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Pepsi and Coca

In: Business and Management

Submitted By DzitMun
Words 1526
Pages 7
1. Lịch sử:
Năm 1886, John Pemberton định làm một loại hương liệu đem lại cảm giác khỏe khoắn, tươi mới từ lá coca và chiết xuất của hạt cola tại nhà mình ở Atlanta. Ngẫu nhiên, hỗn hợp của ông đã được trộn với cácbonát thay vì nước đơn thuần. Cocacola ra đời từ đó. Sáu năm sau, Caleb Bradham, một dược sĩ khác ở New Bern, Bắc Caroline, đã đăng ký nhãn hiệu Pepsi cho một loại coca mới. Bradham chọn cái tên Pepsi vì công dụng làm giảm chứng khó tiêu của loại đồ uống này. Cuộc chiến giữa các loại cola bắt đầu, tuy khá âm thầm lúc ban đầu. Cùng năm đó, năm 1902, Cocacola lần đầu được quảng cáo trên tạp chí – tờ Munsey’s và công ty từ đó đã nhận ra nhu cầu thiết yếu cần một nhà chuyên nghiệp để xây dựng các quảng cáo cho mình. Năm 1904, chủ tịch Của Cocacola, ông Asa Candler đã chọn Massengale ở Atlanta làm công ty phụ trách quảng cáo đầu tiên của mình. Massengale đã cố gắng tạo dựng hình ảnh cho Cocacola bằng các quảng cáo thể hiện hình ảnh mọi người uống cola, với nỗ lực khai thác một yếu tố xã hội học: các nhân vật trong quảng cáo đều là những người Mỹ da trắng tầng lớp trung và thượng lưu đang giải trí trong các cuộc đi chơi . Bằng cách này hay cách khác, luôn luôn xuất hiện hình ảnh các quầy giải khát đằng sau các khung cảnh. Thời điểm này, Massengale cũng cho quảng cáo trên báo và tạp chí nhưng chủ yếu tập trung vào các loại xe điện và các bảng thông báo. Các thông điệp quảng cáo của Massengale nói chung là quá dài và công ty Cocacola đã hạn chế điều này bằng cách thuê thêm hãng W.C. D’Arcy đảm trách một phần công việc này. Cả hai hãng quảng cáo phải cùng chịu chung trách nhiệm và tung ra các quảng cáo chứng thực (testimonial advertising) Cuối cùng thì hãng Massengale đã bị hăt cẳng và đến năm 1908, D’Arcy và người đồng sự phụ trách kinh doanh Sam Dobbs đã ấp ủ giác mơ xây dựng biểu tượng ngoài trời lớn nhất thế giới lúc đó. Tẩm biển trên tuyến đường chính của đường ray Pennsylavania nằm giữa Philadelphia và New York đã được dựng đứng lên, cao 32 feet thể hiện hình ảnh một người đàn ông trẻ đang đổ nước Cocacola vào một cái ly, trông như những dòng suốt thật sự đang chảy ra từ nguồn. Nhờ thành công rực rỡ này cảu D’Arcy, năm 1909 hãng Cocacola đã được Hiệp hội quảng cáo Mỹ bầu chọn danh hiệu “Hãng có quảng cáo tốt nhất nước Mỹ”. Cocacola đã tiêu 761.981, 35 đô la vào quảng cáo. Trong khi đó, Pepsi vẫn chỉ theo đuôi phía sau. Nhà sáng chế của Pepsi, Caleb Bradham vẫn còn đang mê mải với những tuyên bố về Pepsi Cola như là “đem lại sự thoải mái” “tiếp thêm sinh lực” “hạn chế chứng khó tiêu” và “Đừng quên mua Pepsi tại các máy bán Soda”. Đến năm 1909 thì Pepsi cũng có được giấy chứng nhận của mình. Cocacola và D’Arcy đáp lại Pepsi và một lô các đối thủ, một vài trong số họ có những cái tên kỳ khôi như Coca Nola, Koke Ola, bằng cách thêm vào những cụm từ như “Duy nhất” “Không có kẻ thay thế” trong các quảng cáo của mình. Các đối thủ của Cocacola liên tiếp thất bại.
2. Tạo dựng hình ảnh
Trong những năm từ 1910 đến 1916, công ty Cocacola đã phải khẩn khoản yêu cầu công chúng không dùng từ “Coke” để chỉ nước ngọt của họ vì không muốn có dính líu tới loại ma túy có cùng biệt danh. Công ty quảng bá mạnh mẽ cho cái tên “Cocacola”. Tại các khu vực bán sođa, khách hàng được phục vụ Cocacola trên những cái khay kim loại đặc biệt gắn nhãn “Cocacola” và có hình một phụ nữ hoặc một người đàn ông trẻ trong với các cử chỉ, hành động “hoàn toàn Mỹ”. Những hình ảnh này còn xuất hiện trên khắp những bức tường của các cửa hàng thuốc. Đồ uống được đựng trong những chiếc cốc có chữ Cocacola, một sự duyệt trước của điều sẽ xảy ra sắp tới – bởi công ty đang rất thích thú với ý kiến về việc đóng chai cũng như cách đóng gói sản phẩm. Sau Chiến tranh thế giới lần thứ nhất, doanh thu của loại nước ngọt cácbonát giảm xuống. Peps thì hoàn toàn chìm lấp trong bóng của Cocacola và phá sản lần thứ nhất. Cocacola và D’Arcy quyết định đánh giá lại phân đoạn thị trường mục tiêu ở Mỹ. Họ nhận ra yếu tố quan trọng nhất làm nên thành công của Cocacola là nhờ việc xác định hình ảnh sản phẩm. Người đàn ông ngồi với chiếc cốc của Cocacola sẽ được coi là đang uống Coca cho dù anh ta trông tầm thường thế nào. Công ty cũng nhận ra là cần phải sớm có một tầm nhìn quảng cáo và những ý kiến mới.
Archie Lee, một doanh nhân đang thành đạt bắt đầu đầu quân cho nhóm quảng cáo Cocacola của D’Arcy năm 1922 đã tạo ra được những quảng cáo đáng nhớ nhất. Ông trau chuốt và đánh bóng lại quan niệm về Cocacola. Cocacola gợi lại trong tâm trí các khách hàng tiềm năng rằng cho dù bất kỳ chuyện gì đang xảy ra, thưởng thức Cocacola sẽ luôn là giây phút tuyệt vời nhất của họ. Quảng cáo của Archie Lee luôn có hình ảnh một phụ nữ đẹp. Theo lý thuyết của ông, phụ nữ trong quảng cáo của mình phải ở tầm tuổi 20 – lứa tuổi luôn nhận được sự mong chờ của mà những người trẻ hơn bởi sức hấp dẫn của nó và sự nhớ nhung của những người đã trải qua. Ông lý luận rằng những người phụ nữ này hấp dẫn cả nam giới và phụ bữ vì phụ nữ sẽ luôn nhìn thấy trong các hình ảnh những thứ để ganh đua hay phê phán và cho dù theo hướng nào thì họ vẫn bị thu hút.
Phong cách đồ họa trong quảng cáo của Coke cùng với phần còn lại của ngành đồ họa thương mại Mỹ có những thay đổi trong thời kỳ này. Các quảng cáo đã phát triển từ loại nghệ thuật hình thức và tĩnh vật do các nghệ sĩ vô danh thực hiện cho những người thợ in thạch bản từ đầu thế kỷ sang phong cách nghệ thuật tự do sáng tác bởi những nghệ sĩ tên tuổi cho những tờ báo in trên giấy bóng có số lượng phát hành lớn những năm 1920 và sau này. Chúng ta nhận được những thông điệp với số lượng chữ ngày càng ít đi và thay vào đó là những diễn đạt bằng hình ảnh, câu chuyện. Mục đích Archie Lee là nắm bắt được tinh thần của người Mỹ và tuyên bố việc uống Cocacola là yếu tố chính tạo nên cái gọi là cảm giác Mỹ. Vào những năm 1920, Archie Lee, D’Arcy và Cocacola bắt đầu tiến hành các nghiên cứu thị trường để tìm hiểu vì sao mọi người uống và đặc biệt vì sao họ uống các loại nước giải khát không cồn. Cocacola là công ty lớn đầu tiên thực hiện biểu đồ về lưu lượng giao thông của xe ô tô, nhờ đó có thể đặt các biển quảng cáo tại những nơi đông người qua lại nhất. Đến năm 1929, Cocacola đã tràn ngập nước Mỹ và lợi nhuận ào ạt chảy về công ty. Cần phải lưu rằng công ty đã không bị ảnh hưởng từ điều luật cấm bia được thông qua ở thế kỷ XVIII.
Công ty Pepsi Cola dần dần hồi phục sau vụ phá sản năm 1921. Vào giữa thế kỷ XX, Roy Megargel, một nhân vật của phố Wall đã mua công ty và dùng tiền túi để bù đắp các thua lỗ. Tuy vậy, Pepsi vẫn bị phá sản lần nữa vào năm 1931. Megargel không từ bỏ. Ông đã gặp được một doanh nhân sắc sảo và thú vị có tên Edward Guth, người sở hữu một loạt các cửa hàng kẹo khắp đất nước. Hai người đàn ông bắt tay nhau và Guth đã thay toàn bộ các máy Cocacola trong hệ thống cửa hàng kẹo của ông ta bằng Pepsi. Việc kinh doanh vẫn tiếp tục thất bại cho đến khi Guth viện đến phương cách cuối cùng: đóng Pepsi trong chai 10 ounce và bán với 1 nickel (5 xu) để cạnh tranh với chai Coca 6 ounce có giá tới 10 xu. Doanh thu của Pepsi đã tăng gấp đôi rồi gấp ba. Cuối cùng thì Cocacola cũng gặp được một đối thủ xứng tầm.

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...The Coca-Cola Company vs. PepsiCo, Inc The Coca-Cola Company versus PepsiCo, Inc In this paper I will discuss the case of the pension plan between Coca-Cola and PepsiCo Inc. I will be comparing the pension plans of both companies of what they offer as well as the funded status at the end of 2007. You will also see that I have calculated the different rates used by both companies while they are trying to compute their portion of the pension amount. I will also explain through my justification which company myself would want to invest with as a shareholder. And lastly I will justify which company I would like to work with as an employee. 1. Compare the pension plans of Coca-Cola and PepsiCo, including type of plan and funded status at 2007 year-end. Each organization offers and sponsors 401K pension plans as well as medical and life insurance benefit plans for their employees or associates. Not all employees are eligible for participation in all plans. Coca Cola has a defined contribution plan that includes all U.S. employees and some international employees. This is a contributory plan; both the employer and the employee make contributions. This plan offers substantial tax benefits for the contributions made by the employer. In addition, Coca Cola also has a defined benefit pension plan. This plan is considered a nonqualified, unfunded plan primarily for the organizations officers, most U.S. employees, and some international employees. This plan offers no tax......

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Coca vs. Pepsi

...In 1886, the Coca Cola Company was developed but it wasn't until 1898 that the fierce competitor Pepsi-Cola entered into the market. These two companies are the two major players that dominate the consumer beverage industry. Historically, the carbonated soft drink industry in the United Stated has been profitable for various reasons. The industry's two dominant players Coke and Pepsi have both grown their revenues by 10% annually from 1975 to 1994. By 1998, the US beverage industry reached stability with gallons of carbonated soft drinks consumed per capita on an annual basis floating between 54 and 52.3. Before the market reached this plateau, Coke and Pepsi were able to maintain high profitability simply because the market kept growing, which allowed for profitable sales growth. Coke and Pepsi have since been competing to rein the global market in consumer beverages. The global soft drink market is large at approximately US$ 410 billion (2002). In volume terms, the market size is estimated at 72 billion cases. US is the largest soft drink market and accounts for approximately 23% of global volumes. In terms of per capita consumption, US is ranked third behind UAE and Mexico. U.S. annual sales of refreshments total approximately US $88 billion. The Coca-Cola Company (TCCC) owns four of the top five soft-drink brands (Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Fanta, and Sprite). Its other brands include Minute Maid, Powerade, and Dasani water. In North America it sells Groupe Danone's......

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Coca-Cola vs Pepsi

...Christine Worth MBA515 Financial Statement Analysis Project Outline Compare & Contrast Coca-Cola vs. PepsiCo Financial Analysis Income Statement vs Cash Flow Accounts with greatest difference Evaluation of Fiscal Period Profitability Liquidity Leverage Financial Reporting Practices Methods for Accounting Coca-Cola Pepsi Company Disclosures Compare & Contrast Clarity & Completeness Critical Analysis Decision Investment Equity Investor Coca-Cola Company verses PepsiCo Critical Analysis of Investment The three financial statements required for external reports are the income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. The statement of cash flow highlights the major activities that impact cash flows, which affect the overall cash balance (Garrison, Noreen & Brewer, 2012). Equity investors utilize these financial statements for a critical analysis of the firm’s financial stability before making an investment. Based on a comparison of the income statements to the statements of cash flows for Coca-Cola and PepsiCo, the following accounts report the greatest differences between net income and cash flow from operations. Coca-Cola Company 2010 2009 2008 * Gain from Sale of Asset $(5,358) $(43) $(130) * Income of Equity Investments (671) (359) 1,128 * Change in Accounts Payable 656 319 (576) * Change in Other Working Capital (161) (510) (41) PepsiCo 2010 2009 2008 *......

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Coca-Cola vs Pepsi

...Business Analysis During this research work, Coca-Cola Company will be studied in order to review: 1.-Company Background 2.-Company Mission 3.-Company Vision 4.-Coca-Cola Business Environment 5.-Income Statement (Comparisons between Coca-Cola vs. PepsiCo). 6.-Balance Sheet (Comparisons between Coca-Cola vs. PepsiCo). 7.-Cash Flow Statement (Comparisons between Coca-Cola vs. PepsiCo). 8.-SWOT Matrix 9.-Economic trends and influence to Coca-Cola Company 10.-Strategies used by Coca-Cola Company 11.-Technological Advantages 12.-Coca-Cola and Globalization 13.-Coca-Cola’s Human Resource Management 14.-Management Decisions 15.-Conclusion Company Background So the first let’s find out who is Coca-Cola, where it’s come from, how big is this company, where you can find its products, since when is the market, who are the principals competitors from this company to have a better understanding who is this company. What is Coca-cola and where it’s come from? Coca-Cola is a beverage which is carbonated soft drink, was invented by Doctor John Pemberton who was a pharmacist form Atlanta, Georgia in May 1886, then 1887 Asa Candler bought the formula from John. By late 1890s, Coca-Cola was one of America’s most popular fountain drinks, because of a very aggressive marketing campaign; as a result the syrup sales went over 4000% at that time, then by 1960’s the soda fountain consumption declined its popularity and bottled soft drinks and fast food restaurants became......

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