Free Essay

Personal Space

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By windows4
Words 656
Pages 3
How does language shape a person’s identity? * Matched-Guise Technique research methodology used to measure people’s attitudes towards a speaker based solely on speech style, it suggests that how speak can affect how others evaluate us * Ethno linguistic theory an application & extension of social identity theory that deals with language behaviour * Language and speech style is one of the most distinct and clear markers of ethnic identity * People will either accentuate or de-emphasis their ethnic language depending to what extent they view their ethnic identity as being a source of self-respect and pride

What motivates us to learn a second language? How can the challenge of adapting to a host culture be eased for an immigrant group? * These days second language-acquisition is not simply a recreational activity is a vital necessity for survival.

* Integration – people maintain their ethnic culture and relate to the dominant culture * Assimilation – people give up their ethnic culture and wholeheartedly embrace the dominant culture * Separation – people maintain their ethnic culture and isolate themselves from the dominant culture * Marginalism – people give up their ethnic culture and fail to related proper to the dominant culture

How does non-verbal communication help to inform us about another person?

* Non-verbal communication: The process of communication by means other than verbal language. Gaze, facial expression, posture etc. * Our facial expressions can be traced to our evolutionary history. (Charles Darwin, 1872 The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals) * We can understand the feelings and intentions of others, regulate interactions or express intimacy. (Patterson 1983) * The behaviors have acquired communicative values

How accurate are people in recognising basic emotions?

* Basic emotions: six basic emotions that correspond to a universal series of facial expressions (happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, disgust and anger).. (Darwin 1872) * Universal emotions: basic emotions reveal a distinct pattern of facial expression and can be easily recognized. (Ekman & Friesen 1975) * Cultural emotions and display rules: cultural and situational rules that dictate how appropriate it is to express emotions in a given context. * People from different parts of the world can identify better with their cultural emotions. (Russell 1994) * Ultimately, it is both universal and cultural components that are involved in recognising basic emotions. (Elfenbein & Ambady 2002)

What is personal space?

* Personal space is a popular term introduced by Hall in 1966 and reflects the importance that people place on their perceived body buffer zone. * Hall refers to four zones of space in social interaction - Intimate distance, Personal distance, Social distance and Public distance.

Zone | Distance | Description | Intimate Distance | Up to 0.5m | * Physical contact can take place * A lot exposed about a person * Cues come from sight, sound, smell, body temperature & depth and pace of breathing | Personal Distance | 0.5-1.25m | * Transitional area between intimate contact and formal behavior for everyday interactions with friends and acquaintances * Touching is still possible * Although many cues are still available, the effects of body temperature, smell and breathing are greatly reduced | Social Distance | 1.25 – 4m | * Typical for both casual and business interactions * Many cues are lost, but verbal contact is easily maintained * Furniture arrangement helps to achieve this | Public Distance | 4 – 8m | * Communication cues now lose some impact * Common distance for public speakers, celebrities and lecturers. |

How and why do we use personal space?

* We use interpersonal distance to regulate privacy and intimacy. If you feel intimate towards someone you will move closer but if you feel a difference in status there will usually be a physical distance. * Rosenfeld (1965) found in study of ‘liking’, people that wanted to appear friendly placed their chair on average 1.5 metres from the confederate while those who did not want to appear friendly sat approximately 2.25 metres away. * Dean Willis & Hewitt (1975) found in a study of ‘status’ that navy personnel maintained a greater interpersonal distance when interacting with someone from a different rank than someone from the same rank.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Verbal vs Nonverbal

...Kasey Hearn Take home paper #2 When we interact with people on a day to day basis, they get a sense of how we interact both verbally, and nonverbally. By changing our normal, everyday routine, even for a little bit, those people seem to notice. Over the past couple of weeks I broke two verbal rules, and two nonverbal rules. The end results were quite surprising to me. I had to think about what rules I wanted to break and who to break them with. I made everything sound sarcastic and changed the order of my sentences for the verbal rules. I stood really close to someone and didn’t use a lot of eye contact while speaking with another person for the nonverbal rules. I made everything sound sarcastic when I was talking to my mom. I thought that this would be the most funny rule to break with my mom because she usually takes everything so serious and can’t really tell when one is being sarcastic or not. When I got home, she asked me “how was your drive? How was traffic?” Let’s just say my three hour drive home on the weekends is usually never any fun. So I replied “oh it was just great. The traffic wasn’t that bad this time.” This is breaking the pragmatic rule, which deals with the implications or interpretations of statements. I have never really used sarcasm while talking to my mom, so I thought it would be interesting, which it was. She kind of just stared at me with a blank look on her face and replied with a somewhat confused “ok”. Eventually she asked me if I was being......

Words: 1360 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Communications Personal Space

...Ryan Rothstein Nonverbal Communications 308 Paper One: Personal Space Personal space plays a major role in our daily interactions with people, and can affect our conversations that we have with one another. For this assignment I chose to work with my roommate, Yale Mendelson, to test out the different lengths of distance between each other to carry out a conversation. The three different distances that I chose was down the hall from each other (approximately 8 feet), face to face (approximately 1.5 feet), and face to face with less than a half of foot between our faces. All three of these distances brought about different reactions between the two of us and showed differences in conversation at each distance. The first distance was the furthest, we began our conversation, I had to speak very loudly, almost a yell, to begin our interaction. I could tell right away that Yale was uncomfortable with this because he is not very outgoing and we were bringing some attention to ourselves. The hall way was not empty so as we were talking back and forth to each other I noticed that we both had to use hand gestures and certain body language cues to help the other realize what they were saying. This setting was definitely difficult for us to have a normal, personal conversation. This distance left for a very broad interaction that was not able to ever become very personal. The next distance that we used to interact with each other was the face to face at about 1 to 2 feet...

Words: 1185 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Personal Space China

...Personal Space: Personal Space is all about how close someone is in proximity to you. Are they making direct eye contact with you? Which way are they facing when they are talking to you: side by side, directly facing? What is the degree of contact with that person; are they touching your arm or shoulder? And how loud or soft is the volume of their voice? Walking down the street, sitting on the bus, you are shoulder to shoulder with mass groups of people. In summary, Chinese people are more comfortable with up-close and personal interaction. Cultural practice changes take a long time to adjust to. China’s vast population coupled with its traditional ideals of a communal society (for example, five generations under one roof) has created a culture in which personal space is typically not common or highly valued. - Pushing in line - Looking over your shoulder and touching you - Standing very close to you while talking - Talking about you with someone else while your standing nearby - Touching:  arm, shoulder, head - Strangers looking at what your doing, getting very close, and not caring (watch a movie on the subway and see how many people come over to watch) - Blowing smoke in/around your face - Staring for long periods of time, often accompanied by pointing - Cell phones ringing with really loud ringtones (noise space) - Talking really loud on the phone, even at work. - Answering  phones/ Talking in movie theaters - Direct and blunt comments about......

Words: 432 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Personal Statement: Creating A Study Space

...Creating a Study Space Personalization of study space can improve the student’s ability to effectively complete academic goals. As an example, a study space should be comfortable and focused which can include a checklist of desired goals and a motivating phrase. In addition, this customization of a study space not only allows for a comfortable study area, but can also serve as a motivation to continue to stay on the expected academic path. As a comfortable and customized study space may create a positive student environment, organization of that space is key. Organizing can include having all of the materials needed at the study space, and determining the best medium for the school work (ie: hand written notes versus computer files). (“Assignment 2, Creating a Study Space,” n.d.). Study Space: Comfortable and Focused...

Words: 502 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Consumption and Public Spaces

...been discussed by a variety of scholarly voices. Among the most prominent is Michel Foucault, who described the various ways that consumer markets circumscribe public spaces, placing important distinctions between class members. In particular, Foucault discusses heterotopia – the public space which carries both physical and psychological gravity. For Foucault, public spaces are characterized by existing without truly existing. The heterotopia serves as a metaphor for a larger context while having the appearance and characteristics of other everyday spaces. Tyndall takes this notion a step further by developing social rules that are attached to consumer places, such as malls and shopping districts (Tyndall, 2009). This version of consumer-driven rules – culled from qualitative research and personal interviews – depicts a new notion of public-ness that is less egalitarian than ever before. It is a version of public space that is not entirely open to the public. Baker adds to this perspective by historicizing the commercialization of public space, dating the use widespread use of public space for advertising purposes to before the dawn of the 20th century (Baker, 2007). This argument inextricably links the notion of “culture” with “consumerism”, and sets the stage for the potential for access to public spaces to be consumed, or purchased. Finally, Klingle underscores this spatial history of consumption, placing the transaction of consumer power contexts as diverse as......

Words: 1702 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Watson

...grow and change 3. a nonpaternalistic approach to helping a person gain more self-knowledge, self-control, and self-healing, regardless of the presenting health-illness condition. ASSUMPTIONS deal with human life, nursing science, and the process of nursing. Watson's conception of human life is tied to notions that one's soul possesses a body that is not confined by objective space and time. The lived world of the experiencing person is not distinguished by external and internal notions of time and space, but shapes its own time and space, which is unconstrained by linearity. Nursing is a human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human care transactions. The process of nursing is human care. THE THEORY OF HUMAN CARING The main concept of the theory is TRANSPERSONAL HUMAN CARING, which is best understood within the concepts of three ancillary concepts: LIFE, ILLNESS, and HEALTH. HUMAN LIFE is defined as spiritual-mental-physical being-in-the-world, which is continuous in time and space. ILLNESS is not necessarily disease. Illness is subjective turmoil or disharmony with a person's inner self or soul at some level or disharmony within the spheres of the person, either consciously or unconsciously. HEALTH refers to...

Words: 456 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Précis

...100 Word Précis Theme – social flow The Mirror City is a self-reflect place. It can be a personal space, and also be a place that interact random people at the same time, which is like a network, Facebook. In the mirror booth, the mirrors surround people, and the booth reflects them, so it can be own personal space. Basically, the main idea (or the inspiration) comes from a basic structure of a social network, ‘Facebook’. I applied the structure that people are visiting their own space through the other space ‘The Mirror City’ is a self–reflecting piece of art. When people observe own reflections through the mirrors, they are free to maintain own personal space in that section of mirrors. Also, this effect can also work when many random people to interact at the same time. This social network can be similar to an actual existing online network like, Facebook. The major concept of the project is determined by getting inspired from a basic structure of a social network, ‘Facebook’. Basically, moving through from one space to another. In the Mirror City, the mirror spaces are linked by the wooden path each other as a network. Just like how in facebook, a person can meet a random person through their friends, and their friends and so on. For architectural inspirations, R.O.M (Royal Ontario Museum); the sharpness and freewheeling shape and use of reflective material. Marinabay Sands Hotel in Singapore; the way of layering the ceiling is consulted as an...

Words: 255 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Edward T.

...belief systems as well as a human's behaviour, language, food, drinking habits and other determinants of one's daily routine. Understanding his or her own culture is a key factor in order to live in his or her society, but understanding other cultures gives the opportunity to look out of the box. It provides someone, for example, with the ability to interact between two cultures. A vital aspect when it comes to make business upon international terms. This paper will focus on the discoveries of Edward T. Hall and will also provide especially european countries as examples. 2. Hall’s dimensions of culture Edward T. Hall, Anthropologist, developed a culture model with three dimensions. Context, the most popular dimension, Time and Space. The following paragraphs will outline and explain the three dimension. Overview of the most popular culture models HALL | HOFSTEDE | TROMPENAARS | HIGH-CONTEXT vsLOW-CONTEXT | POWER DISTANCE | UNIVERSALISM vsPARTICULARISM | | | INDIVIDUALISM vsCOLLECTIVISM | HIGH-TERRITORIALITY vs LOW-TERRITORIALITY | INDIVIDUALISM | NEUTRAL vsEMOTIONAL | | MASCULINITY/FEMININITY | SPECIFIC VSDIFFUSE | MONOCHRONIC TIME vsPOLYCHRONIC TIME | | ACHIEVEMENT vsASCRIPTION | | UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE | SEQUENTIAL vsSYNCHRONIC | | LONG TERM ORIENTATION | INTERNAL vsEXTERNAL CONTROL | 2.1 Context Hall divided the context aspect in high-context orientation and low-context orientation to...

Words: 978 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Dramaturgy

...retreat to the back stages of life. In these private areas, we don’t have to act. We can be our real selves. We can also practice and prepare for our return to the front stage. Impression Management Goffman coined the term impression management to refer to our desire to manipulate others’ impressions of us on the front stage. According to Goffman, we use various mechanisms, called sign vehicles, to present ourselves to others. The most commonly employed sign vehicles are the following: Social setting Appearance Manner of interacting Social Setting The social setting is the physical place where interaction occurs. It could be a doctor’s examination room, a hallway, someone’s home, or a professor’s office. How we arrange our spaces, and what we put in them, conveys a lot of information about us. A person who lives in a huge home with security guards, attack dogs, and motion detectors conveys the message that he or she is very important, wealthy, and powerful,...

Words: 1223 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Reading Report - the Production of Space

...Production of Space is a theoretical text written by Henri Lefebvre. It was first published in French in 1974, and later translated to English by Donald Nicholson-Smith in 1991. Lefebvre has carefully entwined a main theme within the pages of The Production of Space; he argues that space is a socially constructed phenomenon, which alters viewpoints and behaviors within it. This report will deal more specifically with Lefebvre’s views on social space and contradictory space; and the direct relationship the human has with the space they exist in. Lefebvre has written an astonishing amount of books on the importance of space and has been a large contributor to the mapping of modernity, which makes this book, and Henri Lefebvre, an integral part of studying space and its history. The Production of Space deals primarily with the social constructs of space and the complexities that come from within. Lefebvre covers a lot of ground within this book, and a lot of deep theories are strewn across the pages. However, he has one clear theme that lingers throughout. This theme deals with the fact that all spaces are produced in one way or another; they do not simply exist, they were achieved. One of the main highlights he touches on frequently is the divide between natural space and social space, and clearly shows the differences. Along with this, Lefebvre writes about many other intrinsic areas of space and how it is produced. Some of these complex areas include how spaces are read......

Words: 1510 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Places and Spaces

...a modern one, told by the English novelist James Hilton in his novel Lost Horizon(1933). To start my paper we should use page 380 from the book retail stores as brands: performance, theatre and space spatial settings and the aesthetic structuring of a range of expressive artefacts are increasingly pervasive components of the construction and communication of brands AS per the consumer culture theory, service scape studies generally include environmental dimensions such as ambient conditions (noise, music and aromas) and space (design, layout and furnishing) as well as signs and symbols (style and personal artefacts) . If brands represent symphonies of meaning, managers must be viewed as orchestrators and conductors as well as composers, whose role is not only to coordinate and synchronise but also to create space and spatial arrangement(s) in retail shops as used to construct and to communicate a brand theatrical experience: This perspective allows us to understand how a theatre removes consumers from everyday life and isolates them in a constructed environment in order to create a unique and aesthetic experience to be used for first page for work introduction: In this way, initial observations have been made concerning location, atmosphere, in-store design, retail space, clothing, uniforms and customers. . Furthermore, desk research was carried out to understand the history, development and vision of the fashion house. We analysed the Oger website, newspaper and...

Words: 934 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Organizational Health

...considers really important and desperately wants….. namely: IMPROVED HEALTH AND HAPPINESS!!!! Neat, well-organized home and work spaces really do improve your health and happiness. And here’s how: Stress Reduction Spaces free of visual clutter & congestion free the mind of clutter and congestion. The mind is free to rest, be at peace or focus on fun, interesting hobbies and projects!! Increased control and order in one’s life/environment tends to lessen one’s stress; it sets you free……of stress!! Living and working in home/work environments that are.. “You”.. Living and working in spaces that reflect who you are & what’s important to you are huge factors in promoting good health and happiness! IMPROVED HEALTH AND HAPPINESS (CONT.)!!!! Increased time to do other, preferred things Having more time to do things one wants to do is important to foster better health and happiness. For example, having time for fitness or recreational activities; reading books; taking a class to learn a new skill; taking the time to eat better; or just doing nothing at all can engender a lot of good health and happiness! Well organized spaces & an effective system to maintain and keep them that way will improve personal efficiency. It’s logical to expect that this too will help increase your time to do the things that make you happier and healthier.......

Words: 1699 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Qualtrics Open Office Layout

...believe the special physical environment they’ve created positively influences their level of collaboration, teamwork, even efforts. The space they’ve created can unlock value out of their people that another space could not. The space is unlike what an employee might have known before – and as a result, that employee is freer to act in ways they haven’t acted before. At Qualtrics, there are common spaces where ‘coincidental’ interaction happens by design. Each floor has a kitchen with a bar. This is one of the many purposeful ‘watering holes’ where daily interaction among Qualtrics employees is designed to take place. Designed “happy accidents” where people from one part of the company will be interacting with those from another. Another way the Qualtrics space encourages collaboration is the absence of physical BARRIERS keeping people apart. There are few walls, and those few necessary walls are made of glass. A strong sense of community and mission is fostered when Qualtrics employees know each other, and are aware of all the hard work going on around them. The excitement and energy of the company isn’t absorbed into a bunch of sheetrock, it’s floating around the wide spaces. Direct and indirect collaboration/influence is encouraged by the shared physical spaces. The amount of positive interaction fostered by the physical spaces can all be considered collaboration. Camaraderie and a sense of mission develop as a natural consequence. Efforts increase as......

Words: 571 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Architecture in Library

...serviceable, helpful and beneficial for those in the facility. Attractiveness, is the innovative appearance that pleasures the eyes and mind. Such beauty that creates a pleasing attainment of design upon arrival. These elements must accommodate one another to develop a successful relationship between public external space and personal interior space. On the street of Roosevelt way, lies a local University Branch library, with parking spaces along both sides, a bike rack on the right side near the entrance and a crosswalk at the traffic light to ensure a parking area for those who have come with different ways of transportation. This demonstrates Vitruvius’ utility element in architecture. The exterior spaces of the library is cleverly laid out with two sets of large stairs leading up to the main entrance in the center. This forms an isolation between the busy streets and library. By erecting the building further away from the main road, yet still inviting, it will allow library goers to study or read without any disturbances. Inside, consists of three major spaces, the customer service desk which is aligned with the entrance and the division of study spaces on both the left and the right side. The studying and reading...

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Communication Adv and Disadv

...One of your customers is angry because they feel you have not met their requirements and therefore, you have let them down. Identify three forms of communication, and explain the advantages and disadvantages of using each form of communication to resolve the situation. The mediums of communication I have identified for the purposes of trying to resolve the scenario to the customer’s satisfaction that a fair assessment has been made above are: e-mail, face to face and letter. Form of Communication | Advantages | Disadvantages | Email (non-verbal) | * Gives a record for future reference * Easy to store, transmit and retrieve * Can be short, simple, quick and effective method of communication * Can be edited to make sure accurate and clear before sending * Can be easily sent to more than one person – even if another party does not need to respond, it can inform them of the up to date position of an issue/situation * Can be sent, read and responded to at all parties convenience * Low cost * No problem with distance – no delays * All parties can be informed of little changes easily and quickly * Can request confirmation of receipt and being read to ensure has been seen | * Could be sent to wrong recipient(s) * Hasty e-mails could mean that content could be wrong * Can be time consuming * Feedback is not instant * Cannot see if something is not understood or clear * Body language and tone of voice are missing * Tone of e-mail can be......

Words: 564 - Pages: 3