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Perceptions of College Students Toward Rh Bill

In: Social Issues

Submitted By bongbongflores
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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

The Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012 (Republic Act No. 10354), informally known as the Reproductive Health Law or RH Bill, is a law in the Philippines, which guarantees universal access to methods on contraception, fertility control, sexual education, and maternal care.

While there is general agreement about its provisions on maternal and child health, there is great debate on its mandate that the Philippine government and the private sector will fund and undertake widespread distribution of family planning devices such as condoms, birth control pills, and IUDs, as the government continues to disseminate information on their use through all health care centers.

Passage of the legislation was controversial and highly divisive, with experts, academics, religious institutions, and major political figures declaring their support or opposition while it was pending in the legislature. Heated debates and rallies both supporting and opposing the RH Bill took place nationwide.

The Supreme Court delayed implementation of the law in March 2013 in response to challenges. As of August 18 this delay was still in force "until further orders".

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

One of the most controversial issues confronting the Philippines today is about reproductive health. Many written materials and publications are available asserting about elements of reproductive health with different perspectives. Their ultimate goal is to improve quality of life and provide for sustainable human development. The Philippines is a signatory country of the International Conference Plan of Action of Reproductive Health in Cairo in 1994. The primary goal is achieving “Better Quality of Life Among Filipinos”. Reproductive health ensures a more efficient and effective referral system from primary to tertiary, public and private facilities.

The elements that are crucial to reproductive health are as follows: (1) family planning, (2) maternal and child health and nutrition, (3) prevention and management of reproductive tract infections including sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, (4) adolescent reproductive health, (5) prevention and management of abortion and its complications, (6) prevention and management of breast and reproductive tract cancers and other gynecological conditions, (7) education and counseling on sexuality and sexual health men’s reproductive health involvement, (8) adolescent reproductive health, (9) violence against women and children, and lastly (10) prevention and management of infertility and sexual dysfunction.

This study provides a framework that could serve as a guide for individuals in order to promote wellness in certain stage of life. It comprises of broad topics namely: family planning, safe motherhood, male and female reproductive health, prevention of Sexually Transmitted Disease, and other areas. The main purpose of this study was to facilitate a process by which certain age groups are empowered to increase awareness and to take their action to better meet their own reproductive health needs and for attaining a better quality of life.

RELATED STUDIES

The issue of reproductive health in Philippines was controversial as seen in many articles and publications. The curiosity about the controversy motivated the researcher to seek what is unknown and to justify the problem through a means of research. Furthermore, many young adolescents were increasingly vulnerable to teenage pregnancies. Thus the researcher also intended to identify the relationship between the vitality of reproductive health and level of awareness and wellness among selected schools in Metro Manila.

The population of interest came from four different schools in Metro Manila S.Y. 2011-2012. The school was dissected into the public school and the private school. The two public schools are Victorino Mapa High School, located in San Rafael St., San Miguel and E. Rodriguez Vocational High School, located in Nagtahan, Sampaloc. The two private schools are Montessori De San Juan, located On Montessori Lane, San Juan and National University, located in M.F. Jhocson St., Sampaloc. The entire population of the respondents was 131 high school students with an age range between 13 and 18 years old.

Through the aid of Slovin’s formula, 100 samples were identified. 100 representatives of the sample were drawn using fish bowl technique. The year level selected by the researcher were the to third and fourth year high school students.

According to Lagman (2008) the reproductive health (RH) bill promotes information on and access to both natural and modern family planning methods, which are medically safe and legally permissible. It assures an enabling environment where women and couples have the freedom of informed choice on the mode of family planning they want to adopt based on their needs, personal convictions and religious beliefs. The Coverage of Reproductive Health includes (Lagman, 2008): (1) information and access to natural and modern family planning, (2) maternal, infant and child health and nutrition, (3) promotion of breast feeding, (4) prevention of abortion and management of post-abortion complications, (5) adolescent and youth health, (6) prevention and management of reproductive tract infections, hiv/aids and stds, (7) elimination of violence against women (8) counseling on sexuality and sexual and reproductive health, (9) treatment of breast and reproductive tract cancers, (10) male involvement and participation in rh, (11) prevention and treatment of infertility, and (12) RH education for the youth.

Doronila (2010) stated that the government of the Philippines might give assistance to families who need contraceptives to limit the number of their children. Stated by President Aquino (2010) “We are all guided by our consciences; the state’s duty is to educate our families as to their responsibilities and to respect their decisions if they are in conformity with our laws.” Fundamental differences hold the intervention of contraceptives takes place before the conception of human life that is before a human fetus is formed. Therefore, according to this view, there is no human life aborted by contraceptives (Aquino administration, 2010). Doronilas (2010) has bearing on the present study because the cause of the problem may be due to low level of awareness or being unaware about reproductive health. Such attitudes make the high school students vulnerable to teenage pregnancies and other reproductive health problems. These problems may be resolved by giving information, education, and proper communication or counseling.

Sarkozy (2010) recognized that low levels of access to contraception and lack of control over reproductive choices and health decision-making often mean that Indian women give birth too early in life and too frequently. The author also identified four reproductive rights namely: (1) reproductive health as a part of overall health, throughout the life cycle, for both men and women, (2) reproductive executive counting voluntary choice in marriage, family formation and determination of the number, timing and spacing of one's children and the right to have access to the in sequence and means desirable to exercise voluntary choice (3) equality and evenhandedness for men and women, to allow individuals to make free and informed choice in all sphere of life, free from bias based on gender, and (4) sexual and reproductive refuge, including freedom from sexual violence and coercion, and the correct to privacy.
In a study by Baldwin et al. (2008) throughout 2001, nearly all 14-18-yearolds and a majority of 12-year-olds were aware of emergency contraceptives (EC). Among 12-14-year-olds, a slight increase in awareness between 1999 and 2003 was observed but this was not related to non-prescription status. Health-compromising behavior (alcohol use, smoking), dating and having better school achievement were related to higher awareness of emergency contraceptives. 9 % of 14-18-year-olds had used emergency contraceptives once and 1% with three times or more. No statistically significant change in emergency contraceptive use was found after non-prescription status. EC uses increased with increasing alcohol consumption, particularly at age 14.

Smoking, dating, and poor school achievement was related to increased use as well as not living in a nuclear family. A lower use was observed if living in rural area or father's education was high. Mother's education was not related to use. In 2007, Fawole conducted a study on overall knowledge of adolescent reproductive health (ARH) revealed that most applications of peer education combine many different messages concerning adolescent reproductive health. Outcome evaluations clearly indicate an increased level of awareness and knowledge about ARH. For instance, an evaluation of the West African Youth Initiative in Nigeria and Ghana “indicates significant positive effects of program participants’ knowledge, perceived self-efficacy, and behaviour”. A peer education effort in Sri Lanka reported that over 50,000 adolescents in predominantly rural areas had been reached with information concerning adolescent reproductive health issues. A similar effort in Cambodia reported that 2000 young people had received critical ARH information through just one activity of its Youth RH Program.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study aims to identify, analyze and describe the “PERCEPTIONS OF COLLEGE STUDENTS TOWARD RH BILL” of the College of Information and Communication Technology Department, AY 2013-2014.

This study ought to answer the following questions:

I. Perception towards RH Bill
• RH Bill is ungodly and unacceptable
• RH Bill is the answer to lessen the population growth
• RH Bill helps to fight different disease like STD and HIV
• We don’t need to focus on the issue of RH Bill. There are lots of problems we need to resolve first
• RH Bill is just an instrument of government to earn money
• RH Bill is the key to the issue of poverty

II. Impact of RH Bill especially to youth
• RH Bill tempts the youth to engage in pre-marital sex
• RH Bill lessen the case of teenage pregnancy
• RH Bill teaches the youth to take care of themselves

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

This study pertains to the 3rd year level of College of Information and Communication Technology in Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology, Cabanatuan City, 1ST semester, AY 2013-1014. A total number of 100 BSIT 3rd year students (20% of the total population of BSIT 3rd year students) are the respondents of this study.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study may provide vital information to the students/youths, their parents, and professors who show concern to this study:

To the Students/Youths. This study will encourage the students/youths to be aware on how they take care of themselves. To the Parents. Their duty is to guide, take care of their child and to be open in communication to them to know their daily lives. To the Professors. As the second parents, their duty is also to guide their students and give them a better chance to understand the value of being aware on taking care of themselves.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Input Process Output

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The conceptual framework determined the 3rd year students in the College of Information and Communication Technology of NEUST School Year 2013-2014 who were surveyed to reveal their point of view/perceptions regarding the issue of RH Bill. This would be imparted in the understanding of parents, students and readers on how a student/youth can take care of their reproductive health.

Through this, awareness of the youths will greatly be improved. This study also allows the future researchers to expand in the study for the benefit of their own child or for themselves.

CHAPTER II
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter will present the method of research employed in gathering the data source and the treatment of data.

METHOD OF RESEARCH The study made use of descriptive method of research. This process involves the use of surveying procedures to assess the perceptions of college students toward RH Bill. 100 3rd year BSIT students were surveyed to obtain the information needed.

Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied.

SOURCE OF DATA The one hundred (100) chosen respondents were given set of questionnaires. One hundred percent of the distributed questionnaires were retrieved, which, then were interpreted. This revealed the perceptions of 3rd year level of Information Technology students of NEUST, AY 2013-2014.

STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA One hundred students were given questionnaires to gain the data necessary to answer the equations in the statement of the problem. This process is an accurate way of obtaining the data which was studied by the researcher.

THE FORMULA
% = F/N x 100
Where: % = stands for percentage F = stands for frequency N = stands for total frequency Weighted mean was also used in order to know the overall average of responses of the respondents of the study. FV = V x F
Where:
V = value F = frequency
WM was determined by: WM = TFV/N
Where:
WM = weighted mean TFV = total frequency value N = total number of respondents for the verbal interpretation of the weighted mean, the following range of average was used:
Range of Average Verbal Interpretation
1.00 – 1.50 Agree
1.51 – 2.00 Disagree

CHAPTER III
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data gathered from the respondents through questionnaire.

TABLE 1
Perception towards RH bill
Items V F % FV WM VI
1.1 RH Bill is ungodly and unacceptable 1 89 89 89
1.11
Agree 2 11 11 22
1.2 RH Bill is the answer to lessen the population growth 1 45 45 45
1.55
Disagree 2 55 55 110
1.3 RH Bill helps to fight different disease like STD and HIV 1 62 62 62
1.38
Agree 2 38 38 76
1.4 We don’t need to focus on the issue of RH Bill 1 57 57 57
1.43
Agree 2 43 43 86
1.5 RH Bill is just an instrument of government to earn more money 1 57 57 57
1.43
Agree 2 43 43 86
1.6 RH Bill is the key to the issue of poverty 1 41 41 41
1.59
Disagree 2 59 59 118

In item 1.1. which is “RH Bill is ungodly and unacceptable”, out of 100 respondents 89% are Agree and 11% are Disagree. It obtained a weighted mean of 1.11 and verbally interpreted as Agree. In item 1.2. which is “RH Bill is the answer to lessen the population growth”, out of 100 respondents 45% are Agree and 55% are Disagree. It obtained a weighted mean of 1.55 and verbally interpreted as Disagree. In item 1.3. which is “RH Bill helps to fight different disease like STD and HIV”, out of 100 respondents 62% are Agree and 38% are Disagree. It obtained a weighted mean of 1.38 and verbally interpreted as Agree. In item 1.4. which is “We don’t need to focus on the issue of RH Bill”, out of 100 respondents 57% are Agree and 43% are Disagree. It obtained a weighted mean of 1.43 and verbally interpreted as Agree. In item 1.5. which is “RH Bill is just an instrument of government to earn more money”, out of 100 respondents 57% are Agree and 43% are Disagree. It obtained a weighted mean of 1.43 and verbally interpreted as Agree. In item 1.6. which is “RH Bill is the key to the issue of poverty”, out of 100 respondents 41% are Agree and 59% are Disagree. It obtained a weighted mean of 1.59 and verbally interpreted as Disagree.

This table shows that most of the 3rd year BSIT college students of NEUST are strongly agree that RH Bill is really ungodly and unacceptable. They also agree that it fights different disease such as STD and HIV. They believe that we don’t need to focus on RH Bill because there’s a lot of serious problem that we need to resolve first. They also believe that this is just an instrument of the government to earn more money.
However, they are strongly disagree that RH bill is the key to the issue of poverty. They also disagree that it will lessen our population growth. Maybe they are thinking that there’s other way for this like family planning.

TABLE 2
Impact of RH Bill Especially to Youth
Items V F % FV WM VI
2.1 RH Bill tempts the youth to engage in pre-marital sex 1 68 68 68
1.32
Agree 2 32 32 64
2.2 RH Bill lessen the case of teenage pregnancy 1 59 59 59
1.41
Agree 2 41 41 82
2.3 RH Bill teaches the youth to take care of themselves 1 64 64 64
1.36
Agree 2 36 36 72

In item 2.1. which is “RH Bill tempts the youth to engage in pre-marital sex”, out of 100 respondents 68% are Agree and 32% are Disagree. It obtained a weighted mean of 1.32 and verbally interpreted as Agree. In item 2.2. which is “RH Bill lessen the case of teenage pregnancy”, out of 100 respondents 59% are Agree and 41% are Disagree. It obtained a weighted mean of 1.41 and verbally interpreted as Agree. In item 2.3. which is “RH RH Bill teaches the youth to take care of themselves”, out of 100 respondents 64% are Agree and 36% are Disagree. It obtained a weighted mean of 1.36 and verbally interpreted as Agree. This table shows that most of them agree in the given questions. The BSIT 3rd year students in NEUST believe that RH Bill can tempt the youth to engage in sex, it lessen the teenage pregnancy, and it can teach us/them to take care of themselves.

CHAPTER IV
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary This study entitled “Perceptions of College Students Toward RH Bill” of 3rd year level taking Bachelor of Science in Information Technology at NEUST specifically answered the following problems:

1. Perception towards RH Bill
• RH Bill is ungodly and unacceptable
• RH Bill helps to fight different disease like STD and HIV
• RH Bill is just an instrument of government to earn more money

2. Impacts of RH Bill especially to youth
• RH Bill tempts the youth to engage in pre-marital sex
• RH Bill lessen the case of teenage pregnancy
• RH Bill teaches the youth to take care of themselves

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

The following are the findings of the study:

1. RH Bill is ungodly and unacceptable is the item that has the more respondents to agree obtaining a weighted mean of 1.11. Most of the students are religious type and they believe that this is ungodly.

2. RH Bill tempts the youth to engage in pre-marital sex is the item that has the more respondents to agree obtaining a weighted mean of 1.32. Students believe that this may cause to the engagement of youth in pre-marital sex that can lead to many problems.

CONCLUSION

Based on the findings the following conclusions could be made:

1. The respondents are aware in terms of religious beliefs, to our society/government, body awareness and gender awareness, in relation to sexuality awareness and in terms of pregnancy risks awareness.
2. The mean degree of open communication among the respondents about reproductive health was considered “significant”.

3. Significant relationship existed between the perceived vitality of reproductive health and level of awareness and wellness among 3rd year Bachelor of Science in Information Technology students of NEUST. This meant that the level of awareness among students in NEUST shows significant relationship to perceived vitality of reproductive health

RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the summary of findings and conclusions drawn, the following points are recommended:

1. To the respondents, particularly to the youths, health education with the use of health teaching with regards to the necessary information about reproductive health including how those individual adapt to his or her sexual environment; to know what is the advantages and disadvantages of reproductive health as they are being aware of, and what is the effect of it to them.

2. To the parents, who use to be the guardian of the said respondents, to have open communication with their children to assess changes, problems or any conflicts, and so as to support their child by discussing every topics they are intended to know about themselves for them to know the right and avoid what is being avoided, with this, children are not merely confuse and aware of everything by the use of their primary educators.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

I. Web
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsible_Parenthood_and_Reproductive_Health_Act_of_2012
• http://www.hej.kk.usm.my/pdf/HEJVol.3No.2/Article08.pdf
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Descriptive_research

II. Unpublished Materials
• Alegado, Almon, “Factors Affecting the Academic Performances of Varsity Players of Engineering Department, NEUST SY 2012-2013”

SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE
PERCEPTIONS OF THE COLLEGE STUDENTS TOWARD RH BILL
Name(Optional):__________________________________
Age: ______ Gender: M __ F __

Direction:
Put a check under the number that correspond your answer. Rest assured that responses will be treated with high confidentiality.

Uses the following as response guide:
1 – Agree
2 - Disagree
1. Perception towards RH Bill 1 2
1.1 RH Bill is ungodly and unacceptable.
(Ang RH Bill ay hindi naayon sa kristiyanong paniniwala.)
1.2 RH Bill is the answer to lessen the population growth
(Ang RH Bill ang sagot sa patuloy na paglobo ng populasyon.)
1.3 RH Bill helps to fight different disease like STD and HIV.
(Ang RH Bill ay makatutulong na malabanan/maiwasan ang mga sakit tulad ng STD at HIV.)
1.4 We don’t need to focus on the issue of RH Bill. There are lots of problems we need to resolve first.
(Hindi dapat pagtuunan ng pansin ang RH Bill. Maraming mas seryosong problema ang bansa.)
1.5 RH Bill is just an instrument of government to earn more money.
(Ang RH Bill ay ginagamit lang ng gobyerno para mas kumita ng pera.)
1.6 RH Bill is the key to the issue of poverty.
(Ang RH Bill ang susi sa kahirapan.)
2. Impact of RH Bill especially to youth
2.1 RH Bill tempts the youth to engage in pre-marital sex.
(Ang RH Bill ang magtutulak sa mga kabataan na makipagtalik.)
2.2 RH Bill lessen the case of teenage pregnancy
(Dahil sa RH Bill mababawasan ang kaso ng maagang pagbubuntis ng mga kababaihan.)
2.3 RH Bill teaches the youth to take care of themselves.
(Ang RH Bill ay mahalaga para matuto ang mga kabataan na pangalagaan ang kanilang sarili.)

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