Free Essay

Persisting Racial Inequality in the United States of America

In: Social Issues

Submitted By knightsplayer
Words 2254
Pages 10
“Persisting Racial Inequality In The United States of America”
When Thomas Jefferson and America’s founding fathers drafted the constitution, they envisioned a life of freedom and equality for themselves and every other citizen of the United States. Their vision had a huge caveat: only white men were created equally and held inherent rights. Our founding fathers immediately ingrained discrimination into the bones of this country and set the stage for years of struggle to achieve equal opportunity. After 185 years of denying equal social and economic opportunities to minorities and women, America’s leaders chose to act. The actions of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson brought forward a plan called affirmative action: to address the under-representation of qualified minorities and women in higher education and the workplace. With a foundation that contains discrimination in its core, affirmative action did not come without controversy. It has been the central topic of notable Supreme Court cases such as University of California Regents v. Bakke, Grutter v. Bollinger, and Fisher v. University of Texas. Many who oppose affirmative action argue that race-conscious programs lead to reverse discrimination and group preferences over individual merit. Through arguments, data and research, it will be shown that affirmative action is indeed an effective remedy for addressing racial inequality in higher education and other institutions. Without it in this current time, large negative effects would be felt throughout higher education and higher education. Affirmative action’s origins stem from an executive order that John F. Kennedy wrote in regards to the hiring practices of employers. It stated “...will not discriminate against any employee or applicant for employment because of race, creed, color, or national origin. The Contractor will take affirmative action, to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color, or national origin”[1]. He issued this executive action to address discrimination that was still occurring despite civil rights laws. Then President Lyndon B. Johnson defined the concept of affirmative action emphasizing that civil rights laws alone were not enough to resolve discrimination. He did this by issuing an executive order to enforce affirmative action toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment. Johnson stated, “This is the next and more profound stage of the battle for civil rights. We seek…not just equality as a right and a theory but equality as a fact and as a result” [2]. Johnson was not naïve in thinking that after years of racism and discrimination against Blacks and other minorities that playing field would become level because a law was put into place. Higher education institutions and employers were forced ensure that Blacks and other minorities were given equal consideration for school admissions, scholarships, financial aid, salary increases and promotions. But the issue, that immediately followed this landmark policy, was how long does this temporary measure last for.
It did not take long for affirmative action to be litigated by the Supreme Court; the court heard the Bakke case in 1978. A white male, by the name of Allan Bakke, had been rejected from The University of California Regents medical school. It was discovered that the medical school had been reserving a set number of seats for minority students, which was discriminating against white applicants. The court banned this practice of quotas, but upheld the legality of affirmative action has a whole. It would not be until 2003 till the Supreme Court made another landmark decision on affirmative action in higher education [3].
The court heard the case of Grutter v. Bollinger, which challenged if the University of Michigan’s law school had the ability to use race as an admission factor. In 5-4 decision the court upheld the school’s policy that race could be considered as one of many factors when selecting students. The large amount of amicus briefs backing the University of Michigan, arguing the benefits of having a diverse organization, was a significant factor in the ruling. The court wrote in their majority opinion, there was “a compelling interest in obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student” [4]. However this changed why affirmative action was justified; it was no longer for rectifying past oppression and discrimination, but to promote a “compelling state interest”.
Affirmative action has been in place for about 50 years now, but has it been effective in higher education and other institutions? Looking across the entire United States on the macro level, Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians have benefited from affirmative action but not by much. According to the Pew Research Center, in 1993, Hispanics and Blacks only consisted of about 9% and 10% of students enrolled in college, respectively. Despite the fact that affirmative action had been in place for about 30 years, minorities were still being significantly underrepresented in higher education. In 2012, Hispanics saw a significant increase to 19%. Conversely, Blacks only rose to 14%. Reporting data for Asians did not begin till 1999. They are by far the most underrepresented race with a mere 7% in 2012. The country as a whole is taking steps in the right direction towards achieving equality, but has a long way to go in higher education. In the workplace, Blacks have seen much of the same racial inequality. In 1983, the unemployment rate for Blacks was 19.5%, while Whites was 8.4%. 20 years later in 2013, Blacks unemployment rate dropped to 13.4% and Whites fell to 6.7%. Even though there was a drop in the rate after 20 years, the disparity between the two races is still significant. Despite what critics say, Whites continue to hold their supremacy in the United States with affirmative action in place.
Critics of affirmative action often also been heard saying that policies and programs should be colorblind. That way, without acknowledging race, there will be no basis for discrimination against anyone. Justice John Harlan in his dissenting opinion of Plessy v. Ferguson, said, “Our constitution is color-blind, and neither knows no tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law” [7]. In other words, Justice John Harlan thought that the government should be colorblind because the constitution ordered it. If we used a race-blind approach to everything it would be the end to racial justice. There are circumstances where color could make a huge difference. Take, for example, a city that has a lot of crime and is predominately black. If the hiring process for police officers was colorblind, it would be hard to construct a police force that accurately represents the public. If that police force turned out to be largely white, they might start stereotyping all blacks in the community as criminals.
There are also situations where the government needs to be race-conscious to accomplish equality. For example, say a government agency was found to be intentionally hiring and promoting employee because of their race despite this hypothetical colorblind society. A solution to this discrimination would be to hire and promote employees of color till they were well represented in the agency. On the other hand, if the government was forced to see in race-blind optics, there would be no justice to this discrimination. The simple truth is that race matters. It’s a social construction that affects our lives from the way we perceive the world to the way we are treated.
Opponents, to this day, continue to see past the facts and ways that affirmative action is beneficial to achieving an equal and just society. Today the attack against affirmative action is underway in the rehearing of Supreme Court case, Fischer v. University of Texas. Fischer, a white girl who was denied admission into the undergraduate program at Austin, feels she was discriminated against because minorities were being given priority over Whites. The state of Texas has a law in place that grants automatic admission to any student who finishes in the top 10% their class. It was introduced as way to boost minority student’s admission into the university because high schools in Texas were extremely segregated. The students that fell in the top 10% of their high school took up 75% of the admitted class. The rest of the class, which included Fischer, was to be decided by ‘holistic’ review. This means that students were admitted based on many factors, which included race, like the Grutter case. Fischer believes that race should have never been used in the holistic review because of the top 10% plan. Despite Fischer’s claim, the current racial demographics for the University at Austin tell another story. Blacks take up meager 4% of the class; Asians, Hispanics, and Whites take up 19%, 22%, and 46%, respectively [8]. Even while considering race and having their top 10% plan in place, the university struggles with equality among racial demographics, especially with Blacks. If the Supreme Court rules against the university, the diversity of their classes will decrease. This is seen in states where laws are in place banning affirmative action, like California. When California banned affirmative action in 1998, in just one year Hispanics and Blacks enrollment at U.C. Berkley dropped to from 14% to 9% and 8% to 4%, respectively [9]. The Supreme Court must rule with the University of Texas or these trends will be seen across the country.
If the Supreme Court rules against the university, they have two options in their ruling. The court can either say that the University of Texas’s specific admission policy is unconstitutional or that affirmative action has a whole is unconstitutional. If they rule that affirmative action has a whole is unconstitutional the nation will feel large negative impacts. Universities will be forced to achieve diversity somehow else. Universities may look to socioeconomic status and consider impoverished students, as they once considered race because of the overwhelming amount of minorities who are impoverished. However, a negative effect of this would be an increase in the number of scholarships given; that money has to come from somewhere. It could come directly from raised tuition, a raise in state taxes, or a cut in funding from University or state programs.
Universities might change weight on other factors such as SAT scores and grades. Backes and Antonovics found that UC schools, responding to the ban on affirmative action in California, decreased weight given to SAT and increased weights given to high school GPA and family background characteristics. 13 years after the ban with new weights put into place, at U.C. Berkeley Hispanics only increased 2% and Blacks decreased 2%. U.C. Los Angeles saw a 4% increase and Blacks saw a 1% decrease. [8] Even though Hispanics have seen a slight increase they have not been able to achieve the numbers they once had. These weight changes do not favor Blacks in any manor. It’s clear that banning affirmative action only creates negative impacts.
Affirmative action has been seen to be effective but not nearly enough, especially in higher education. Some changes will have to be made to see a significant decrease in racial inequality. One solution might be change weights of factors as the U.C. schools did while considering race. This would place more weight on race without actually putting more weight on race. Another solution might be employ Texas’s top 10% plan only to schools that been shown to be racially segregated. This would, with a doubt, effectively increase minority percentages at Universities across the country.
Affirmative has been controversial since the day it formally became a policy by Lyndon B. Johnson. It has seen its fair share of Supreme Court cases, while continuing to being shaped through its existence. It has been shown that with the existence of affirmative action, minorities have increased in their respective total amount of students enrolled in college. Furthermore, blacks unemployment rate has significantly decreased over the years. Though there have been improvements in underrepresentation of minorities in American society, it has not been enough. There are still significant improvements to be made. One can only hope that the Supreme Court does not rule against the University of Texas and rule affirmative action unconstitutional, or the United States will feel large negative impacts

References 1. Executive Order 10925. 2. Equal Opportunity Is Not Enough. 3. Regents of the Uni v. of Cal. v. Bakke. 4. GRUTTER V. BOLLINGER (02-241) 539 U.S. 306 (2003)
288 F.3d 732, affirmed. 5. Black unemployment rate is consistently twice that of whites. 6. More Hispanics, blacks enrolling in college, but lag in bachelor’s degrees. 7. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). 8. 9. How Minorities Have Fared in States With Affirmative Action Bans. 10. Kate Antonovics. Ben Backes. “The Effect of Banning Affirmative Action on College Admissions Rules and Student Quality.” April 10, 2013. Page 1,20.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Racial and Ethnic Disparities

...Racial and ethnic disparities in health disproportionately affect minority Americans. One of the greatest challenges facing the US healthcare system is the persistence of disparities in infant and maternal health among the different racial and ethnic groups.  Now a day a major concern which is affecting communities on overall pertaining to childbirth is preterm births in the United States of America. In fact, preterm births and low birth weight have negative consequences not only for the infants and their families but also on the society. Actual delivery before 37 weeks of gestation is the primary concern and low birth weights have a major impact on the functional domains, such as cerebral palsy, chronic lung disease, and hyperactivity disorder (Brooks-Gunn J., McCarton C. M., Casey P. H., McCormick M. C., Bauer C. R., Bernbaum J. C., Tonascia J. (1994). Babies who weigh 5.5 pounds (2500grams) or less at birth are low babies with low birth weight. Babies weighing 3.3 pounds (1500 grams) or less are Very low birth weight babies. There is a significant medical and social cost for low birth weight infants and preterm births. Low birth weight is a major predictor of infant mortality. Ethnic and cultural group’s disparities related to low birth weight infant and preterm infant are significantly disproportionate, affecting minority Americans. Although infant morbidity cannot be directly linked with low birth weight but it is a frequently used as a marker for poor health at birth......

Words: 790 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Phillip Corruption and Sids Development

...Note Ms. Genève Phillip, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad and Tobago c/o Head, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences E-mail: Abstract: The development strategies of small island developing states have promoted extensive, ongoing and intense debate in academia. In assessing the political economy of SIDS it is useful to note not only the factors that give way to development but also the ones that impede it. While a variety of models have been used to describe the development strategies of SIDS, the extent to which some of these models have been able to adequately capture the major constraints to development in Caribbean SIDS is questionable. Having said this, the overarching argument in the discourse which follows is that corruption can be a major hindrance to the development efforts of Caribbean SIDS. In addition to this, an investigation will be launched into the impact that corruption has had on the development of Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. For all intents and purposes, the selected duo consists of one largely homogenous state and one heterogeneous state which will be juxtaposed to determine whether any similarity exists in the degrees of corruption in both countries. The model of democracy which exists in these countries is also crucial in seeking to appraise the link between corruption and development. Some of the hypotheses which......

Words: 7580 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay


...Social Change and Modernity Edited By Hans Haferkamp and Neil J. Smelser UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley Los Angeles Oxford © 1992 The Regents of the University of California INTRODUCTION Hans Haferkamp and Neil J. Smelser Haferkamp is grateful to Angelika Schade for her fruitful comments and her helpful assistance in editing this volume and to Geoff Hunter for translating the first German version of parts of the Introduction; Smelser has profited from the research assistance and critical analyses given by Joppke. 1. Social Change and Modernity Those who organized the conference on which this volume is based—including the editors— decided to use the terms "social change" and "modernity" as the organizing concepts for this project. Because these terms enjoy wide usage in contemporary sociology and are general and inclusive, they seem preferable to more specific terms such as "evolution" "progress," "differentiation," or even "development," many of which evoke more specific mechanisms, processes, and directions of change. Likewise, we have excluded historically specific terms such as "late capitalism" and "industrial society" even though these concepts figure prominently in many of the contributions to this volume. The conference strategy called for a general statement of a metaframework for the study of social change within which a variety of more specific theories could be identified. 2. Theories of Social Change Change is such an evident feature of...

Words: 171529 - Pages: 687

Free Essay

One Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.

...E SSAYS ON TWENTIETH-C ENTURY H ISTORY In the series Critical Perspectives on the Past, edited by Susan Porter Benson, Stephen Brier, and Roy Rosenzweig Also in this series: Paula Hamilton and Linda Shopes, eds., Oral History and Public Memories Tiffany Ruby Patterson, Zora Neale Hurston and a History of Southern Life Lisa M. Fine, The Story of Reo Joe: Work, Kin, and Community in Autotown, U.S.A. Van Gosse and Richard Moser, eds., The World the Sixties Made: Politics and Culture in Recent America Joanne Meyerowitz, ed., History and September 11th John McMillian and Paul Buhle, eds., The New Left Revisited David M. Scobey, Empire City: The Making and Meaning of the New York City Landscape Gerda Lerner, Fireweed: A Political Autobiography Allida M. Black, ed., Modern American Queer History Eric Sandweiss, St. Louis: The Evolution of an American Urban Landscape Sam Wineburg, Historical Thinking and Other Unnatural Acts: Charting the Future of Teaching the Past Sharon Hartman Strom, Political Woman: Florence Luscomb and the Legacy of Radical Reform Michael Adas, ed., Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History Jack Metzgar, Striking Steel: Solidarity Remembered Janis Appier, Policing Women: The Sexual Politics of Law Enforcement and the LAPD Allen Hunter, ed., Rethinking the Cold War Eric Foner, ed., The New American History. Revised and Expanded Edition E SSAYS ON _ T WENTIETH- C ENTURY H ISTORY Edited......

Words: 163893 - Pages: 656

Premium Essay

Consumption and the Beat Generation

...[pic][pic] [pic]Copyright © 2005 West Chester University. All rights reserved. College Literature 32.2 (2005) 103-126 [pic] |  |[pic][pic][pic] |  | | |[pic] | | | |[pic] | | | |[pic] | | | |[pic] | | | |[pic] | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Access provided by Northwestern University Library ...

Words: 36700 - Pages: 147

Premium Essay


...ISBN 978-92-64-04632-0 OECD Employment Outlook © OECD 2008 Chapter 3 The Price of Prejudice: Labour Market Discrimination on the Grounds of Gender and Ethnicity Despite some progress, there is still evidence of discrimination on the grounds of gender and ethnic or racial origins in OECD labour markets. Field experiments show pervasive ethnic discrimination in many countries. Indirect evidence shows that on average at least 8% of the gender employment gap and a larger proportion of the gender wage gap can be attributed to discrimination. Virtually all OECD countries have enacted anti-discrimination laws in recent decades, and evaluations as well as cross-country analysis suggest that, if well-designed, these laws can be effective in reducing disparities in labour market outcomes. However, enforcement of antidiscrimination legislation is essentially based on victims’ willingness to claim their rights. Thus, public awareness of legal rules and their expected consequences (notably, victims’ costs and benefits of lodging complaints) is a crucial element of an effective policy strategy to establish a culture of equal treatment. Moreover, legal rules are likely to have more impact if the enforcement is not exclusively dependent on individuals. In this respect, specific agencies may play a key role. 139 3. THE PRICE OF PREJUDICE: LABOUR MARKET DISCRIMINATION ON THE GROUNDS OF GENDER AND ETHNICITY Introduction Employment outcomes are far from being evenly......

Words: 38406 - Pages: 154

Premium Essay


...That means considering the role of productive work in life as a whole and the distribution of unpaid work as well as the myriad questions relating to employment. This important anthology brings together the thinking of leading philosophers, economists and lawyers on this complex subject. Selected recent articles from the multidisciplinary International Labour Review are assembled for the first time to illuminate questions such as how we should define equality, what equal opportunity means and what statistics tell us about differences between men and women at work, how the family confronts globalization and what is the role of law in achieving equality. There is an examination of policy – to deal with sexual harassment and wage inequality, for example, as well as part-time work, the glass ceiling, social security, and much more. A major reference on the best of current research and analysis on gender roles and work. Martha Fetherolf Loutfi has been Editor-in-Chief of the International Labour Review, a Senior Economist for the Brandt Commission and in the ILO’s Employment and Development Department and an associate professor of economics. She has written books and articles on employment, women, energy, environment, capital flows and foreign aid. Price: 40 Swiss francs WOMEN, GENDER AND WORK 30.11.2002 ILO c.i+iv_WomGend&Work WHAT IS EQUALITY AND HOW DO WE GET THERE ? WOMEN, GENDER WORK  Edited by Mar tha Fetherolf Lout f i I N......

Words: 243134 - Pages: 973

Premium Essay

Second Languages and Australian Schooling

...Australian Education Review Second Languages and Australian Schooling Joseph Lo Bianco with Yvette Slaughter Australian Council for Educational Research First published 2009 by ACER Press Australian Council for Educational Research 19 Prospect Hill Road, Camberwell, Victoria, 3124 Copyright © 2009 Australian Council for Educational Research All rights reserved. Except under the conditions described in the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent amendments, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the written permission of the publishers. Edited by Carolyn Glascodine Cover illustration by ACER Project Publishing Typeset by ACER Project Publishing Printed by BPA Print Group National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry Author: Title: ISBN: Series: Notes: Subjects: Lo Bianco, Joseph. Second languages and Australian schooling / Joseph Lo Bianco ; Yvette Slaughter. 9780864318374 (pbk) Australian education review ; 54. Bibliography. Language and languages--Study and teaching--Australia. Language and languages--Study and teaching—Bilingual method. Education, Bilingual--Australia. Other Authors/Contributors: Slaughter, Yvette. Australian Council for Educational Research. Dewey Number: 370.11750994 Visit our website: Acknowledgment The Author and Series Editor wish to acknowledge the......

Words: 42730 - Pages: 171

Premium Essay

Cotract Manufacturing

...Electronics Contract Manufacturing: Global Production and the International Division of Labor in the Age of the Internet Boy Lüthje Institute of Social Research Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Senckenberganlage 26 60325 Frankfurt Germany E-mail: Submitted for publication to Industry and Innovation – special issue on “Global Production Networks, Information Technology and Local Capabilities”, coordinated by Linsu Kim and Dieter Ernst Comments welcome, please do not quote December 2001 2 The role of information technology for production networks in developing countries cannot be assessed without an analysis of the profound changes in the productive structure of global capitalism. In contrast to the general perception of the “informational economy” (Carnoy e.a. 1993, Castells 1996) as service- or science-based, it has to be stressed that in the "new economy" manufacturing continues to matter (Cohen/Zysman 1987). In the electronics industry, a new model of outsourced manufacturing has emerged as a centerpiece of globalized production networks: Contract Manufacturing (CM) or Electronics Manufacturing Services (EMS). This form of network-based mass production closely linked to the emergence of the “Wintelist” (Borrus/Zysman 1997 model of competition and the rise of “fabless” product design companies in key sectors of the information technology (IT) industry. Our analysis of electronics contract manufacturing explores three......

Words: 10486 - Pages: 42

Premium Essay

Business Management

...SECOND 21ST CENTURY ACADEMIC FORUM CONFERENCE AT HARVARD MARCH 8 - 10, 2015 MARTIN CONFERENCE CENTER HARVARD UNIVERSITY BOSTON, MA USA Teaching, Learning, and Research in the “Just Google It” Age CONFERENCE PROCEEDING VOL. 5, NO.1 ISSN: 2330-1236 Table of Contents Authors Paper Title Page Maryam Abdu Investigating Capital Structure Decisions and Its Effect on the Nigerian Capital Market 1 Norsuhaily Abu Bakar Rahimah Embong Ibrahim Mamat Ruzilawati Abu Bakar Idris Abd. Hamid Holistically Integraded Curriculum: Implications for Personality Development 16 Sandra Ajaps Geography Education in the Google age: A Case Study of Nsukka Local Government Area of Nigeria 30 Helen Afang Andow Impact of Banking Reforms on Service Delivery in the Nigerian Banking Sector 45 Billy Batlegang Green IT Curriculum: A Mechanism For Sustainable Development 59 Rozeta Biçaku-Çekrezi Student Perception of Classroom Management and Productive Techniques in Teaching 74 Thomas J.P.Brady Developing Digital Literacy in Teachers and Students 91 Lorenzo Cherubini Ontario (Canada) Education Provincial Policy: Aboriginal Student Learning 101 Jennifer Dahmen Natascha Compes Just Google It?! But at What Price? Teaching Pro-Environmental Behaviour for Smart and Energy-Efficient Use of Information and Communication Technologies 119 Marion Engin Senem Donanci Using iPads in a dialogic classroom: Mutually exclusive or naturally compatible? 132 Nahed Ghazzoul Teaching and Learning......

Words: 236613 - Pages: 947

Free Essay

As It Goes

...Augustine tells the story of a pirate captured by Alexander the Great, who asked him "how he dares molest the sea." "How dare you molest the whole world?" the pirate replied: "Because I do it with a little ship only, I am called a thief; you, doing it with a great navy, are called an Emperor." The pirate's answer was "elegant and excellent," St. Augustine relates. It captures with some accuracy the current relations between the United States and various minor actors on the stage of international terrorism: Libya, factions of the PLO, and others. More generally, St. Augustine's tale illuminates the meaning of the concept of international terrorism in contemporary Western usage, and reaches to the heart of the frenzy over selected incidents of terrorism currently being orchestrated, with supreme cynicism, as a cover for Western violence. The term "terrorism" came into use at the end of the eighteenth century, primarily to refer to violent acts of governments designed to ensure popular submission. That concept plainly is of little benefit to the practitioners of state terrorism, who, holding power, are in a position to control the system of thought and expression. The original sense has therefore been abandoned, and the term "terrorism" has come to be applied mainly to "retail terrorism" by individuals or groups.1 Whereas the term was once applied to emperors who molest their own subjects and the world, now it is restricted to thieves who molest the powerful -...

Words: 93777 - Pages: 376

Free Essay

Etodasdjasf Asfhasf

...[pic] Narcissistic And Psychopathic Leaders 1st EDITION Sam Vaknin, Ph.D. Τηε “υτηορ ισ ΝΟΤ α Μενταλ Ηεαλτη Προφεσσιοναλ. Τηε “υτηορ ισ χερτιφιεδ ιν Χουνσελλινγ Τεχηνιθυεσ. Εδιτινγ ανδ Δεσιγν: Λιδιϕα Ρανγελοϖσκα “ Ναρχισσυσ Πυβλιχατιονσ Ιμπριντ Πραγυε & Σκοπϕε 2009 ♥ 2009 Χοπψριγητ Λιδιϕα Ρανγελοϖσκα Ναρχισσυσ Πυβλιχατιονσ “λλ ριγητσ ρεσερϖεδ. Τηισ βοοκ, ορ ανψ παρτ τηερεοφ, μαψ νοτ βε υσεδ ορ ρεπροδυχεδ ιν ανψ μαννερ ωιτηουτ ωριττεν περμισσιον φρομ: Λιδιϕα Ρανγελοϖσκα ? ωριτε το: ορ το “λλ ριγητσ φορ τηισ βοοκ αρε φορ σαλε. Λιτεραρψ αγεντσ ανδ πυβλισηερσ, πλεασε χονταχτ Λιδιϕα Ρανγελοϖσκα. |Το γετ ΦΡΕΕ υπδατεσ οφ τηισ βοοκ ϑΟΙΝ τηε Ναρχισσισμ Στυδψ Λιστ. | |Το ϑΟΙΝ, ϖισιτ ουρ Ωεβ σιτεσ: | | ορ | | ορ | | | ςισιτ τηε “υτηορ∍σ Ωεβ σιτε: Βυψ οτηερ βοοκσ αβουτ πατηολογιχαλ ναρχισσισμ ανδ ρελατιονσηιπσ ωιτη αβυσιϖε ναρχισσιστσ ανδ πσψχηοπατησ ηερε: Χρεατεδ βψ: Λιδιϕα Ρανγελοϖσκα, Σκοπϕε ΡΕΠΥΒΛΙΧ ΟΦ Μ“ΧΕΔΟΝΙ“ Χ Ο Ν Τ Ε Ν Τ Σ Pathological Narcissism – An Overview A Primer on Narcissism and the Narcissistic Personality......

Words: 32352 - Pages: 130

Premium Essay


...• Paris • São Paulo • Singapore • Taipei • Tokyo • Toronto • Warsaw and associated companies in Berlin • Ibadan © 2001 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, USA Published by Oxford University Press, Inc. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10016 Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Cover design and interior design by Naylor Design, Washington, D.C. Manufactured in the United States of America First printing June 2001 1 2 3 4 04 03 02 01 The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this study are entirely those of the authors and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, to its affiliated organizations, or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgment on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data...

Words: 190305 - Pages: 762

Premium Essay


...Management Revised Edition Peter F. Drucker with Joseph A. Maciariello Contents Introduction to the Revised Edition of Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices Preface 1 2 3 Part I 4 5 6 7 Part II 8 9 10 11 Part III 12 Introduction: Management and Managers Defined Management as a Social Function and Liberal Art The Dimensions of Management Management’s New Realities Knowledge Is All New Demographics The Future of the Corporation and the Way Ahead Management’s New Paradigm Business Performance The Theory of the Business The Purpose and Objectives of a Business Making the Future Today Strategic Planning: The Entrepreneurial Skill Performance in Service Institutions Managing Service Institutions in the Society of Organizations vii xxiii 1 18 26 35 37 45 51 65 83 85 97 113 122 129 131 iv Contents 13 14 15 16 Part IV 17 18 19 Part V 20 21 What Successful and Performing Nonprofits Are Teaching Business The Accountable School Rethinking “Reinventing Government” Entrepreneurship in the Public-Service Institution Productive Work and Achieving Worker Making Work Productive and the Worker Achieving Managing the Work and Worker in Manual Work Managing the Work and Worker in Knowledge Work Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities Social Impacts and Social Responsibilities The New Pluralism: How to Balance the Special Purpose of the Institution with the Common Good The Manager’s Work and Jobs Why Managers? Design and Content of Managerial Jobs......

Words: 243737 - Pages: 975

Premium Essay

Q&a Jurisprudence

...R outledge Revision: Questions & Answers  Jurisprudence 2011–2012 Each Routledge Q&A contains approximately 50 questions on topics commonly found on exam papers, with answer plans and comprehensive suggested answers. Each book also offers valuable advice as to how to approach and tackle exam questions and how to focus your revision effectively. New Aim Higher and Common  Pitfalls boxes will also help you to identify how to go that little bit further in order to get the very best marks and highlight areas of confusion. And now there are further opportunities to hone and perfect your exam technique online. New editions publishing in 2011: Civil Liberties & Human Rights Commercial Law Company Law Constitutional & Administrative Law Contract Law Criminal Law Employment Law English Legal System Routledge Q&A series Equity & Trusts European Union Law Evidence Family Law Jurisprudence Land Law Medical Law Torts For a full listing, visit R outledge Revision: Questions & Answers Jurisprudence 2011–2012 David Brooke Senior Lecturer in Law and Module Leader in Jurisprudence at Leeds Metropolitan University Fifth edition published 2011 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the U S A and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library,......

Words: 105136 - Pages: 421