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Personal Space

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By windows4
Words 656
Pages 3
How does language shape a person’s identity? * Matched-Guise Technique research methodology used to measure people’s attitudes towards a speaker based solely on speech style, it suggests that how speak can affect how others evaluate us * Ethno linguistic theory an application & extension of social identity theory that deals with language behaviour * Language and speech style is one of the most distinct and clear markers of ethnic identity * People will either accentuate or de-emphasis their ethnic language depending to what extent they view their ethnic identity as being a source of self-respect and pride

What motivates us to learn a second language? How can the challenge of adapting to a host culture be eased for an immigrant group? * These days second language-acquisition is not simply a recreational activity is a vital necessity for survival.

* Integration – people maintain their ethnic culture and relate to the dominant culture * Assimilation – people give up their ethnic culture and wholeheartedly embrace the dominant culture * Separation – people maintain their ethnic culture and isolate themselves from the dominant culture * Marginalism – people give up their ethnic culture and fail to related proper to the dominant culture

How does non-verbal communication help to inform us about another person?

* Non-verbal communication: The process of communication by means other than verbal language. Gaze, facial expression, posture etc. * Our facial expressions can be traced to our evolutionary history. (Charles Darwin, 1872 The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals) * We can understand the feelings and intentions of others, regulate interactions or express intimacy. (Patterson 1983) * The behaviors have acquired communicative values

How accurate are people in recognising basic emotions?

* Basic emotions: six basic emotions that correspond to a universal series of facial expressions (happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, disgust and anger).. (Darwin 1872) * Universal emotions: basic emotions reveal a distinct pattern of facial expression and can be easily recognized. (Ekman & Friesen 1975) * Cultural emotions and display rules: cultural and situational rules that dictate how appropriate it is to express emotions in a given context. * People from different parts of the world can identify better with their cultural emotions. (Russell 1994) * Ultimately, it is both universal and cultural components that are involved in recognising basic emotions. (Elfenbein & Ambady 2002)

What is personal space?

* Personal space is a popular term introduced by Hall in 1966 and reflects the importance that people place on their perceived body buffer zone. * Hall refers to four zones of space in social interaction - Intimate distance, Personal distance, Social distance and Public distance.

Zone | Distance | Description | Intimate Distance | Up to 0.5m | * Physical contact can take place * A lot exposed about a person * Cues come from sight, sound, smell, body temperature & depth and pace of breathing | Personal Distance | 0.5-1.25m | * Transitional area between intimate contact and formal behavior for everyday interactions with friends and acquaintances * Touching is still possible * Although many cues are still available, the effects of body temperature, smell and breathing are greatly reduced | Social Distance | 1.25 – 4m | * Typical for both casual and business interactions * Many cues are lost, but verbal contact is easily maintained * Furniture arrangement helps to achieve this | Public Distance | 4 – 8m | * Communication cues now lose some impact * Common distance for public speakers, celebrities and lecturers. |

How and why do we use personal space?

* We use interpersonal distance to regulate privacy and intimacy. If you feel intimate towards someone you will move closer but if you feel a difference in status there will usually be a physical distance. * Rosenfeld (1965) found in study of ‘liking’, people that wanted to appear friendly placed their chair on average 1.5 metres from the confederate while those who did not want to appear friendly sat approximately 2.25 metres away. * Dean Willis & Hewitt (1975) found in a study of ‘status’ that navy personnel maintained a greater interpersonal distance when interacting with someone from a different rank than someone from the same rank.

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