carriers) revolutionised Indian aviation industry and air travel hit an all-time-high. As more and more players arrived at the aviation scene the competition grew. Heavy price-cuts and discount offers against a background of rising operational costs proved detrimental, with almost every airliner reporting huge losses. The industry, taking cue from the global developments had moved towards consolidation of stakes so as to scale down excess competition. Many mergers and acquisitions took place which may result in significant synergies in the industry. This strategy to tie-up with the competitor rather than bleed millions by way of losses is seen as an exemplary move towards healthy competition. The opportunities as well as the challenges these mergers bring to the aviation industry is to be seen. This is about the air-side of the coin. And the land-side development mainly based on the revenue generated by the airport authorities. The study mainly goes through the landside development constituting the study of public private partnership in development of the airport city. This report mainly consists of the study of the industrial sector and how the development is sustained. Organization selected......

Words: 10835 - Pages: 44

Premium Essay

Transport in Ghana

...This case study is based on four recent studies: Improving Urban Transport through Private Participation in Accra A study of urban transport planning and traffic management for the greater Accra metropolitan area A pre-feasibility study for a potential bus rapid transit project in Accra A pre-feasibility study covering, inter alia, passengers’ willingness to pay for transport service improvements and their implied value of time Accra is the largest city in Ghana. The conurbation comprising the Greater Accra Region, Tema municipality and Ga district, has a population of over three million. Bus system characteristics The vast majority of public transport services in Accra are provided by the informal sector. The only formal bus transport undertaking operating is the newly established Metro Mass Transit Ltd. In 1996, the government decided to privatize its passenger transport undertakings but was unable to find buyers for these businesses at the time, which resulted in their continuing decline in the absence of new investment. Urban public transport services were largely replaced by private sector provision of para-transit, known locally as tro-tro. Currently about 6,000 tro-tro operate each day. This industry was consolidated by the Ghana Private Road Transport Union (GPRTU) and some smaller bodies. The current administration re-affirmed the market liberalization of the economy, and the primacy of the private sector in service delivery, but has......

Words: 1478 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Airport Operations

...Introduction Queen Mathilah intention (Vision) of raising the Putnam international airport’s quality of services and customer service can be envisaged as the first step in the right direction. From the historical data and surveys gathered it is evident that the airport is missing the targets set by industrial benchmarking of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) and passenger survey results further fortify the above issue. The good thing is that Putnam airport authorities have access to objective numerical data on performance, benchmarked against industry averages, so in other words it means what can be measured can be improved as we can gather the insight on where we stand and where we want to reach. In the capacity of director of operations, operational efficiency improvement and raising the customer satisfaction index (CSI) would have been my primary and most important KPI. For some reason the direction from Director General comes as an expected call, the challenges around the Putnam airport seems to be systemic in nature. Following the deming cycle of Plan Do Check Act, the following steps would be taken to improve the overall efficiency of the airport. In the planning phase, the attention will be focused on forming teams with clear accountability, regular updates plan and agreed plan of action. The tasks will be distributed as per the skill, capability and interest of the management staff, this also keeps them motivated towards achieving the desired goals. Some......

Words: 1493 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Final Project Planning Report

...utilising primarily Dash 8 Series Q400 aircraft. Continuing growth can be expected with over $14 billion worth of projects committed and/or planned in the next 5 years and with large scale stocks of land set aside for longer term expansion in the Gladstone State Development Area. Since 1998 airport expansion has been guided by a Development Plan which the Aerodrome Board updated in 2004 to take particular account of current and likely future aircraft types and stronger growth in passenger numbers than previously forecast. The forecasts prepared for the 2004 plan envisaged that the majority of RPT services would be provided in the short term by the Dash 8-300 aircraft and in the medium to long term by regular scheduled services by 70 seat aircraft such as the Q400. However, passenger numbers have grown even more rapidly over the last three years than the high 4.53% growth forecast adopted in the 2004 plan and, for the 2006-07 Financial Year stood at almost 190,000 rather than the predicted 165,000. Passenger numbers for the last three years are as follows: 2004-05 139,445 2005-06 160,133 (14.8% growth) 2006-07 189,379 (18.3% growth)...

Words: 9315 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Airport Secuirty

...Airport Security Design Introduction The world and the United States stood still on 11 September 2001 as terrorist attacked the United States using four jetliners. Over the course of the next thirteen months, the President of the United States along with the U.S. Congress passed a series of bills that would change the structure of the U.S. government. On 20 September 2001, President George W. Bush announces to congress the formation of the Office Homeland Security. In a speech to congress, President Bush states, “Our nation has been put on notice:  We are not immune from attack.  We will take defensive measures against terrorism to protect Americans.  Today, dozens of federal departments and agencies, as well as state and local governments, have responsibilities affecting homeland security, which includes airport security (Bush, 2001).   Of these government agencies, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) provides the federal guidelines, which all airports must adhere to for security. The FAA and TSA provide these guidelines through the Recommended Security Guidelines for Airport Planning, Design, and Construction, and TSA civil aviation rules, CFR 49-1542. It is up to airport operators to follow these guidelines to insure passenger and employee safety. Security Force Many airports across the United States use local law enforcement to aid in the security of their airports. However, several airports......

Words: 3562 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Denver Airport

...Master plans vary in the level of detail and complexity depending on the size, function, issues and challenges of the airports under study. FAA Advisory Circular 150/5070-6B Airport Master Plans provides guidance for the preparation of airport master plans. Read the FAA Advisory Circular (Adobe PDF) Specific objectives of the Master Plan Update put forth by Denver International Airport (DIA) include the following: Maintain and ensure the safety and security of the Airport Emphasize customer service and satisfaction Plan for phased, incremental development that meets foreseeable aviation demands and maintains flexibility for change Maintain practical and affordable airline costs per passenger Meet sustainability and environmental requirements DIA is a fairly new airport, why is the airport completing a...

Words: 3264 - Pages: 14