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Personality

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1. Which of the following states did not become a colonial power in the period 1450–1750?
a. Italy b. Russia c. Spain d. France
FEEDBACK:
Italy was not a unified state in the period 1450–1750 and thus did not have colonies. (See the chapter introduction in your textbook.)
2. Which of the following statements most accurately describes Europe’s global position in 1450?
a. Europe had climbed to relative equality in Eurasian commerce. b. Europe had little trade contact with Africa or Asia. c. Europe remained marginal in Eurasian commerce. d. Europe had come to dominate Eurasian commerce.
FEEDBACK:
The determination of European elites to progress beyond their marginal position in Eurasian commerce was a main incentive for European exploration after 1450. (See section “The European Advantage” in your textbook.)
3. What was the single most important factor that aided the European conquest of the Americas?
a. Gunpowder b. Disease c. Horses d. Superior organization

FEEDBACK:
The peoples of the Americas had no immunity to European disease and up to 90 percent of the population died after contact with the Europeans, greatly easing the process of conquest. (See section “The Great Dying” in your textbook.)
4. Which of the following is an old-world crop that was soon established in Europe’s American colonies?
a. Tobacco b. Potatoes c. Corn d. Rice

FEEDBACK:
Rice is a Eurasian product that soon became an agricultural staple in many locations in the Americas. (See section “The Columbian Exchange” in your textbook.)

5. Which of the following was a consequence of the introduction of horses to the North American West?
a. A male-dominated hunting and warrior culture displaced farming cultures in many areas. b. New hunting capability led to the near extinction of the North American bison. c. Horses made it possible for Native Americans to fight off European encroachments. d. Women became more important in society as they assumed a primary role in the care of horses.
FEEDBACK:
Many farming peoples, such as the Pawnee, abandoned agriculture in favor of hunting, thanks to the introduction of the horse. (See section “The Columbian Exchange” in your textbook.)

6. What was the main source of the silver that transformed the world economy in the early modern period?
a. China b. Europe c. Mexico and Peru d. Sub-saharan Africa
FEEDBACK:
The silver mines of Mexico and Peru were immensely rich, and their systematic exploitation transformed the world economy. (See section “The Columbian Exchange” in your textbook.)

7. What name is given to the enormous network of communication, trade, and transference that the European colonial empires in the Americas generated?
a. The Biological Exchange b. The Columbian Exchange c. The Mercantile Exchange d. The American Exchange
FEEDBACK:
The great network created by the European colonial empires is known as the Columbian Exchange after Christopher Columbus. (See section “The Columbian Exchange” in your textbook.)

8. What is mercantilism?
a. An economic policy that allows free market forces to work without interference. b. An economic policy that protects a nation’s economy by imposing high tariffs on imports. c. An economic policy that discourages merchants to limit their political influence. d. An economic policy that a country’s interests are best served by encouraging exports and accumulating bullion.

9. Which of the following statements best describes Spanish conquerors’ relations with native women in the Americas?
a. Many Spaniards married elite women. b. Many Spaniards had sexual relations with native women, but marriage to natives was not allowed. c. Many Spaniards married commoner women, but elite women were not allowed to enter into such relationships. d. Except in rare cases, Spanish men did not have sexual relations with native women.
FEEDBACK:
Marriages between Spaniards and elite women were very common. (See section “Comparing Colonial Societies in the Americas” in your textbook.)

10. What is encomienda?
a. The Roman Catholic mission to the peoples of the Americas b. A system in the Americas in which estate owners would hire native labor c. A legal system in Spanish America that granted groups of native people to settlers d. A system of land grants that the Spanish crown made to settlers in the Americas
FEEDBACK:
This encomienda or “commendation” system required local natives to work for settlers; in return, they supposedly received protection and instruction in Christianity. (See section “In the Lands of the Aztecs and the Incas” in your textbook.)

11. What is a Creole?
a. A Spanish settler in the Americas b. A person of mixed Spanish and native blood in the Americas c. A person in colonial Spanish America of mixed Spanish and African ancestry d. A person of Spanish ancestry born in the Americas

FEEDBACK:
Creoles, people of Spanish ancestry born in America, often resented the pretensions of people born in Spain. (See section “In the Land of the Aztecs and the Incas” in your textbook.)

12. What position did Indians occupy in Spanish colonial societies?
a. They lived separately on reservations where they could maintain their traditions and culture. b. They were abused and exploited as the primary labor force of Spain’s colonial empire. c. They largely died out in the great epidemics that came in the wake of European conquest. d. They were rapidly assimilated into the new Hispanic culture of the region.
FEEDBACK:
The gross abuse that Indians suffered in colonial Spanish America added immensely to the trauma of conquest and epidemic disease. (See section “In the Land of the Aztecs and the Incas” in your textbook.)

13. What was the Tupac Amaru Revolt of 1780–1781?
a. A native revolt in Peru b. A Mexican mestizo revolt against the oppression of people of pure Spanish descent c. A Latin American colonial revolt against Spanish rule d. A native revolt in Mexico
FEEDBACK:
The Tupac Amaru Revolt in Peru was made in the name of the last independent Inca emperor. (See section “In the Land of the Aztecs and the Incas” in your textbook.)

14. The colonies of which European power were the most culturally blended?
a. England b. Russia c. Spain d. China
FEEDBACK:
Spanish colonies were surprisingly fluid and culturally blended compared to other colonial societies. (See section “In the Land of the Aztecs and the Incas” in your textbook.)

15. Which of the following can be characterized as a “sugar colony”?
a. Philippines b. Brazil c. Mexico d. Peru
FEEDBACK:
Colonial Brazil’s economy was dominated by sugar production. (See section “Colonies of Sugar” in your textbook.)

16. Which region of the Americas imported the vast majority of slaves from Africa?
a. Brazil and the Caribbean b. The British American colonies c. Mexico d. The American Deep South after the United States won its independence from Britain
FEEDBACK:
The intensive sugar production of Brazil and the Caribbean were very labor-intensive, and the horrendous working conditions meant that new slaves had to be imported constantly, making this region the home to some 80 percent of the African slaves brought to the New World. (See section “Colonies of Sugar” in your textbook.)

17. This colony produced as many as forty separate groups to indicate different racial mixtures.
a. Virginia b. Brazil c. Peru d. Mexico
FEEDBACK:
Brazil had a highly complex system of racial relations, with as many as forty separate groups distinguished with different names. (See section “Colonies of Sugar” in your textbook.)

18. Which of the following colonial regions saw significant migration of Europeans for religious reasons?
a. Brazil b. Dutch East Indies c. British North America d. Mexico
FEEDBACK:
Many colonists to British North America were escaping religious persecution. (See section “Settler Colonies in North America” in your textbook.)

19. Which of the following colonial regions was most heavily settled by Europeans?
a. British North America b. Brazil c. Mexico d. The Caribbean
FEEDBACK:
British settlers in their colonies were far more numerous than in other colonies. (See section “Settler Colonies in North America” in your textbook.)

20. Settler colonies of which European country developed self-government to the highest degree?
a. Russia b. Britain c. Spain d. Portugal
FEEDBACK:
British colonies developed in relative freedom from the mother country since Britain was involved in a long power struggle between king and parliament in the seventeenth century. (See section “Settler Colonies in North America” in your textbook.)

21. Which of the following became part of the Russian Empire in the early modern period?
a. Afghanistan b. Hungary c. Siberia d. Finland
FEEDBACK:
Russia conquered the peoples of Siberia in the seventeenth century and incorporated the region into the growing Russian Empire. (See section “The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire” in your textbook.)

22. This colonial product, in great demand on the world market, was known as “soft gold.”
a. Sugar b. Tobacco c. Gold-silver alloy d. Fur
FEEDBACK:
The pelts of fur-bearing animals were in such great demand in the early modern period that they came to be known as “soft gold.” (See section “The Steppes and Siberia: The Making of a Russian Empire” in your textbook.)

23. Which of the following rulers initiated a massive modernization and administrative reform of Russia in the decades at the turn of the seventeenth century?
a. Peter the Great b. Catherine the Great c. Ivan the Terrible d. Nicholas II
FEEDBACK:
Peter the Great (1689–1725) initiated massive reforms, including European dress, military reform, and the creation of a new capital to serve as a “window to the West.” (See section “Russians and Empire” in your textbook.)

24. This empire brought together much of Hindu South Asia under Muslim rule.
a. The Ottoman Empire b. The Mughal Empire c. The Gupta Empire d. The Safavid Empire

FEEDBACK:
The Mughal Empire was created by a Muslim conquest of India and placed much of Hindu South Asia under Muslim rule. (See section “Asian Empires” in your textbook.)

25. How was Central Asia transformed in the period 1450–1750?
a. It came to new prominence as the center of the Mughal Empire. b. It flourished, as the expansion of the Russian and Chinese Empires increased opportunities for trade. c. Its population increasingly turned to pastoralism, as the growth of the Russian and Chinese empires limited other economic opportunities. d. It became a backward, impoverished region.
FEEDBACK:
Central Asia became backward and impoverished in the period 1450–1750 as it suffered the effects of Russian and Chinese rule and overland trade rapidly lost ground to oceanic trade. (See section “Asian Empires” in your textbook.)

26. Which of the following statements accurately describes relationships between religions in the Mughal Empire?
a. The Muslim conquerors gradually converted to the Hinduism of the native Indian population. b. In general, the Muslim rulers were tolerant of the Hindu majority. c. Hindus were forcibly converted to Islam in large numbers. d. Mughal rulers instituted policies that strongly encouraged Hindus to convert to Islam.
FEEDBACK:
In general, Mughal India practiced policies of accommodation between Muslims and Hindus. (See section “Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire” in your textbook.)

27. The greatest Mughal emperor, who instituted sweeping policies of religious accommodation, was
a. Jehan. b. Aurengzeb. c. Akbar. d. Jahangir.
FEEDBACK:
Akbar (1556–1605) was Mughal India’s most famous emperor; he established a notable policy of religious accommodation. (See section “Muslims and Hindus in the Mughal Empire” in your textbook.)

28. Which of the following statements best describes the Ottoman Empire in the early modern period?
a. Ottoman sultans were Christian and Jewish as well as Muslim. b. The vast majority of the Ottoman Empire’s population was Muslim. c. Ottoman sultans were protectors of Islam’s holy places and took seriously their role as chief defenders of the faith. d. The Ottoman Empire practiced a conscious policy of religious accommodation that gave full civil rights to religious minorities.

29. What great city, conquered in 1453, became the capital of the Ottoman Empire?
a. Jerusalem b. Baghdad c. Delhi d. Constantinople
FEEDBACK:
Renamed Istanbul, Constantinople’s fall in 1453 marked the end of the Byzantine Empire and was one of the greatest conquests of the Ottoman Empire. (See section “Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire” in your textbook.)

30. What is devshirme?
a. A tribute of young boys that the Ottomans levied on Christian communities b. A special tax on Hindus in the Mughal Empire c. The system of colonial rule that the Russians imposed on Siberia d. The granting of labor services to Spanish settlers in the Americas
FEEDBACK:
The Ottomans levied devshirme, a quota of young boys, on their Balkan Christian subjects; the boys were raised to serve in the civil administration or the military. (See section “Muslims and Christians in the Ottoman Empire” in your text

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