Premium Essay

Patho Case Study 2

In: Science

Submitted By ttrager
Words 1035
Pages 5
1. What risk factors for primary hypertension are evident from K.H.’s history and physical data?
K.H. is a 67 year old African American male, his ethnicity and age are non-modifiable risk factors, which means it is circumstances that he cannot change. Unfortunately African
Americans are more susceptible to hypertension and after 55 years old there is a 90% chance that Americans regardless of ethnicity will develop hypertension. According to a PowerPoint from Dr. Marian, HSC 3211 on Hypertension, the ethnicities most likely to have hypertension are as follows: African American > Puerto Rican > Hispanic American > Caucasian > Cuban
American.
K.H. is also overweight by 30 pounds. Obesity is a leading cause of hypertension because excess weight makes it more difficult for the heart to pump blood throughout the body as efficiently as it would if K.H. was not overweight. He has already started lifestyle modifications such as a salt-restricted diet in hopes of lowering his blood pressure. Sodium causes the muscles around blood vessels to becomes stronger and thicker as a result of trying to ease the extra burden the arteries are experiencing. However, this is not a good thing because it causes the arteries to become more narrow thus raising one’s blood pressure even higher. With this evidence, it is important that K.H. stay on his salt-restricted diet if he hopes to lower his blood pressure and avoid other organ damage from excess salt.
K.H. has high blood pressure at 135/96 mmHg. The risk for cardiovascular disease doubles with each 20/10 mHg increment after 115/75 mmHg. The normal range for blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg and levels above 120/80 mmHg are considered prehypertension and move into stage 1 hypertension between 140-159 SBP and 90-99 DBP and even worse high blood pressure is called stage 2 hypertension which is any SBP above 160 and DBP above 100...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Case Study 1 for Patho 2

...Case Studies on Cardiac Function This is the first case study that is required for the class. Please submit a paper (doesn’t have to be long; you could even give me bullet-point answers to the questions listed below) that answers all of the questions posed after Case Study 1. I have included an easy second case study which, if you complete it, will be worth extra credit. Answers to the first Case Study are worth 25 points and responding to Case Study 1 is required work for the course. The extra credit, which is not required, will be worth a total of 10 points. Case 1 A.O. is an 89-year-old woman with a long history of systolic heart failure secondary to a large left ventricular infarct when she was in her 70s. She had poor activity tolerance and required assistance with activities of daily living. Even minimal activity was associated with moderately severe dyspnea and exertional chest pain, which was relieved by rest. A.O. also exhibited marked pedal edema bilaterally. She is being treated with digitalis, furosemide (Lasix), KCl, and sublingual nitroglycerin. Discussion Questions 1. Which type of heart failure (left or right sided) is usually associated with dyspnea? Left-sided heart failure is usually associated with dyspnea. What other clinical findings are likely to be present with left-sided heart failure? Other clinical findings that are likely to be present with left-sided heart failure include radiographic cardiomegaly, abnormal apical pulse......

Words: 1080 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Communication

...Classical Communication Models 1.     Aristotle’s definition of rhetoric. a.      “Rhetoric” is “the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion” Rhetoric is the counterpart of Dialectic. Both alike are concerned with such things as come, more or less, within the general ken of all men and belong to no definite science. Aristotle, On Rhetoric Aristotle was the first to take an initiative and design the communication model.Let us first go through a simple situation.In a political meeting, the prospective leader delivers speech to the audience urging for more votes from the constituency. He tries to convince the crowd in the best possible way he can so that he emerges as a winner. What is he actually doing ?He is delivering his speech in a manner that the listeners would get convinced and cast their votes only in his favour, or in other words respond in the same manner the speaker wanted to. Here the leader or the speaker or the sender is the centre of attraction and the crowd simply the passive listeners. | The example actually explains the Aristotle model of communication. The Aristotle model of communication is the widely accepted and the most common model of communication where the sender sends the information or a message to the receivers to influence them and make them respond and act accordingly. Aristotle model of communication is the golden rule to excel in public speaking, seminars, lectures where the sender makes his point clear...

Words: 736 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

The James Bulger Case

...the James Bulger Case is presented in texts 1, 2 and 3. The first text, ”Every parents nightmare”, is a news article written by Mark McKay for BBC in October 2000. The article, in a chronologically and neutrally fashion, objectively describes the James Bulger Case from beginning to end. The text is dense in terms of factual information, as one would expect from a news article. The second text, “Life after James”, is an article written by Blake Morrison for The Guardian Online in Februrary 2003. The article approaches the presentation of the James Bulger Case in a different way. By peaking behind thick curtains of opinions held by the public, the text man-ages to provoke thoughts and stimulate ideas. Blake Morris succesfully shifts the paradigm of the James Bulger Case by taking a step backwards, which leads the audience to the introduc-tion of the bigger picture, where he explains and examines his view; the James Bulger Case is a problem, but it is not the problem. The issue lies in the society itself. The third and last text, “James Bulger killing; 20 years on”, is an article written by Amelia Hill for The Guardian Online in Februrary 2013. Arguably, the article is an addendum to the previ-ous text, “Life after James”. Amelia Hill takes the reader back twenty years, where she daringly questions the method of which the public, the media and the politicians used to deal with the case. Analyse how Blake Morrison presents the James Bulger case in text 2. Here you must......

Words: 972 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Path Case Study

...Ryan Chavez Patho 2 Case study 7 Case1 1. Due to D.K.’s signs and symptoms she probably has a urinary tract infection or urinary cystitis. 2. Since E. coli is the most common cause of urinary treat infections, antibiotics are an appropriate treatment for D.K. because she is symptomatic with frequency, urgency and burning upon urination. 3. The factors that predispose the development of a UTI are sexually active women,the us of a diaphragm, failure to void after intercourse, improper hygiene, female anatomy, low estrogen levels in postmenopausal women, catheters or a foreign object placed in the urinary tract for a long period time, pregnancy, and diabetes mellitus. 4. The strategies that D.K can take to avoid the recurrence of a UTI would be clean perineal hygiene, stay well hydrated, wear cotton crotched underwear, void after intercourse, avoid feminine hygiene deodorants, avoid harsh toilet paper, and avoid tight fitting pant. Case 2 1. Due to the loss of blood P.W is at risk for pre-renal acute renal failure and it may lead to poor renal perfusion. 2. The best type of treatment to prevent renal failure would be adequate fluid volume replacement with blood or any isotonic solution maintain proper blood volume circulation and to maintain adequate blood pressure and perfusion to the kidneys. 3. P.W. is in the stage of pre-renal oliguria. This means that the kidneys are functioning as the should if blood volume and pressure are low. The kidneys will......

Words: 349 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Altruism in Society Campaign and Presentation

...could turn them into unsafe and possibly abusive adults. It is our hope, through vigorously campaigning and the elements of persuasion we can alleviate the hardships that child abuse cause, on both the child and society. Understanding the importance of prevention and intervention, it is our mission to bring awareness as well as reform. Bullet 1- Savannah Thurman Discuss the nature and history of your issue: I. What is Child Abuse? A. Classic Signs 1. Physical State of Child 2. Emotional State of child II. History of child Abuse in the United States? 1. Reported child abuse cases from 1990-2000 vs 2000-2010 2. Intervention that caused the change in numbers Bullet 2 – Jessica Roberts Effects of Child Abuse on Society A. Children need to be able to respect and trust adults, whether it’s their parents or any other adults in society. 1. If a child is abused by an adult, they may feel as those they cannot trust adults as they are not safe. 2. This can also cause a child to lose respect for adults. 3. This can cause children to not get the help they need to be able to function in the world as they do not...

Words: 1210 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

English and Read

...Ethos, Pathos, and Logos Whenever you read an argument you must ask yourself, "is this persuasive? And if so, to whom?"  There are several ways to appeal to an audience.  Among them are appealing to logos, ethos and pathos.  These appeals are prevalent in almost all arguments. To Appeal to Logic (logos) | To Develop Ethos | To Appeal to Emotion (pathos) | Theoretical, abstract  language Literal and historical analogies Definitions Factual data and statistics Quotations Citations from experts and authorities Informed opinions | Language appropriate to audience and subject Restrained, sincere, fair minded presentation Appropriate level of vocabulary Correct grammar         | Vivid, concrete language Emotionally loaded language Connotative meanings Emotional examples Vivid descriptions Narratives of emotional events Emotional tone Figurative language | | Effect | | Evokes a cognitive, rationale response   | Demonstrates author's reliability, competence, and respect for the audience's ideas and values through reliable and appropriate use of support and general accuracy | Evokes an emotional response   | Definitions Logos: The Greek word logos is the basis for the English word logic.  Logos is a broader idea than formal logic--the highly symbolic and mathematical logic that you might study in a philosophy course.  Logos refers to any attempt to appeal to the intellect, the general meaning of "logical argument."  Everyday arguments rely......

Words: 1980 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

A Rhetorical Analyst of a Vintage 1930 Era Coca Cola Advertisement

...A Rhetorical Analyst of a Vintage 1930 era Coca Cola Advertisement From the early 1800s, advertisements have been used to portray certain ideas or to sell particular goods and services. You can still see its concept at work every day whether on television, in magazines, billboards, internet, and even hear them while listening to the radio. The Coca Cola Company has been one of the most infamous companies to arrive in mainstream America. Founded in 1886, Coca Cola has invested approximately over 2 billion dollars each year into its advertisements. People from every generation and walks of life could remember Coca Cola’s, “Delicious and Refreshing” (Coca Cola, 1930) iconic statement, which could be found underneath its name and on its logos. At Christmas, everyone look forward to seeing all of the different advertisements on television or gaze upon important figures such as Santa Claus in numerous magazines and during the summertime, watching everyday people at the beach, having fun or eating at a barbeque with very the drink as their choice of beverage. In my research of a vintage 1930 era Coca Cola ad, I can see the use of a pleasant, out-going appeal encouraging the public to buy their soda beverage, in which were at the time are children, teenagers, and working class adults; portraying the message that nothing can satisfy thirst more than making, “a pause that refreshes” (Coca Cola, 1930) other than with a Coca Cola. Upon my analysis of the advertisement, I discovered......

Words: 806 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Film Study

...typical example of baroque discourse and the latter as a specimen of mannerist discourse. The reference to the terms melodrama, mannerism and baroque does not imply that these films are just formal repetitions of historical periods or that they thematically and structurally refer to historical styles, but that they are characterized by opposing discursive strategies which came to the foreground in a specific historical time and constellation. Because these discursive strategies return in other historical periods and socialpolitical circumstances in different guises and with different aims, they can be compared to what Aby Warburg calls Pathosformeln (pathos formula). The expressive forms, gestures and discursive modes of melodrama, baroque and mannerism can thus be understood as transhistorical (gestural) languages of pathos that recur in history. Résumé Bien que All that heaven allows (1954) par Douglas Sirk et Far from heaven (2002) par Todd Haynes se caractérisent nettement comme un mélodrame, les deux films adressent leur public de manière fondamentalement différente. La divergence au niveau des réactions (émotionnelles) envers ces deux films, résultent d’une différence au niveau des stratégies rhétoriques auxquelles ils font appel : alors que le film de Sirk semble être un exemple type du discours baroque, l’autre serait plutôt un spécimen du discours maniériste. La référence aux termes de...

Words: 10125 - Pages: 41

Premium Essay

Loving

...NAME Chi Hsiao DATE 12-2-2014 English 1301: Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2014 (Suarez) 1. Narration - telling a story or several related stories. 2. Flashback- returns to an earlier time in the narrative 3. Dramatic License- adding or reshaping details in order to shape the narrative point 4. Flash-forward- gives the reader a glimpse of the future before the story continues in the present 5. Conflict- the source of tension in the event 6. Dialogue- allows the reader to experience characters directly 7. Narrator- person who tells the story 8. Causal analysis- shows how one event or phenomenon brings about anothe 9. Causes- why an event or phenomenon happens 10. Effects- what happens because of the event or phenomenon 11. Chronological - arranged in a time sequence 12. Emphatic- Most compelling saved for last 13. Comparison and Contrast- to point out similarities and/or dissimilarities 14. Subject-by-Subject - describing everything relevant about one subject before moving to another subject. 15. Point-by-Point- alternating from one aspect of a subject to the same aspect of another subject 16. Transitions - words and phrases that ease readers from one idea to another 17. Basis of Comparison- Common characteristic on which to base the essay. 18.......

Words: 697 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Rhetorical Devices in Freakonomics

... Based on Paul Feldman’s findings, the authors of Freakonomics argue that a person, who is faced with an efficient way to cheat, will not necessarily choose to. The data involved in Feldman’s accidental bagel study proves that not all humans are corrupt. However, their tendency to cheat alters based on several factors, such as the characteristics of the person, the value of the incentive, and the impact of the setting on the person’s mood. 1. Metaphor- “He had thrown off the shackles of cubicle life and made himself happy.” (Levitt/Dubner 45) 2. Juxtaposition- “But in the big-office/small-office comparison, bagel crime seems to mirror street crime. There is far less street crime per capita in rural areas than in cities, in large part because a rural criminal is more likely to be known (and therefore caught).” (Levitt/Dubner 46) 3. Allusion- “Because many of Feldman’s customers are affiliated with the national security, there may have been a patriotic element to this 9/11 effect.” (Levitt/Dubner 47) 4. Antithesis- “But often a small and simple question can help chisel away at the biggest problems.” (Levitt/Dubner 45) 5. Pathos- “Paul Feldman’s bagel business was different. It did present a victim. The victim was Paul Feldman.” (Levitt/Dubner 46) Argument: How is the Ku Klux Klan like a Group of Real-Estate Agents? The second chapter of Freakonomics states that, though...

Words: 1309 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Aristotle

...2007 February 20, 2007 Aristotle’s Life and the Rhetoric Books I and II Aristotle (384-322 BCE) • Aristotle was a student of Plato’s who disagreed with his mentor over the place of public speaking in Athenian life • born in Macedonia about the time Plato was opening the Academy in Athens • age seven went to Athens and entered the Academy--stayed on as teacher; left 20 yrs later on Plato’s death in 347 • Was ineligible to inherit Academy because he wasn’t Athenian • believed only scientific demonstration and the analysis of formal logic could arrive at transcendent truth • Dialectic and rhetoric form 2 major divisions in his view of human inquiry but they deal with subjects on which true knowledge isn’t available • Rhetoric: making persuasion possible • for Aristotle, rhetoric as the discovery in each case of the available means of persuasion--this discovery requires scientific investigation o in terms of speech situations, he focused on civic affairs • forensic speaking considers guilt or innocence—judicial speech centering on accusation and defense • deliberative speaking considers future policy—political speech centering on future policy • epideictic speaking considers praise and blame—ceremonial speech ▪ Aristotle classified rhetoric as the counterpart of dialectic o dialectic is on-on-one conversation; rhetoric is one person addressing the many ......

Words: 3666 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Rhetoric vs Sophistry

...COMMUNICATION THEORY A review of Stephen Mailloux’s (1995, ed) discussion of “Sophistry and Rhetorical pragmatism” (pp1-30) and West and Turner’s (2010, pp.312-327) discussion of “Rhetoric”. This essay is a review of Stephen Mailloux’s discussion of Sophistry and Rhetorical pragmatism (Mailloux, 1995) and West and Turner’s discussion of Rhetoric (West & Turner, 2010). The writings in question discuss the origins and evolution of Rhetoric, with Mailloux introduce a historical and philosophical criticism of “sophistic Rhetoric as applied in the modern American context” (for example, neopragmatism and poststructuralism), and evaluated in the rest of the book, whilst West and Turner enlighten the reader about the heurism and globalism of Aristotle’s Rhetorical theory with a focus on the discipline of public speaking. Mailloux introduces sophistic Rhetoric as founded on the pragmatic doctrine that “Man is the measure of all things: of things which are, that they are, and of things which are not, that they are not”, a phrase attributed to the Sophist Protagoras (Patrick, 2006). Others Sophists of note include Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias and Thrasymachus – quoted in Plato’s Republic as saying “… ‘Just’ or ‘right’ means nothing but what is to the interest of the stronger party” (Plato & Lane, 2007)). West and Turner’s account of the Rhetoric show that the first teachers of Rhetoric were the "Sophists”, who were nomadic teachers of public speaking that were respected for their......

Words: 2288 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Where's the Beef

...Laura Martz "Where's the Beef?" 22 September 2011 1. “One study that is not often cited by animal activists is a recent report by the Centre fo Energy and the Environment at the University of Exeter in England. David Coley and his associates analyzed how much fuel energy is used to produce and process different foods” (96) Ethos and Authority, because the paragraph lets you know that someone else who studies fuel energy from a top University had results that back Herscovici’s case. 2. “They have trouble explaining, however, why human health and longevity have improved steadily and animal products became more readily available throughout the century” (95) Assertion, because they author is using this to support his clam against vegetarians not really being able to back up their reasoning. 3. “In fact, meat is an excellent source of 12 essential nutrients, including protein, iron, zinc, and B vitamins” (95) Logos, because he is using facts to clearly state that meat has good in it that help our bodies, but he is doing it with a fact which backs up this reasoning. 4. “Thanks to modern agriculture, many city people now take our abundant food supply for granted” (97) I see a little bit of Pathos in this statement because if I was, what he considered a “city” person I would take offense to what he was trying to say. I would be a little shocked at that statement. 5. “Meat does not contain harmful pesticide, antibiotic or other residues. This is......

Words: 286 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cosmetic Surgeries

...we have to fit these extreme expectations, can be seen as a trigger for adolescents to make drastic decisions about changing their bodies and looks. And you shouldn’t want to change anything about your body, when you are a teenager, because your body aren’t done developing, so something you may pay a very big amount of money for, you wouldn’t have to pay for, because your body would have made that change naturally. And you would have saved a tremendous amount of money. But a pro, which is mentioned, is the fact that this surgery might help on the teen’s self-esteem, because if this changes a part of the teenager’s body, which was going to hold back this person, the surgery might just be a good thing. But as it is pointed out there is no study, which confirms that cosmetic surgeries are helping on the over-all body image or the self-esteem. Another argument against cosmetic surgeries for teens is that as you pass along adolescence, you learn to accept your body flaws and small mistakes. The second text “Seeking Self-Esteem Through Surgery” written by Camille Sweeney she is focusing through the entire article about how glad the interviewed girl Kristen was with her breast surgery. You want a cosmetic surgery, says Kristen, to look normal. Jean Kilbourne says that that kids today have to live up to these extreme images of ideal. It’s inevitable for the teens not to feel that they are lacking beauty. Because the beauty they exert themselves for are made on computers.......

Words: 1006 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Mary C. Terrell

...Through this speech we can see an abundance of prejudice that taint the lives of African Americans in the U.S.. In the following paragraphs, I will establish the notability of this speech, analyze the historical context that sparked the discourse into existence and explore other rhetorical features that will establish my analysis’s significance. Mary Church Terrell embodies feminine style rhetoric in her argument to address the social, economic and political struggles placed against African Americans with the undertone of constitutive rhetoric, topical structure, pathos and logos to validate her point. History: Mary Church Terrell was born during the civil war on September 23,1863 to her former slave parents, who later her parents became wealthy business leaders in their community. (Batten, 2010, p.2-3). Long after the civil war, she went to school in Ohio where she encountered racism so decided to study the emancipation and the civil war to help her understand the discrimination better. (Jones, 1982, p.21) From...

Words: 2386 - Pages: 10