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Patho Physiology Case Review

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Phys 261 2c

Pathophysiology Case Reviews

1. The name of this respiratory disease is Cor Pulmonale, also called right sided heart failure. This is a disease in which hypertrophy and dilation of the right ventricle occur secondary to diseases affecting structure or function of the lungs or their vasculature. It can occur at the end stage of various chronic respiratory and respiratory control center diseases. Cor pulmonale doesn’t occur in disorders stemming from congenital heart defects or those that affect the left side of the heart. Causes include but are not limited to; bronchial asthma, vascular obstruction, high altitude, kyphoscoliosis, obesity, pectus excavatum, poliomyelitis, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolism, and vasculitis. Symptoms of the disease include dyspnea at rest, weakened pulses due to decreased cardiac output, and neck vein distention. Treatment of Cor pulmonale has three main focuses, reducing hypoxemia and vasoconstriction, increasing exercise tolerance, and correcting underlying conditions when possible.

2. Croup is severe inflammation and obstruction of the upper airway, occurring as acute laryngo-tracheobronchitis, laryngitis, and acute spasmodic laryngitis. Croup usually results from viral infection. Viruses include; adenovirus, influenza, measles, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus. Signs and symptoms include: inspiratory stridor, muffled vocal sounds, and a characteristic sharp barking or seal-like cough related to the degree of laryngeal obstruction. For most people diagnosed with Croup home care with rest, cool moist air and an antipyretic like acetaminophen relieves symptoms.

3. Pneumothorax is an accumulation of air within the pleural cavity which results in partial or complete lung collapse. Pneumothorax comes in three different types open, closed or tension. Causes include: chest surgery,...

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