Premium Essay

Pattern

In: Business and Management

Submitted By osmemon
Words 653
Pages 3
COMMENTS ON THE SECTIONS OF A RESEARCH REPORT by Dr. Miriam Helen Hill Title: Be specific. Tell what, when, where, etc. In one main title and a subtitle, give a clear idea of what the paper investigated.
Acknowledgment: Include only if special help was received from an individual or group.
Abstract: Summarizes the report including the hypotheses, procedures, and major findings.
Introduction: Sections may be combined in short reports.
Statement of the Problem: This is a general introduction to the topic.
Significance of the Problem: Comment on why this question merits investigation.
Purpose: What is the goal to be gained from a better understanding of this question?
Statement of the Hypothesis: In one statement (not a question) declare the question which is investigated and the expected results. (For a null hypothesis, no difference is predicted.)
Assumptions: Explain everything that is assumed in order for the investigation to be undertaken.
Limitations: Explain the limitations that may invalidate the study or make it less than accurate.
Definition of Terms: Define or clarify any term or concept that is used in the study in a non-traditional manner or in only one of many interpretations.
Review of Related Literature: Gives the reader the necessary background to understand the study by citing the investigations and findings of previous researchers and documents the researcher's knowledge and preparation to investigate the problem.
Design of the Study: Gives the reader the information necessary to exactly replicate (repeat) the study with new data or if the same raw data were available, the reader should be able to duplicate the results. This is written in past tense but without reference to or inclusion of the results determined from the analysis.
Description of the Research Design and Procedures Used: Completely explain step-by-step what was done.…...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Organizational Patterns

...Organizational Patterns A case study in a large utility company Software Engineering Project Management Course Presentation - Fall 2008 Introduction 1. a. A little bit history Early work by Alfred L. Kroeber Kroeber, 1963 Milestone work by Christopher Alexander Alexander, 1979 pattern researches actively conducted in the organization domain in terms of software development (1991 - ) b. c. 2. What is organizational pattern? “Organizational patterns are recurring structures of relationship, usually in a professional organization, that help the organization achieve its goals” Wikipedia 2008 2 Key research directions 1. Social network analysis Coplien, 1995 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Requirements acquisition Whitenack, 1995 Kerth, 1995 Harrison, 1996 Berczuk et. al., 2003 Evolution from analysis to design Formation and function of teams Episodes (or Agile) Scrum Configuration management patterns Cunningham, 1996 Sutherland, 2007, Sutherland, 2008 3 Organizational patterns, Agile, and Scrum 1. There are patterns in Agile development methodology Scrum is the first formal organizational pattern to describe a complete Agile process Sutherland, 2008 2. 4 Case study – Organizational Environment 1. a. Organization Environment Description The author is working with an utility holding company that provides electric and natural gas services to more than 1 million customers The IT department focuses on......

Words: 1570 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Design Patterns

...Design Patterns CSS/422 September 2, 2013 Design Patterns When developing enterprise software there are several design patterns to choose from. The factory method, abstract factory method, dispatcher data access object (DOA), and model-view-controller (MVC) are design patterns that play an important role in the software development process. By implementing proven design patterns the development process is accelerated and more efficient. The reuse of these patterns also prevents the occurrence of the more subtle issues that may cause significant problems while improving the code readability for architects and coders who are familiar with the design patterns. For effective software design, the consideration of issues that may not become apparent until the latter stages of implementation is essential (SourceMaking, 2012). Factory Method The factory method design pattern creates a family of related objects instantiated by subclasses (University of Phoenix, 2010). This design pattern creates objects without detailing the class of object to be created. The factory method design pattern defines a separate method for the creation of objects by employing subclasses to override the derived type of object being created. In addition, the factory method makes a design more customizable while only slightly increasing its complexity. While other design patterns require new classes, the factory method simply necessitates a new operation (SourceMaking, 2012).......

Words: 926 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Sentenc Patterns

...SENTENCE PATTERNS: SAMPLES 1. S--Vi--(Adv.) (Subject--Intransitive Verb--Adverb, usually optional) The man coughed (loudly). The audience laughed. The guest has arrived. The children walked down the street. The waiter hurried away from the door. Note: An intransitive verb is an action verb that does not require a direct object or a complement to complete its meaning. The word "intransitive" literally means "does not carry across." Therefore, the action of the verb does not transfer to an object, that is, a person or thing that receives the action of the verb. Often, adverbs or adverb phrases will appear in these sentences to expand the basic meaning of the verb. Note: Some intransitive verbs can take a direct object in a different sentence. Usually the meaning of the verb changes in a sentence requiring a direct object. Here is an example: He runs every morning. (intransitive verb) He runs a successful business. (transitive verb) SENTENCE PATTERNS: SAMPLES 2. Transitive Verb Patterns (Active Voice) A. S--Vtr--DO (Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object) The dog catches the ball. The baby likes bananas. Dogs chase cats. That man teaches English. The scientist performed an experiment. Note: Some verbs require an adverb with this pattern. S--Vtr--DO--Adv. (Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object + Adverb) The guard put the key in the door. The police treated the old man politely. B. S--Vtr--IO--DO ...

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Design Pattern

...设计模式总结: Observer pattern: The observer pattern is a software design pattern in which an object, called the subject, maintains a list of its dependents, called observers, and notifies them automatically of any state changes, usually by calling one of their methods. It is mainly used to implement distributed event handling systems. The Observer pattern is also a key part in the familiar Model View Controller (MVC) architectural pattern. Singleton pattern: In software engineering, the singleton pattern is a design pattern that restricts the instantiation of a class to one object. This is useful when exactly one object is needed to coordinate actions across the system. That is you only want one object and use it in multiple places. there are two ways of implement singleton pattern, create database connection and login file can be a very good example of singleton pattern: here we will look at create database connection: old ways of implementation: (lazy loading) private static Database instanceOld; public static Database getInstanceOld(){ if(instanceOld == null){ instanceOld = new Database(); } return instanceOld; } since the old way of singleton implementation has thread safe problem, for example: there are several thread invoke getInstanceOld() method and there will be several instance created. new way: (early loadings) private static Database instance = new Database(); private Database(){//private constructor } public static Database......

Words: 289 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Patterns of Evolution

...Patterns of Evolution Dawn Austin SCI/230 January 28, 2011 Mrs. Sara Young Humans shape their environment in ways that other organisms cannot. Are humans subject to the same pressures of natural selection as other organisms? Why or why not? Yes, Humans are subject to the same pressures of natural selection like all other organisms. According to an article I was reading, the fact is that change in gene pool over time in all species is completely avoidable. Eyre-Walker and Keightley claimed that in 1999 that humans have had an average 4.2 amino acid altering mutations every generation since humans separated from the chimpanzees (physicpost.com, 2003). Provide an example of convergent and divergent evolution, adaptive radiation, and co-evolution. Adaptation radiation is an example of divergent evolution. Divergent evolution is the process of two or more related species becoming more dissimilar. An example of divergent evolution is; the red fox and kit fox, the red fox lives in forest and farm lands where its red color helps it blend in with surrounding trees. The kit fox lives in the plains and in the desert where their environment is sandy and their color help conceal them from prey and predators. The ears of the kit fox are larger from the red fox. The kit fox ears are an adaptation to its desert environment. The enlarged surface area of its ears help the fox get rid of excess body heat. The red fox and the kit fox have similarities that suggest that they had......

Words: 467 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Design Pattern

...Design Patterns Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software Produced by KevinZhang Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software Contents Preface to CD ........................................................ 5 Preface to Book ...................................................... 7 Foreword ............................................................. 9 Guide to Readers .................................................... 10 1 Introduction ...................................................... 11 1.1 What Is a Design Pattern? ...................................... 12 1.2 Design Patterns in Smalltalk MVC ............................... 14 1.3 Describing Design Patterns ..................................... 16 1.4 The Catalog of Design Patterns ................................. 18 1.5 Organizing the Catalog ......................................... 21 1.6 How Design Patterns Solve Design Problems ...................... 23 1.7 How to Select a Design Pattern ................................. 42 1.8 How to Use a Design Pattern .................................... 44 2 A Case Study: Designing a Document Editor ......................... 46 2.1 Design Problems ................................................ 46 2.2 Document Structure ............................................. 47 2.3 Formatting ..................................................... 53 2.4 Embellishing the User Interface ................................ 56 2.5 Supporting......

Words: 84976 - Pages: 340

Free Essay

Design Patterns

...Term paper On Design patterns Advanced topics in software engineering CSC 532 Submitted by:- Harpreet Singh Abstract:- Design patterns, a standard solution to problems in object oriented software engineering, are considered to be a well formed language to represent software design. Their benefits have been widely acknowledged by software professionals throughout the world. Design patterns can be classified according to multiple criteria the most common being the type of problem they solve. Till today many design patterns have been established and many more are being found as time passes. Patterns capture knowledge from various parts of software developing. Design patterns are helpful to the designers in a way that they represent the collective wisdom and experience of the community and their implementation leads to better quality software and also a novice designer does not find it difficult to understand the systems functionality. A very important advantage of design patterns is the fact that they speed up the development process by providing an almost ready-made solution that has been used earlier and proved to be efficient. Another advantage is that they allow for a generalized solution that does not depend on understanding a specific design problem from all its aspects, and thus ease reusing this solution. Apart from that they help the new developers to ignore traps and pitfalls which have earlier been learned by other developers by costly......

Words: 2632 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Looking for Patterns

...Looking for Patterns Blaise Pascal was a French mathematician who lived during the 17th century. He is credited with creating a mechanical calculator, and he influenced the development of probability theory, economics, programming, and geometry. A pattern of numbers in the form of a triangle was named after him, although the pattern was known by other, ancient civilizations. The triangle demonstrates the inherent order of numbers and math. The exercises below challenge you to find and define patterns. Often being a good problem solver relies on one’s ability to recognize patterns and changes in patterns. • How many triangles can you find in this picture? 27 • Develop a rule to describe the number of circles in the figures below. Find the number of circles in the 20th figure, and indicate the reasoning. Figure 1 Figure Number Number of Circles 1 1 Figure 2 2 6 3 11 Figure 3 Figure 4 4 16 5 21 6 26 7 31 ...Figure 20 8 36 20 96 What is the general rule to describe how many circles are in each figure? • Find the relationship between the pyramid steps needed to build rows 6 through 10. Ro w# 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 1 0 9 4 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 3 6 12 0 7 28 8 4 21 0 6 2 1 56 12 6 25 2 5 15 35 70 12 6 21 0 4 10 20 35 56 8 4 12 0 3 6 10 15 2 1 28 3 6 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3a. Find as many relationships between the numbers in the pyramid as you can, and describe them. • • • Both sides are symmetrical You can get each number by...

Words: 602 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Temporal Patterns

...ummarizes various patterns that you can use to answer questions about the state of an information in the past. These include questions of the form "what was Martin's address on 1 Jul 1999" and "what did we think Martin's address was on 1 Jul 1999 when we sent him a bill on 12 Aug 1999". 16 February 2005 Photo of Martin Fowler Martin Fowler Contents Dimensions of Time Updating a Temporal Record Other Readings This is part of the Further Enterprise Application Architecture development writing that I was doing in the mid 2000’s. Sadly too many other things have claimed my attention since, so I haven’t had time to work on them further, nor do I see much time in the foreseeable future. As such this material is very much in draft form and I won’t be doing any corrections or updates until I’m able to find time to work on it again. Things change. If we store information about the world this may not be a problem. After all when something changes one of the great values of a computerized record system is that it allows us to easily update a record without resorting to liquid paper or retyping pages of information. Things get interesting, however, when we need to record the history of the changes. Not just do we want to know the state of the world, we want to know the state of the world six months ago. Even worse we may want to know what two months ago we thought the state of the world six months ago was. These questions lead us into a fascinating......

Words: 3215 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Eye Pattern

...The unique pattern in the human iris is formed by ten months of age, and remains unchanged throughout one's lifetime. The probability of two persons having the same iris pattern is nearly impossible. In The Rayid Model of Iris Interpretation, there are four constitutional iris patterns: Two primary and two secondary. The two primary structures are \Jewel" and \Flower". Everyone has one of these two patterns as their dominant iris structure. The primary iris pattern is modi ed by the secondary pattern: either \Stream" or \Shaker". Personality traits and characteristics are di erent for each of these structures. In addition to the in uence of Stream or Shaker, personality is modi ed by birth order position and other factors. The presence of brown or dark-colored freckle-like dots or ecks in the iris indicates a thinking-oriented, analytical person. These color spots, which can range from yellow to gold to brown, are referred to as jewels, and this mentally-oriented personality is referred to as a Jewel. Distinctly curved or rounded openings in the bers of the iris (like petals of a ower), indicate a feeling-oriented personality. These openings, which look as if the light colored iris bers have round holes within them, are called owers, and we refer to the feeling-type of personality as a \Flower". The \Stream" type in the Rayid Model is called the kinesthetic type. Metaphorically, it is referred to as a stream. The iris of a person with a......

Words: 347 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Search Patterns

...Search Patterns When a crime has been committed and investigators need to search for evidence, there are different search patterns that investigators can choose from. These search patterns include spiral, line, zone, and grid (Siegel & Mirakovits, 2013). Depending on the crime scene, the investigator will choose from one of these search patterns that will best utilize the search for evidence. When an investigating team needs to search for evidence in a field where the field is overgrown, a grid search is a good search to utilize. When a field is overgrown, the searches may have to crawl on their hands and knees to locate any evidence and perform a thorough search. A grid line search consists of searchers following a line pattern and then following another line pattern that is perpendicular to the first line pattern (Lee, Palmbach, & Miller, 2001). The grid search pattern is a good search to utilize because it allows two different searchers, or the same searcher, to search the same area twice. Therefore, the searchers a more likely not to miss any evidence that needs to be collected. A con to the grid line search is that it is very time consuming and if the boundaries to be searched are not well established, than the search will not be very thorough (Lee, Palmbach, & Miller, 2001). The grid line search was chosen for this scenario because a thorough search can be accomplished by having two different searchers look over the same area. If one......

Words: 835 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Eating Patterns

...Lowenberg, Miriam Elizabeth; Todhunter, Elizabeth Neige; Wilson, E. D.; Savage, J. R.; and Lubawski, J. L. (1979). Food and People. New York: Wiley. Schlosser, Eric (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Darker Side of the All American Meal. New York: Houghton Mifflin. The overall pattern of food that a person eats is more important to a healthy diet than focusing on single foods or individual nutrients, according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics in its newly updated position paper "Total Diet Approach to Healthy Eating." According to the position paper: "In contrast to the total diet approach, classification of specific foods as 'good' or 'bad' is overly simplistic and may foster unhealthy eating behaviors." The Academy's position paper stresses that moderation, portion size and exercise are the key concepts for balancing food and beverage intakes. The position paper has been published in the February Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and can be found on the Academy's website. It states: It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of healthy eating. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with physical activity. The Academy strives to communicate healthy eating messages that emphasize a balance of food and beverages within energy needs, rather than any one food or meal. The Academy's......

Words: 846 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Thought Patterns

...and those of others. The negativity and positivity degree in these perceptions, in other words, our thought patterns have a direct relationship with our level of competence and the success of our communication. Manz and Neck define the process of constructing thought patterns as self-leadership of thought. It is stated that with the application of specific cognitive strategies, individuals have control over their thoughts, and these thoughts have direct impact on their communicative performance. There are two ways of self-leadership of thoughts; challenging destructive thinking and building up constructive thoughts patterns. They define ten different kinds of destructive thinking with the suggestions of altering them into constructive thoughts. Labeling, having been discussed in our class as well, is one of the destructive thoughts hindering personal communication effectiveness. To clarify, assuming that a manager is lacking knowledge and awareness of individual different communication styles and has expressive-reflective communication style. She would inevitably evaluate one of the employees, who has an instrumental communication style with his being inadequate in his report or his indifferent nature of communication with her. She would label him with the words such as `unmotivated, inadequate, anti-social, etc.`. In all likelihood, these judgmental thought patterns have impact on her behaviors negatively and thus begin the cycle of negativity with poor conversational......

Words: 618 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Patterns of Discrimination

...Patterns of Discrimination in Police Agencies Paper Danielle Hill CJS/221 June 20, 2016 Ebony Pullins-Govantes Patterns of Discrimination in Police Agencies Paper Discrimination is the act of treating an individual different based on the way you perceive them to be, instead if their individual behavior and qualifications. The criminal justice system has multiple example of the discrimination that will assist me in illustrating my point. It wasn't until the 1960's that blacks were hired as officers because southern states didn't think to hire African Americans. The other police departments that decided to hire black officers made sure they had strict restrictions and stipulations. One restriction was that if you were an African American officer you were not allowed to arrest Caucasians. In most of the Northern police departments, blacks were required to only police the black neighborhoods instead of where the whites resided. This example are the types of discrimination that occurred within employment of the criminal discrimination also involved airlines. Female ma were only hired to be flight attendants because this wasn't a job for a man. Men were hired mainly to be managers and leaders of a company and woman were hired to do more office like duties, such as being a secretary. They didn't view the résumé of an individual first and their treatment was solely based on someone's personal beliefs and opinion. Currently, in the police agencies and...

Words: 1324 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Patterns of Evolution

...Patterns of Evolution Humans are still subjected to the same pressures of natural selection as other organisms because we also compete for sources of food as our society becomes over populated while adapting to environmental concerns, such as global warming with radically different changes in climates, contaminated water sources, or other forms of pollution. Survival of the human race will require reproduction to avoid becoming extinct, thus ensuring the perpetuation of favorable traits in preceding generations. Biologists have recognized that patterns of evolution exist and can vary because every species is unique. Convergent evolution is unrelated organisms living in similar environments, which can evolve with similar characteristics, such as the example of a hurricane can look and feel the same, whether it occurs in Florida or Italy. Divergent evolution, species living in different regions that were closely related, yet perhaps drifted apart, such as the example of the polar bear and the brown bear. Polar bears developed new characteristics because they needed blubber to keep warm in the snowy climates in comparison to the brown bear. Adaptive radiation, several species move into a new territory and evolves into a completely new species, which began from a single species, such as the marsupials – kangaroos with powerful, long legs to cover large areas of land, and koalas with smaller, centralized bodies allowing them to climb trees. Co-evolution occurs between......

Words: 303 - Pages: 2