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Patho

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Submitted By tsnadler
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* Pattern Theory- My pain sharing the same pathway with lots of other impulses, * Touching something hot, associating touch with pain * Specificity- sensations like touch, warm, cold that involve distinct receptors and pathways and intensity depends on the amount of tissue damage * Gate Control Theory- grey matter in horn of CNS (spinal cord to medulla), in this substantial gelenoca (in middle), it acts like a gate, opens and closes based off of impulses coming in; regulating the transmission of pain * Dull pain or constant wimping (frequency) * Neuromatrix theory- pain is a multidimensional experience; mystical; visceral pain makes me nauseous, headache, and now my big toe hurts; pain is about all of these things.

* Eyes: * How optic disk gets activated: light hits the fovea macula (center where cones –light receptors are), then it travels the optic nerve * Glacuoma- pressure problem from fluid, vicious tumor and aqueous tumor smushes rods and cones causes distorted vision, which distorts the lens and refracts the light * Pressure problem, because of fluid, or structure problem, misshapen lens * Macular degenerations- detachment over time of thin tissues- they start peeling off life a sunburn * Loosens then peels * Cranial nerves- eye movement * Ocular motor nerve- problem with my eyes, can’t control the muscle * Why people are blind: problems anywhere from lens to brain * Proctective structures: * primitive reflex- blink reflex * humors- fluid that bathes the lens * Ganglion- brings nerve ends together * Visual processing center- think about it, associate it with other thin * Errors in refractions * Hyperopia: farsighted, picture is too far back, put on lens to bring closer * myopia: near sightedness, picture is too close * Alterations: * Glaucoma- pressure problem * Cataracts- problem with my lens * Pink eye- conjunctivitis, bacterial or viral * Nystagmus- involuntary shaking of eyes, uncontrollable * Could be altered brain function or inner ear problem * Strabismus- cross eyed * Acuity- how clear do things looks * Hearing- semicircular canals causes fluids to move, * Fluid that moves hairs activate cochlear nerve * Vestibular nerve- motion/car sickness * Why a kid gets more ear infections: tube is more horizontal and when they grow up, they stop to drop * Outer ear * Middle ear: tympanic membrane to Eustachian tube * Inner ear-might have labrynthitis- have endolymph and perilymph fluid that should not mix, vertigo (dizziness) because fluid moves too much; semicircular canals- detect head position (how you are going fast) * Stabilizes visual fields * Hearing is specific to cochlea/organ of corti-where hair cells that are depolarized that activate the nerve, are that trigger cochlea nerve * Stimulate cochlea- mechanical energy changing it to an electrical impulse * Cochlear nerve- responsible for hearing, not vestibular * Vestibular- balance, body position, dizziness, * Labrynthitis * Cochlea- endolymph * Semicircular canals- perilymph * Both should not mix, could get mixing from vestibular nerve * External canal * You can have a mass- like a lego or toy, thrumin- ear wax, inflammation which could cause some hearing problems * Mastoid bone * Tympanic membrane * Effusion- full of fluid, can see bone but it’s bulgy * Otitis media- problem in middle ear * Barotrauma- blast injury, tympanic membrane pops * Fluid in behind tympanic membrane- do not draw it out, It’s you seal to keep bacteria and wax out * Meniere disease- have severe vertigo and hearing loss, tenitis- ring, because you have too much or too little endolymph (in cochlea) * Labrynthitis- inflammation in semicircular canals; perilymph that activate vestibular nerve (motion sickness, dizziness) * Hearing screening: * From brain, nerve problem, in ear, outside ear, mixed disorder? * Conductive- this causes this, this window makes this groove and these bones, causing this hair cell to move, and these problems * Hellen Keller- things simply didn’t move * Processing disorder- once nerve is activated, it’s many not traveling that nerves and going where it is supposed to for you to process * Taste buds: chemicals (food) activate hair receptors that generate an electrical response to travel a nerve * Taste and smell are closely modulated because of where they are
Meneires diease, migrane, fibro- inflammation, glocomia, otitis media- inner ear bulging
Macular degeneration * Dry or wet (fluid trapped behind that little layer causes a distortion of what you see; deposits cause you to see something different * Central distortion, central vision- drusen’s deposits * Big black spots in the middle
Glaucoma- bulging eye from too much pressure from trapped fluid pushing on optic disk- physiologic cuff * The pressure displaces the blood vessels * Loss peripheral vision, fuzzy around edges, becomes tunnel vision
ROP- back in the way used to give kids lots of oxygen that damaged the capillary beds

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