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Tablet PC and math learning Improving mathematics learning is a major educational challenge. It is predicted that schoolchildren across the developed world, will soon have personal Tablet computers with the potential to support learning (Osmon 2011). Manuguerra and Petocz, (2011) stated that the use of the iPad allows lecturers to have a very quick, efficient and sustainable workflow in their marking of student work. Garland (2006) indicated that portable computers are becoming increasingly common in schools. The inclusion of laptops, tablet PCs, Alpha Smarts, and Palm Pilots, which make up a larger share of school technology, is estimated at upwards of 48% (McLester, 2003), and a full 72% of elementary students have online access (Gray & Lewis, 2009).In this regard, the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) has the potential to change teaching and learning by acting as a source of knowledge, a medium for transmitting content and a resource that fosters dialogue and exploration (Levin & Wadmany, 2008 as cited by Attard and Curry, 2012). This connects to the statement which claims that iPad the market leading Tablet is predicted by Gartner forecasts, quoted by Halliday (2011), to sell about 48 million iPads worldwide in 2011. This is a near fourfold increase on 2010 and about 70% of the market. The iPad has been used as a means to engage, inspire and motivate students through high-level presentation and communication tools. It has changed the pedagogical approach, making the learning experience simpler and yet deeper. The results show that students learn best when technologies are seamlessly integrated into the curriculum to enhance their learning experience (Manuguerra and Petocz, 2011). Further stating that the interest and the participation of students in lectures using Tablet PCs are manifestly higher, and the students feel ‘safer’ in that they know they will be able to access the details later. Not surprisingly, when students have been offered a return to the traditional lecture approach, their answer has always been unanimously and universally negative (Manuguerra and Petocz, 2011). In a pilot by Petty (2007) findings revealed that the Tablet Math System was successfully integrated into classroom activities signaled by students completing almost 20,000 problems over 18 weeks on six tablet PCs rotated between three classes concluding a highly favorable perceptions of the Tablet Math System. Respondents said that they greatly preferred the tablet pc to paper, and were even eager to do math, believing they did better on math presented on the tablet PC than on paper (Petty, 2007). The finding of Petty (2007) is significant because student perception and self-confidence are vital to learning basic mathematics. Improving student perception may very well lead to increased learning and retention, as per the self-fulfilling prophecy. Tablet PC and student perception in learning Koon and Murray, (1995) as cited by Centra and Gaubatz (2005) stated that more comprehensive indicators of student learning would go beyond a single exam score, which typically reflects only narrowly defined course objectives. Such indicators might include student perceptions of their increase in interest in the subject, critical thinking skills, interpersonal outcomes (e.g. cooperative abilities), intrapersonal outcomes (e.g. self-understanding) and other broad course outcomes. Thus, this study reflects the perception of the Grade VII pupils on using the tablet PC as a viable replacement for mathematics textbooks. Using technology in order to heighten the engagement in student learning has been around for a while. Before the entry of tablet PCs in the market, another mobile technology was already been in place and these are the

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mobile phones. Studies conducted as regards to the use of this mobile gadget indicated positive feedback. To be more particular, Baya'a and Daher, (2009) posited that the students perceived various qualities of the mathematics learning enabled by the use of mobile phones such as exploring mathematics independently, learning mathematics through collaboration and team work; where the collaboration is on equal terms, learning mathematics in a societal and humanistic environment, learning mathematics in authentic real life situations, visualizing mathematics and investigating it dynamically, performing diversified mathematical actions using new and advanced technologies and learning mathematics easily and efficiently. More so, in a controlled group research conducted by Kosheleva, Rusch and Ioudina, (2006), revealed that the technology enhanced group achieved significantly higher mean scores than the control group. These higher mean scores obtained by the treatment group translates into the treatment group having a greater understanding of math content when compared to the control group. This can be directly contributed to the effective implementation of the Tablet PC technology in the math and math methods courses (Kosheleva, Rusch, Ioudina, 2006). Meanwhile, Bienkowski , Haertel, et al of Center for Technology in Learning, (2006) revealed that in the study they have conducted, the 12- to 16-year-olds respondents rated their IT proficiency before the Tablet PC implementation as average to very good, using their Tablet PCs to search for information, take notes, write reports, and access information posted by their teachers on a school portal. They also use the Tablet PC to work on group assignments, sharing files and data via close-range infrared transmission or USB flash drives. These creative students also enjoy creating presentations and artwork, and in one of the schools, the halls and administration conference rooms showcase student Manga art (Bienkowski , Haertel, et al of Center for Technology in Learning, 2006). Boon, Fore and Rasheed (2007) examined students’ attitudes and perceptions toward technology-based instruction and found that the majority of students participating in their study also had a positive attitude toward the use of computers as a teaching aid. It was noted that there was increased satisfaction amongst students with disabilities. (Adams and Hayes, 2009). Couse and Chen, (2010) on a research on young school children aged 3-6 years old found significant differences in level of tablet use between sessions, and engagement increased with age. Although technical issues in learning this new technology were encountered, children were interested and persisted without frustration. What seems to matter for children’s learning is the ways teachers choose to implement this technology. While Liu (2006 p.345 as cited by Adams and Hayes 2009) wrote “students stated that the environment with wireless technology was desirable and said that they hoped to continue using the environment to learn mathematics”. A case study by Borse and Sloan (2005, cited by Couse and Chen, 2010) focusing on the fourth and eighth graders’ use of stylus interfaced technology reported benefits such as high levels of student engagement, improved writing process, higher rates of homework completion, and fewer absences. Further, Schroeder (2004) found anecdotal support for improved student engagement with high school students due to the highly interactive nature of tablet computers. Results of the study conducted by Couse and Chen (2010) revealed that children were seldom frustrated and persisted in their work even when the number of technical incidents increased. Further, in the last session, when children experienced more computer-based technical instances, they attained a significantly higher level of tablet use. Thus the technology does not seem to inhibit children’s persistence or ability to use it.

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In the research of Attard and Curry (2012), where they have explored the Use of iPads to Engage Young Students with Mathematics, results indicated that students appear to have had a positive experience during the trial and the classroom teacher believed their engagement with mathematics had improved as a result. Although there were challenges involved in integrating the iPads into mathematics lessons, some teaching practices were adapted to accommodate the technology. The study of Owston and Wideman (2004) indicated that Grade 8 students became more motivated toward their schoolwork as a result of having their own personal Tablet PC, despite occasional technical problems that caused lost work and frozen machines. Teachers and students alike, with a few exceptions, felt that the quality of student work and possibly some grades had improved. Also, network capacity and reliability caused problems too. The relatively low capacity of the network did not allow for many simultaneous network transactions by students. Frequent down time caused teachers to have to substantially alter their plans. In the research report for Microsoft by the Center for Technology and Learning (2005) on tablet PC, an increase in positive classroom practices took place such as students exploring a topic on their own and researching beyond their textbooks was reported. All in all as revealed by Attard and Curry (2012) in their research, the use of the iPads appears to have increased student engagement by providing a resource that promoted interactivity, immediate feedback, challenge and fun. In this regard, a cascading model on the use of tablet-Pc in consonance with a regressing need for using the textbook had been applied to express that a higher agreement or positive perception in using tablet PC in math subjects represents a lowering demand of using textbooks. Profiling of the students perception on the use of tablet PC in place of math textbooks were done, and levels of agreement in perceiving the tablet PC as a viable math text book replacement were measured on a 7-leveled Likert scale; where seven (7) implies a strong agreement that the tablet PC is the total replacement or alternative to math textbooks; six (6) stands for agree or the tablet PC is a better alternative or replacement to current math textbooks; five (5) or moderately agree means the tablet PC is a possible replacement or alternative to math textbooks; four (4) or neither agree or disagree stands for the tablet PC tablet PC may or may not be a possible replacement or alternative to mathematics textbooks; three (3) or moderately disagree means the tablet PC may sometimes be an alternative or replacement for mathematics textbooks; while two (2) or disagree means the tablet PC is not yet an alternative or replacement for mathematics textbooks; and one (1) or strongly disagree stands for the tablet PC will never be an alternative or replacement for mathematics textbooks. More so, significant differences between the final grades of those pupils who used and did not used the tablet PC in their math subjects were determined followed by examining the significant relationship of the STUM variables with final academic grades in math of those who used the tablet PC as instructional and learning tool. All in all the research sought to measure and find out the levels of perception of the respondents in using the tablet as a replacement for textbooks along with finding out if such perception impacts their academic math performance.

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Figure 1. The Conceptual Framework

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Overview of the study This study was conducted on the sections of the Grade VII pupils of Systems Plus College Foundation who were commissioned to use the tablet PC as a replacement for their math textbooks. The initiative was part of the plan to fully initialize the project of using the tablet PC as the resource gadget in teaching and learning math to all the Grade VII students and eventually to the other lower level grades as well. As part of evaluating its initial implementation such study was conducted in order to get a scientific response from the end-users on how they perceive the impact of the tablet PC as a textbook replacement in their math subject. In this case, purposive sampling was used since there were only two sections commissioned to pilot the use of the tablet PC as a math textbook replacement. All of the forty-eight (48) students in these particular sections participated in the study. The questionnaire used was prepared from the constructs and items found on various related studies and literature. They were selected and constructed according to what suited the levels and conditions of the learning environment and expected possible experiences of the respondents in using tablet PCs in their math subject. All in all, 25 items were created to measure the respondents’ levels of perception of using the tablet PC as a viable replacement to math textbook, and these items were divided into eight (8) segments as a result of the factor analysis done. These eight factors are referred to as Scale for Tablet PC Use in Mathematics or STUM which comprises usability in higher mathematics, more interesting way to learn math, minimal school bag load, visual learning of math, extended tablet usage, time saving device, interactive technology tool and instructional tool for learning math. Such factors were extracted and computed using one exploratory factor analysis for each dimension, while the convergent validity were assesses via factor loading, communality and extracted variance; and the reliability was tested through the Cronbach’s alpha. T-tests determined the possible significant difference in using the tablet or textbooks in math learning while Pearson R determined the potential correlation between tablet PCuse and final grades of respondents in math. Results and discussions Based from the perception survey done, the Grade VII pupils’ general perception scored a 5.40 general mean average stating that the tablet PC is a possible alternative or replacement for mathematics textbooks. Items in the STUM by which the respondents provided an agree answer on their over-all perceptions consist of the tablet PC being easy to carry and save students from loads of textbook, suitability in searching information, enhances the learning of math visually, that it is a suitable tool for social media extending learning pedagogies outside the classroom, it provides reliable information, increases the

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ability of the students to use technological tools, it can be used in other subjects like science and it can also be use in learning higher math. Table 1. STUM Constructs with agree responses. STUM Constructs Easy to carry because it can save students from loads of textbooks Suitable for searching information. Enhances the students’ learning of math visually. Satisfactory tool for social media. Provides reliable information. Increases the ability of the students to use technological tools. Can also be used in other subjects like science. Can be used to learn higher mathematics. Average N 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 Min 4 3 2 2 4 1 1 3 2.5 Max 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Mean 6.27 6.02 5.94 5.67 5.73 5.67 5.65 5.46 5.80

On the other hand the remaining items on the STUMS registered an over-all perception of moderate agreement among the respondents. These items consist of recognizing the tablet PC as a replacement for textbooks in learning math; that it allows greater interaction between students and teachers, participative and active learning, a chance for students to work on their math activities outdoors and for students to learn math better personally; provides accurate information; enables independent learning, exploratory activities for students and development of their patience; makes learning of math more fun, interesting and their classes more dynamic and less boring; facilitates the understanding of math lesson; that it is an appropriate instructional tool for learning math; saves more time in learning math and it increases the participation of students’ classroom discussion.

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Table 2. STUM Constructs with moderately agree responses. STUM Variables Serves as a replacement for textbooks in learning math Allows for greater interaction between students and teachers. Provides accurate information. Enables independent learning. Encourages group/cooperative learning. Enables students to do exploratory activities. Allows students to learn math better personally. Makes the learning of math more fun. Facilitates the understanding of our math lesson. Enables the students to develop patience. Allows for participative and active learning. An appropriate instructional tool for learning math. Makes the study of math interesting. Makes the math class more dynamic and less boring. Can save the students more time in learning math. Increases the participation of students in our classroom discussions on math. Allows the students to work outdoors. Average N 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 Min 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1.88 Max 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 Mean 5.42 5.32 5.34 5.21 5.23 5.19 5.21 5.15 5.08 5.08 5.15 5.04 4.90 4.92 4.73 4.59 4.59 5.07

In the factor analysis, eight segments were revealed wherein the tablet PC being perceived as a suitable tool for searching information and enhancement for visual learning makes-up the highest STUM variable of enhancing visual learning in math. This was followed by the perceptions that the gadget saves students from heavy loads of textbooks and so therefore the tablet PC serves as a better replacement for math textbooks, by which it comprises the second highest STUM of minimal school bag load. On the other hand, interactive technology tool is the third identified factor STUM composed of the perceptions that the tablet PC provides reliable information, an efficient tool for social media and thus enables independent learning.

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More so, the usability of tablet PC for higher math was a stand alone STUM factor, followed by the tablet being viewed as a time-saving device with operating characteristics of enabling students to develop patience as it increases their ability to use technological tools, facilitating their understanding of math lessons and promotes cooperative learning. Meanwhile, learning math in an interesting way functions around the characteristics of the tablet PC perceived to make learning of math to be more fun and that it provides accurate information; followed by the factor variable of extended tablet usage wherein the functional distinctiveness are perceptions of exploratory activities, working outdoors, using the gadget on other subjects and makes math classes dynamic and less boring. Lastly, perceptions that the tablet PC allows students to learn math better personally, brings in participative and active learning, makes room for greater class interaction and increases participation comprises the operating characteristic of the last STUM variable which is appropriate tool for learning math. Table 3. STUM variables and factor analysis results with Likert’s operating charactetistics.

STUM Variables Enhances visual learning of math Loading 0.72 Mean 5.95 5 Minimal school bag load 14 0.73 5.85 7 Interactive technology tool Usability in higher mathematics 4 3 15 22 13 17 Time saving device 0.66 5.16 16 12 10 More interesting way to learn math 9 8 Item No. 19 Operating Characteristics Tablet PC enhances the students’ learning of math visually. Tablet PC is a suitable tool for searching information. Tablet PC is easy to carry because it can save students from the load of textbooks. Tablet PC can serve as a replacement for textbooks in learning math. Tablet PC provides reliable information. Tablet PC is a satisfactory tool for social media. Tablet PC enables independent learning. Tablet PC can be used to learn higher mathematic. Tablet PC can save the students more time in learning math. Tablet PC enables the students to develop patience. Tablet PC encourages group/cooperative learning. Tablet PC increases the ability of the students to use technological tools. Tablet PC facilitates the understanding of our math lessons. Tablet PC makes learning of math more fun. Tablet PC provide accurate information 9

0.65 0.89

5.53 5.5

0.76

5.10

STUM Variables

Loading

Mean

Item No. 1 21 18 23 25 24 2

Extended tablet usage

0.60

5.08

Appropriate tool for learning math

0.61

5.04 20 6 11

Operating Characteristics Tablet PC makes the study of math interesting. Tablet PC enables students to do exploratory activities. Tablet PC allows students to work outdoors. Tablet PC can also be used in other subjects like science. Tablet PC makes our math class more dynamic and less boring. Tablet PC allows students to learn math better personally. Tablet PC is an appropriate instructional tool for learning math. Tablet PC allows for participative and active learning. Tablet PC allows for greater interaction between students and teachers. Tablet PC increases the participation of students in our classroom discussion on math.

To have a much in depth assessment of the perception survey of the use of tablet PC in math by the students, T-test was employed. The result stating that no significant difference prevails between the all those sections that used and did not use the tablet in their math subjects, revealed that using the gadget have not improved their academic performance while it peaks pupils interest in learning math by using the tablet technology as shown in the perceptual responses of those who used it. This may also in some ways support the over-all perception of 5.40 stating that the tablet PC is a possible alternative or replacement only to math textbook as compared if the perception has been on highest scale that the tablet PC is the total alternative or replacement for math textbooks. Table 4. T-test results of final mathematic grades of Grade VII pupils who used and did not use Tablet PCs in their math subjects. Group Description All sections who used tablet PCs in Math All sections that did not use tablet PCs in math Mean 84.09 85.78 Calculated Interpretation Probability P= .078 No significant difference sincePcalc>.05 in the final math grades of pupils who used and did not use tablet PCs in their math subject. P= .919 since Pcalc>.05 No significant difference in the final math grades of pupils in the best

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Best section who used tablet PCs in math Best section that did not use tablet PCs in math.

88.23 88.34

Group Description

Mean

Calculated Probability

Interpretation sections who used and did not use tablet PCs in their math subject.

Regular section who used tablet PCs in math Regular section that did not used tablet PCs in math

80.37 83.00

P=.015 sincePcalc≤05

There is a significant difference in the final math grades of pupils in the regular sections who used and did not use tablet PCs in their math subjects.

Significant difference in the final grade performance of the regular or average sections that used and did not use the tablet supports also the over-all perception that it is a possible alternative but may not be a better or the total instructional tool replacement in learning math. However results indicating that it brings about an increase in their interest and engagement in learning math or finding time to learn math is to be highly considered. Such is a good starting point in gradually moving towards improving the academic performance of students in various math subjects. The Pearson correlation between the total scores of perceptions on the use of tablet PC and the final grades of grade VII math pupils showed a negative relationship (-.014), indicating affirmation on the results of the T-test. Conclusion The study revealed that the tablet PC increases the level of interest of the pupils in learning math and pupils view the gadget as a possible alternative for math textbooks. On the other hand, it does not imply that such perception implies an increase or over-all improvement in their math academic performance. Bibliography Mock, Kenrick. (2004). Teaching with tablet PCs. University of Alaska Anchorage. Anchorage, AK 99508 Olivier, Werner. (2005). Teaching mathematics: Tablet PC technology adds new dimension. The mathematics education into the 21st century project. Reform, Revolution and Paradigm Shifts in Mathematics Education, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

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McKenzie, Wendy. (2009). Active, constructive, interactive: How are Tablet PCs transforming the learning experience in higher education? Centre for the advancement of learning & teaching Dr. Katharina Franke, eEducation Centre. Australasian Tablets in Education Conference, Monash University. Couse, L. and Chen D. (2010). A Tablet computer for young children? Exploring its viability for early childhood education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 75–98 Petty, Daniel D. (2007). Integration and perception of tablet PC mathematics software in elementary mathematics education. Honors theses. College of Humanities and Social Sciences. Carnegie Mellon University. Furst, Patrick R. (2006). Mathematics instruction and the tablet PC. Wilkes University.foliji.com/uploads/20120429031622aMupy.doc Kosheleva O, Rusch A. & Ioudina V. (2006). Analysis of effects of tablet PC technology in mathematical education of future teachers. University of Texas at El Paso. Baya'a N. & Daher W. (April 21-24, 2009). Students' perceptions of mathematics learning using mobile phones. International conference on mobile and computer aided learning. Tan Wee Hin L. and Subramanian R. (2006). Teaching and learning with Tablet PC. National Institute of Education, Singapore. www.igi-global.com/chapter/teaching-learning-tabletpcs/20940. 2006. Vrtis, Jeremy & Hansen R. (2010) The Effects of Tablets on Pedagogy. Technology in Education (593). National-Louis University. Vagias, Wade M. (2006). Likert-type scale response anchors. Clemson international institute for tourism & research development. Department of parks, recreation and tourism management. Clemson University. Centra, A and Gaubatz N. (2005). Student perception of learning and instructional effectiveness in college courses: A validity study of SIR II. Gao, Minghui. (2012). Classroom assessments in mathematics: High school students’ perceptions. International journal of business and social science (v3) (n2). Arkansas State University. Reba, M. (2006). Tablet PCs and web-based interaction in the mathematics classroom. Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 USA

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Drijvers, Paul. (July 8-15, 2012). Digital technology in mathematics education: Why it works (or doesn’t). 12th International Congress on Mathematical Education Program. COEX, Seoul, Korea. Freudenthal Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Utrecht University, the Netherlands. Twining, P; Evans, D; Cook,D; Ralston, J; Selwood et. Al. (2005). Tablet PCs in schools case study report. A report for Becta by the open university. Owston, Ron and Wideman, Herb. (June 4, 2004). Tablet PC use at northern lights public school: an initial evaluation. Institute for research on learning technologies technical report. (4). Bienkowski, M., Haertel, G., Yamaguchi, R.,Molina A., Adamson F., Theis, L. (2005). Singapore tablet PC program study: Executive summary and final report. Vol. 1 Technical Findings for Microsoft Operations Pte. Ltd. Center for Technology in Learning. SRI International. P16685. Burg, C., Le, L., Garimella, R.& McGehee, J. ( February 15, 2007). Using tablet PC technology to enhance learning in upper division mathematics courses. A proposal for the 2007 higher education request for proposals within the HP technology for teaching grant initiative. Walker, D.G., Stremler, M.A., Johnston, J., Bruff, S. and Prophy P. (2008). Case study on the perception of learning when tablet PCs are used as a presentation medium in engineering classrooms. International journal of engineering education. (v.00) (n.0) page 1-10. Tempus Publications. Nordin, Aziz bin. (2005). Students’ perception on teaching and learning mathematics in english. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. http://eprints.utm.my/1507/1/KERTASINT.pdf. Turmudi. (2012). Teachers’ Perception toward mathematics teaching innovation in Indonesian junior high school: An exploratory factor analysis. Journal of Mathematics Education August 2012, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 97-120. Indonesia University of Education. Adams, N. & Hayes, C. (2009). Does Teaching with a tablet PC enhance the teaching experience and provide greater flexibility? What are the students’ attitudes to teaching with a tablet PC? 2009. http://www.monash.edu.au/eeducation/assets/documents/atiec/2009/2009atiecnadineadams-clintonhayes.pdf . Manuguerra, M. & Petocz, P. (November 1, 2011). Promoting student engagement by integrating new technology into tertiary education: The role of the iPad. Asian Social Science (v.7) (n. 11). doi:10.5539/ass.v7n11p61 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/ass.v7n11p61.

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Attard, C. and Curry, C. (2012) . Exploring the use of iPads to engage young students with mathematics. Mathematics education: Expanding horizons. Proceedings of the 35th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia. Singapore. Osmon, Peter. (March 2011). Tablets are coming to a school near you. Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics. 31(1). From Informal Proceedings 31-1

The Authors: Ms. Irene Mae L. Manabat is a Research Associate at the Center for Research and Development of Systems Plus College Foundation. Dr. Juanita M. Cruz is the incumbent Research Director of Systems Plus College Foundation’s Center for research and Development. Mr. Marlon I. Tayag is the Management Information Systems (MIS) Director of Systems Plus College Foundation. Contact Information: Irene Mae L. Manabat – 09166850185 Dr. Juanita M. Cruz – 09196983789 Marlon I. Tayag- 09335480237

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