Free Essay

Perspectives of Development

In: Social Issues

Submitted By MaheenTahir
Words 3547
Pages 15
PERSPECTIVES OF DEVELOPMENT
From theory to reality

Table of Contents Introduction 1 What is Development? 2 General approaches to development 4 Dimensions of development 5 Economic Development 5 Human Development 6 Sustainable Development 7 Territorial Development 8 Western Definition of Development in Practice 8 Conclusion 10 Works Cited 11

Perspectives of Development
Introduction
When the concept of international development was initially developed in the post-World War II era, the countries of the First World had 65 percent of the world’s income with only 20 percent of its population, while the Third World was home of 67 percent of the world’s population but had only 18 percent of its income. People embraced the word development as a desirable objective of postwar economic policy in the late 1940s. "Development" was not precisely defined, but it was taken to mean improved economic opportunity by increasing production of goods and services in a long-term way, through capital formation. In short, it was associated with economic growth.
In the 1960s the association of development with economic growth came under increasing criticism by authors such as Dudley Seers, Gunnar Myrdal, Paul Streeten, Hollis Chenery, Mahbub ul Haq and institutions like the International Labour Organisation (ILO). They pointed out that developing countries did not experience much change in the living conditions of the masses of the poor in spite of the impressive growth figures in the post-World War II period and came to the conclusion that development involves more than economic growth and changes in economic structures. Other critics like Amartya Sen went even further and challenged the too narrow focus on the economic dimensions of development alone. Amartya Sen (1999) explained the concept of development focusing on the concept of freedom. He sees development as an integrated process of expansion of substantive freedoms.
Thus the word “Development” is not easy to define. It includes a broad range of disciplines and works to improve the quality of life of people around the world. It includes both economic and social development and consists of many issues such as humanitarian and foreign aid, poverty alleviation, the rule of law and governance, food and water security, capacity building, healthcare and education, women and children’s rights, disaster preparedness, infrastructure, and sustainability.
This article will explain different definitions of international development taking different viewpoints.

What is Development?
In general terms, “development” means an “event constituting a new stage in a changing situation” or the process of change per se. If not qualified, “development” is indirectly proposed as something positive or desirable. When referring to a society or to a socio-economic system, “development” usually means improvement, either in the general situation of the system, or in some of its constituent elements.
Development has various connotations. The meaning a particular person attaches to the term depends on his subjective view of the world. Indeed, the meaning of development is not only a product of the individual's perspective but also of the particular period in time when the word is being expressed. Thus, in order to understand the various theories of development, one must place them in a historical context. (Conteras, R 2003:1)
Sapru.R.K (2002:3) noted that the concept of development is neither new nor old. Development is a continuously and dynamic concept. Since the beginning of civilization it has been taking different shapes and dimensions. The nature of development as seen in the early 1990s differs considerably from that seen in the early 1950s or from that in the 19th century.
Development is a broad concept that entails social, economic, political and human development. Human development establishes the foundation on which the first three concepts are based.
According to Burkey (1993: 38), economic and political development must translate in to social development. As abroad concept, development has been extensively explored with a view to realize economic growth and social development. However, the emphasis shifted from industrial and economic development as the determining factors in societal transformation. Economic growth may bring material gain to the people, but development is much about enrichment of the lives of all the people in the society (Edwards 1993: 80)
Earlier definitions of development focused on economic growth and the reproduction of economic, social and political systems that existed in the western industrial nations. The definition of development as economic growth was abandoned when it became apparent that the developing countries were not modernizing as expected. Todaro (1982:68) noted that, “when a large number of third world nations did achieve the overall UN growth targets but the levels of living of the masses of people remained for the most parts unchanged, signaled that something was very wrong with this narrow definition of development”. Development was then redefined to imply progress towards a range of welfare goals.
According to Todaro – Development is not purely an economic phenomenon but rather a multi-dimensional process involving reorganization and reorientation of entire economic AND social system. It is process of improving the quality of all human lives with three equally important aspects. These are: 1. Raising peoples’ living levels, i.e. incomes and consumption, levels of food, medical services, education through relevant growth processes 2. Creating conditions conducive to the growth of peoples’ self-esteem through the establishment of social, political and economic systems and institutions which promote human dignity and respect 3. Increasing peoples’ freedom to choose by enlarging the range of their choice variables, e.g. varieties of goods and services
Sen. A (1999:3) views development as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy. This view contrasts with narrower views of development, such as identifying development with the growth of gross national product, or with the rise in personal incomes, or with industrialization, or with technological advance, or with social modernization. Growth of GNP or of individual incomes can, of course, be very important as means to expanding the freedoms enjoyed by the members of the society. But freedoms depend also on other determinants, such as social and economic arrangements (for example, facilities for education and health care) as well as political and civil rights (for example, the liberty to participate in public discussion and scrutiny). (Sen, 1999:3)
Sen (1999) argues that development requires the removal of major sources of unfreedom: poverty as well as tyranny, poor economic opportunities as well as systematic social deprivation, neglect of public facilities as well as intolerance or overactivity of repressive states. Sen (1999) further pointed out five distinct types of freedom. These include (1) political freedoms, (2) economic facilities, (3) social opportunities, (4) transparency guarantees and (5) protective security. In other words, the requirements for development can be described as an individual’s ability to participate freely in the political process, the mechanisms and capacity to seek economic well-being, the networks and connections which make social integration possible, free access to reliable information sources, and structures which allow personal safety.
Thus “Development” has continued to change meaning depending on who is talking and thinking about it. But ultimately the view of development should insist on basic needs of people being met, emphasize the importance of building capabilities of individuals, and the importance of equity and sustainability. Development should therefore have a “human face” that is it should be intended for the well-being of people both in the current and future generations. Development that falls short of these two principles (equity and sustainability) may be regarded as not being meaningful.
General approaches to development
In discussions of development studies two general approaches of development can be identified: 1. The fight against poverty: This approach focuses on the problems of widespread poverty, hunger and misery in developing countries and on the question of what can be done in order to realize improvements of the situation in the short term. 2. The analysis of long-term economic and social development: This approach concentrates on comparing developments in different countries, regions and historical periods in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that have long-term effects on the dynamics of socio-economic development.
The characteristic of the first approach is a strong connection with the problems of developing countries and their people. People studying this approach think that present levels of misery and injustice are unacceptable and aim their studies to arrive at concrete recommendations for action. The second approach argues for political actions in order to achieve dramatic changes in the existing order of things.

Dimensions of development
Most of the agents focus development on specific and selected parts of system. To end this “development” is qualified and specified in different ways. A list of possible qualifications comprises: * Economic development: i.e., improvement of the way donations, goods and services are used within (or by) the system to generate new goods and services in order to provide additional consumption and/or investment possibilities to the members of the system. * Human development: people-centered development, where the focus is put on the improvement of the various dimensions affecting the well-being of individuals and their relationships with the society (health, education, entitlements, capabilities, empowerment etc.) * Sustainable development: development which considers the long term perspectives of the socio-economic system, to ensure that improvements occurring in the short term will not be detrimental to the future status or development potential of the system, i.e. development will be “sustainable” on environmental, social, financial and other grounds. * Territorial development: development of a specific region (space) achievable by exploiting the specific socio-economic, environmental and institutional potential of the area, and its relationships with external subjects.
Economic Development
The discussion of development is always tied up with basic questions like: why are poor countries poor and rich countries rich? Why do poor countries lag behind rich countries in the development of their standards of living? How can poor countries become more prosperous? How can poor countries catch up with the rich countries? In this sense an important dimension of the concept of 'development' refers to economic growth or more precisely growth of national income per capita.
Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries, regions or communities for the well-being of their inhabitants. From a strategical perspective, economic development can be defined as efforts that seek to improve the economic well-being and quality of life for a community by creating and/or retaining jobs and supporting or growing incomes and the tax base.
Economic development has traditionally been seen as the first form of development. It has often been strictly associated with the concept of economic growth, in turn defined as an increase in the per capita income of the economic system. Development conceived of as economic growth is a quantitative concept and basically means more of the same. Yet, even if we limit ourselves to the economic sphere, it is clear that economic development is more than economic growth alone. Economic development refers to growth accompanied by qualitative changes in the structure of production and employment, generally referred to as structural change (Kuznets, 1966). This means that economic growth could take place without any economic development. Such examples are those oil-exporting countries, which experienced sharp increases in national income but saw hardly any changes in their economic structure.
There are significant differences between economic growth and economic development. The term "economic growth" refers to the increase (or growth) of a specific measure such as real national income, gross domestic product, or per capita income. National income or product is commonly expressed in terms of a measure of the aggregate value-added output of the domestic economy called gross domestic product (GDP). When the GDP of a nation rises economists refer to it as economic growth.
The term "economic development," on the other hand, involves much more. It typically refers to improvements in a variety of indicators such as literacy rates, life expectancy, and poverty rates.
Human Development
Human development can be simply defined as a process of enlarging choices. Every day human beings make a series of choices – some economic, some social, some political, some cultural. If people are the proper focus of development efforts, then these efforts should be geared to enhancing the range of choices in all areas of human industry for every human being. Human development is both a process and an outcome. It is concerned with the process through which choices are enlarged, but it also focuses on the outcomes of enhanced choices.
UNDP (2010) for instance, provides an comprehensive concept of human development on the basis of three criteria: (i) “Long and healthy life”, (ii) “knowledge” and (iii) “A decent standard of living”, respectively measured by life expectancy at birth, mean years and expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita at purchasing parity (iv) the inequality in the distribution of the specific features within countries.
Sustainable Development
The concept of “sustainable development” was first introduced by Brundtland (1987), who defines development as “sustainable” if it “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. It contains within it two key concepts: * The concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and * The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.
Sustainable development means minimizing the use of exhaustible resources, or at least, ensuring that revenues obtained from them are used to create a constant flow of income across generations, and making an appropriate use of renewable resources. This applies to energy (oil and oil products in particular) but also to fish stock, wildlife, forests, water, land and air. Land degradation, due to soil erosion and salinization, persistent water and air pollution, depletion of fish stock and deforestation are all examples of consequences of non-sustainable activities. Soil conservation practices; Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) based on reduced use of energy, pesticides and chemicals; waste management and recycling, waste water treatment, use of renewable energy sources such as biomasses and solar panels, are frequently cited as techniques for sustainable development. The concept of sustainability has also been extended beyond environmental concerns, to include social sustainability, i.e. long term acceptance and ownership of development changes by the citizens, their organizations and associations (civil society), and financial and economic sustainability.

Territorial Development
This dimension of development refers to a territorial system, proposed as a set of interrelationships between rural and urban areas, in a space characterized by the existence of poles of attraction for human activities (production and consumption of goods and services, but also culture and social life), and connected by information systems and transport infrastructures.
Western Definition of Development in Practice
The 19th century definition of development bore many negative meanings. Eventually closely associated with colonization, development was not merely the creation of formal political and economic institutions in colonial territories. Rather, it was accompanied – not unlike colonialism itself – by the Western belief that to occupy and colonize was to bring civilization to backward peoples and societies. Western domination of culture and resources was justified and considered to the benefit of both colonizers and colonized. The 20th century version of international development was likewise from the start burdened with an clear political agenda.
The decolonization of the Third World and the increasing power of the Soviet Union and its communist ideology both posed a potential threat to the economic and political strength of the US – and the larger West. While the former colonies worked to redefine development in terms of their own pursuit of sovereignty and social justice through industrialization for the substitution of imports and regimes based in participatory politics, the US and its Western counterparts attached conditions to the foreign aid and loans they distributed to the newly-independent countries. These conditions have been a direct expression of the West’s own definition of development.
The World Bank and the IMF used loans to promote the market politics of the US: to receive a loan, a country had to plan a project that would be approved by one of the institutions, and then it had to make specific changes to its domestic economic and political structures in order to receive a loan. The policy requirements – or conditionalities – attached to the loans defined development as the achievement of an open domestic market, an export-oriented economy, widespread privatization, and a minimal state. This market approach to development is well illustrated in the World Bank’s traditional use solely of a country’s Gross National Product (GNP, also known as Gross Domestic Product, or GDP), or its per capita income, to determine its level of development. Alongside the work of lending institutions, the distribution of foreign aid over the next decades was frequently motivated by the political interests of its donors – many critics would even argue that all aid has been politically motivated. Monetary assistance in the form of both loans and donations typically went only to countries with favorable political regimes and it demanded the development of economic climates that permitted foreign business and investment. In addition, food aid, much of which was and still is supplied by the US (specifically agencies like the United States Agency for International Development, or USAID), was an opportunity for rich countries to rid their domestic markets of agricultural surpluses, another political and economic decision that has benefited the West. By doing this, they both stabilized their own economies by preventing price drops and undermined production abroad by creating a demand for US exports. The direct result of this intervention has been a weakening of local economies by driving down prices for local food crops. Whether intentionally or unconsciously biased, the West’s decisions about how and to whom to distribute aid put a Western spin on the definition of a worthy need while also attaching Western politics to the already political meaning of development.

Conclusion
How can the negative aspects and effects of international development be reduced so that international development can truly help those it means to help? The traditional model basically has to be flipped, turned upside down, and rooted in principles and dynamics almost exactly opposite of those that have defined international development since the 1950’s. International development must be approached with respect, understanding, generosity, and humility, while the top-down model has to become much more bottom-up. What needs to be taken out of the equation are the West’s colonial attitude of superiority and conviction that no one knows better. In order for positive change to take place, the people have to first realize that change is necessary. Then they must figure out for themselves how they are willing and able to help and change themselves. With local leadership and creativity, the pressing needs of a community can be translated into projects and addressed as is most suitable for that community. Projects must be more coherent and communities more cohesive and international development must be allowed to be for the developing world, by the developing world. In the words of the former Secretary General of the United Nations, Kofi Anan, as already quoted earlier, “The objective [of international development] is to enable poor people to help themselves through economic activity that builds on their strengths and compensates for their weaknesses.” This has been the objective of international development in theory since its modern conceptions in the post-World War II era, but geographical, contextual, and theoretical distance between development planners, financial donors, and workers, on the one hand, and underdeveloped communities, on the other, has made for a movement that repeatedly fails to fully accomplish its central goal.

Works Cited 1. Korchumova, S. (2007) Development Projects That Work: Multidisciplinary in Action, Globalhood Research Paper 2. A Half-Century of Development, Richard N. Cooper , CID Working Paper No. 118 (March 2005) 3. Szirmai, A., & Szirmai, A. (2005). Dynamics of socio-economic development: an introduction. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 4. Academic work. (n.d.). : Critically examine the meaning of the term 'development'."We should stop talking about poverty eradication because the poor are trapped in their pover. Retrieved August 3, 2014, from http://natambas.blogspot.com/2010/04/critically-examine-meaning-of-term.html 5. Sapru. R. K (2002) Development Administration, 2nd Edition Sterling Publishers Private Limited, New Delhi, India 6. Conteras. R How the Concept of Development got Started, http://www.uiowa.edu/ifdebook/ebook2/contents/part1-I.shtml (Accessed 15th /2/2009) 7. Burkey, S. 1993. People First: A Guide to Self -Reliant, Participatory Rural Development. London: Zed Books. 8. Edwards, M. 1993. How Relevant is Development Studies? , in Beyond the Impasse: New Directions in Development Theory, edited by FJ Schuurman. London: Zed B o ok s. 9. Todaro .P. Michael, (1981) Economic Development in the Third World, 2nd Edition. Long man. New York, USA 10. Sen. A (1999) Development as Freedom, Oxford University Press, London, UK 11. Kuznets, S. (1995) Modern Economic Growth: Rate, Structure and Spread, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press 12. What is Economic Development? | Salmon Valley Business Innovation Center. (n.d.). What is Economic Development? | Salmon Valley Business Innovation Center. Retrieved August 4, 2014, from http://www.svbic.com/node/24 13. United Nations Secretary General. Cooperatives in Social Development. 2005, from http://www.copac.coop/a60138e.pdf

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The Evolution of Development Perspectives

...The Evolution of Development Perspectives   The Evolution of Development Perspectives The study below is a review of different articles and the evolution of development perspectives. The study reviews the work of different authors and their perceptions about the evolution of development. A brief summary of the developed economic models has also been included, as most journals have mentioned these theories in their reviews. Development has come a long way over the last sixty years as both a scholarly discipline and as an enterprise. It became very significant after the Second World War and was considered the same as industrialization. Its objective was very clear: to raise incomes and offer goods and services to poor people, who couldn’t have access to them before (Rapely, 2007, p. 1). Evolution can be defined as the self-transformation of a system under study (Witt, 2002, p. 9). Six decades ago, depression and political developments had made first world countries rely on Keynesian models in political and economic circles. This further influenced third world countries whose confidence was supported by the emergence of structural economics in a bid to enter the industrial age. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, those involved with development studies tried to answer the question relating to what it means for the economy to be......

Words: 2643 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Lifespan Perspective of Human Development

...important years in life for human development? Human development is a complicated and controversial subject. In the past, childhood has been attributed a majority of the concentration in regards to the development of a human being, and in some cases, adulthood has gotten all of the attention. However there is one perspective that considers all phases of life, known as the life-span perspective, which is universally accepted by most psychologists and implicated into their own respective theories. This perspective was originally introduced by Paul and Margaret Baltes, and was monumental as it considered all phases of life, rather than just childhood or adulthood (Berger 2010). There are five insights which are focused on to describe the context under which development occurs. According to the life-span perspective, development is multidirectional, multicontextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic (Berger 2010). Let’s begin with multidirectional. Multidirectional means that human qualities change in all directions. A more traditional belief was that development took place up until the age of 20, becomes stagnant, and then declines. Life-span research has refuted this claim (Berger 2010). For example, when an elderly person’s spouse passes, the newly single elderly person can either lose motivation to live, or expand their social surroundings. Regardless of the outcome, development occurred even in these elderly years. The belief that development occurs in stages......

Words: 1178 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Economic Development Perspective of Philippines

...country. Overall development of a country largely depends on economic policy design & its proper implementation. Every country has its own economic policies & specific way of their implementation. But some policies are same for all countries such as Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy, etc. Philippines, as a developing country has set various economic policies & strategies over time with a view to seeking development. In course of time it has adopted a wide variety of economic policies, many of which had long term effects (both positive and negative impacts) on the lives of its people. The crucial policies that the government of the country adopted over time are – Fiscal policy, Monetary policy, Income distribution strategy, Government policy, Tax policy, Trade policy, etc. The impacts of these policies have had widespread effects on various macroeconomic variables of the country. Various surveys and reports show that the economic growth has not been as expected. Growth of the variables has gone at a slow pace. GDP increases over time but with a high fluctuating rate. Rate of educated people, standard of health care, standard of living have improved but it is still poor in comparison with other countries of the region. It is one of the countries whose economy is based on agriculture. A huge portion of the country’s GDP comes from agriculture. But yet it has some major constraints due to what it is still facing some problems and fails to have that much development. Natural......

Words: 23470 - Pages: 94

Free Essay

Democracy and Development in India: a Comparative Perspective

...Democracy and Development in India: A Comparative Perspective By Pranab Bardhan University of California at Berkeley To most theorists of democracy in the West, India is an embarrassing anomaly and hence largely avoided. By most theoretical stipulations India should not have survived as a democracy: it’s too poor its citizens largely rural and uneducated its civic institutions rather weak. It is a paradox even for those who believe in a positive relationship between economic equality or social homogeneity and democracy. India’s wealth inequality (say, in land distribution, and even more in education or human capital) is one of the highest in the world. Indian society is also one of the most heterogeneous in the world (in terms of ethnicity, language, caste and religion), and social inequality, a legacy of the caste system, is considerable. Yet this country, with the world’s largest electorate (it is now larger than the electorate in North America, Western Europe, and Japan combined), keeps lumbering on decade after decade as a ramshackle, yet remarkably resilient, democratic polity. Of course, depending on the defining features of democracy the depth of Indian democracy may be rather limited. It is useful to keep a distinction between three general aspects of democracy: (a) some basic minimum civil and political rights enjoyed by citizens, (b) some procedures of accountability in day-to-day administration under some overarching constitutional rules of the game, (c)......

Words: 3182 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Administration Development & Global Perspectives in 21st Century

...ADMINISTRATION DEVELOPMENT & GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES IN 21ST CENTURY Dr. S.B. Ambhore Professor Dept of Economics Smt Dankuwar Mahila Mahavidalya Jalna Suresh Shravan Patil Arts, Commerce college Chanawad Nashik Introduction The Indian economic scenario has taken an ‘U’ shape turn over the recent past. India has witnessed a stagnant, tranquil and well protected economy since last several decades. The Indian organizations are constantly striving to improve their managerial competence in today’s competitive global world. To improve the productivity, Indian companies requires’ Management. Managerial activity being concerned with things done through people, managers have the opportunity of utilizing human resources to secure greater productivity, manager is a person who actually does and get others to do things. All the technological up gradations which are happening are because of the human resource, which shows the importance of management development for a global perspective. Today Mangers do not concentrate on one thing at a time; they work on a complex situation. Analytical skill and presence of mind the twin facets to achieve an end result. Convincing everyone on every situation is a tough task on the part of managers. In a complicated situation, management development is an effective tool for H.R.D. India at present requires successful managers to run successfully the industrial......

Words: 966 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Five Major Perspectives Used to Research Child Development

...Several theories have been developed from the five major perspectives used to research child development. These perspectives include psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive, contextual, and evolutionary/sociobiological perspectives (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). Researchers use theories to explain child development. The theories are important because they propose ideas or explanations to describe development and to predict kinds of behaviors. In this paper, I will discuss and describe three theories of development, their key concepts, their similarities, their differences, how the domains of development influence each other, and how understanding development helps those who work with developing children. Three Theories of Development: Some important theories of child development include Freud’s psychosexual theory, Erickson’s psychosocial theory, and Piaget’s cognitive-stage theory. “Sigmund Freud believed that people are born with biological drives that must be redirected to make it possible to live in society” (Papalia et. al, 2008). He proposed that development happens throughout five stages in a child’s life. The first stage is referred to as the oral stage. It occurs between birth and 18 months. During this stage, the baby’s chief source of pleasure involves mouth-oriented activities (Papalia et. al, 2008). The second stage is referred to as the anal stage. It occurs between one year and three years of age. During this stage, the child derives sensual gratification from...

Words: 2487 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Explain the Principal Psychological Perspectives Applied to the Understanding of the Development of Individuals

...our environment and also supports behaviourism. Another debate is continuity v discontinuity, some individuals have created continuity theories and others have created discontinuity theories. Continuity theorists believe that the development of an individual is constantly continuous while discontinuous theorists believe that there are specific periods where individuals develop. For example Freud’s psychosexual stages are a discontinuous theory. There is also an issue of nomothetic vs idiographic; some theorists adopt a nomothetic approach while others adopt an idiographic approach. Individuals that adopt a nomothetic approach create theories based on what we share with others, and find general laws that can be applied to large groups of people, for example behaviourism is a nomothetic approach. On the other hand the idiographic approach goes into large detail for the individual to investigate why we are unique, for example Freud’s theory is an idiographic approach. There are six principle psychological perspectives which are applied to the understanding which includes; behaviourism, social learning, psychodynamic, humanistic, cognitive and developmental. These perspectives can be used to explain the development of individuals. Cognitive development starts when developing from when we are born. It refers to how intelligence, conscious thought and problem solving develop from infancy. As well as improving the ability to think, learn and reason. Jean Piaget...

Words: 7676 - Pages: 31

Premium Essay

A Change Recipient Perspective on Training and Competence Development During Organizational Change

...HUMAN RESOURCES Conference Paper Abstracts A CHANGE RECIPIENT PERSPECTIVE ON TRAINING AND COMPETENCE DEVELOPMENT DURING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE Olsen, Trude Hogvold; Harstad U. College; trude.olsen@hih.no Stensaker, Inger G.; NHH Norw.Schl of Economics and Business Adm.; inger.stensaker@nhh.no As organizations change and adapt to pressures in the external and internal environment, managers and employees are required to learn new competencies and skills. Ideally, new skill requirements should be identified and developed early in the change process in order to ensure that managers and employees are ready to face their new tasks and roles when the changes are implemented. However, despite good intentions at the top management level, employees and middle managers often report uncertainty and a lack of the necessary skills required to implement change. In this paper, we report from a qualitative study of two planned organizational change initiatives in the public sector. The changes involved new work tasks and managerial roles for a group of middle managers. Although the skill requirements appeared to be clear and formal training was initiated, a number of uncertain and ambiguous issues emerged among the change recipients. We examine the types of uncertainty and ambiguity that emerged and how change recipients attempted to handle these challenges. Our findings suggest that although necessary and important, formal training procedures are not adequate for resolving......

Words: 27190 - Pages: 109

Premium Essay

An Analysis Into Using Biblical Perspectives in Choosing Christian Education Curriculum Development

...The Past Present and Future: An analysis into using Biblical Perspectives in Choosing Christian Education Curriculum Development A Paper Presented to Dr. Doug Powell Dallas Baptist University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of MACE 6301 by Timothy E. Fitten, II December 5, 2010 Table of Contents Introduction 3 Identified Methodology for Implementation 3 Intended Outcome of the Process 5 Planning Steps 5 Leadership Needs 6 Communication Methods 6 Needed Resources 7 Scheduling Considerations 7 Mobilization Methods 8 Anticipated Challenges and Barriers 8 Conclusion 9 Bibliography 11 Introduction Curriculum development within Christian Education (CE) is not an easy task to undertake. However, in order to impact the lives of Christians, such development is a vital part of expediting the growth of within the family of faith. The Christian church is established based upon the five founding principles (evangelism, education, fellowship, service and worship) and the curriculum that is chosen by the church should accurately reflect these principles. Today more than ever the mandate given to us by Jesus the Christ, which calls for us to continue not only educating ourselves but educating others, is a challenge. Of the five founding principles, education may be the hardest principle to fully implement. Throughout history the method of teaching parishioners has changed. From teaching and learning......

Words: 5925 - Pages: 24

Free Essay

Economic Development of the United Arab Emirates, 1990-2040: Policies, Progress, Perspective

...Introduction En 1971, plusieurs territoires parmi les plus pauvres du Golfe Arabo-Persique se fédérèrent en un nouvel état : les Emirats Arabes Unis (EAU). Cette zone, peu peuplée, au climat inhospitalier, ne vivotait depuis des siècles que de la pêche des perles et d’une portion du commerce maritime entre Orient et Occident. L’exploitation industrielle du pétrole et du gaz venait seulement d’y débuter. Pourtant, les EAU allaient suivre une trajectoire économique exceptionnelle. Si, au début des années 1990, la richesse pétrolière des Emirats expliquait à elle seule un PIB par habitant supérieur à tous les autres pays du Moyen-Orient, la volonté politique de renforcer et diversifier l’économie du pays se manifestait déjà, sous l’impulsion de l’émir d’Abou Dhabi et Président de la fédération, Sheikh Zayed. Une génération plus tard, les Emirats continuent à se distinguer de la plupart de leurs voisins : plus dynamiques, plus peuplés, plus ouverts, ils sont maintenant les plus avancés sur le chemin de l’après-pétrole. Ce cas extrême constitue donc un cas d’école, pour comprendre les mécanismes et les limites de cette combinaison d’une vision économique de long terme, de revenus pétroliers utilisés à bon escient, et d’un interventionnisme économique relativement éclairé. Quels facteurs et quels choix ont guidé les décideurs émiriens au cours des 25 dernières années ? Pour quels résultats ? Quel pays trouveront, quand ils arriveront sur le marché du travail dans 25 ans, les......

Words: 3223 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

• Explore Doyle’s Development of the Voice of the Child Narrator Here to Convey Changes in His Attitudes and Perspective.

...Using this extract as your starting point, you should: • Explore Doyle’s development of the voice of the child narrator here to convey changes in his attitudes and perspective. • Examine how Paddy’s voice changers as the novel progresses to reveal his developing awareness and maturity and how this relates to his changing circumstances. Towards the beginning of the extract, Doyle uses a simile to show Paddy’s simplistic imagination and comparison to things, “His laugh was a noise he started and stopped like a machine.” These simple similes, as well as “like a dragon” on pg.3, show paddy likes to explain things visually – by using descriptive pictures and images. This may suggest he is too immature to use sophisticated vocabulary and finds explaining things in a more adult way too hard. Furthermore, the use of the word “machine” emphasizes Paddy’s fascination with “boyish” things – football, violence etc. This could also show that Paddy is still interested into violence, loud noises and things associated with machines – suggesting why that particular simile is used, because it involves things Paddy is passionate about. Paddy’s perspective is fairy basic here; he sees things quite obviously and doesn’t look deeper or further. Repetition is used to show Paddy is observant of what people don’t see/realise,” he didn’t know” and “he didn’t know that either”. The repetition shows that Paddy is aware of situations and notices......

Words: 1215 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Explain the Relationship Between Discipline and Obedience from the Montessori Perspective. Explain How Discipline and Obedience Are Linked to the Development of the Will.

...There are various theories explaining the development of discipline and obedience in early childhood. Montessori perspective establishes a link between these two concepts and how their maturation is dependent on the maturation of the will of the child. This essay will attempt to explain the relationship between discipline and obedience in the developmental stages of a child. Attention will be paid to how the environment helps the child in his development through the stages according to Montessori. According to Oxford dictionary, ‘to discipline is to train to obey rules and code of conduct, using punishment to correct disobedience’. In the traditional sense of discipline much emphasis is placed on the use of external stimuli including rewards and punishment to ensure conformity with a certain required behavior. Discipline is thus exacted with a bait of reward or punishment. Usually discipline is achieved through among others threats, bribes, coercion and fear. In the perspective of Montessori however disciple is described to be active and comes from within the child as a result of his own internal motivation. A child’s discipline emerges as he works in a purposeful manner in a prepared environment (Montessori 2007a). According to Montessori (2007b, p51) ‘ the discipline we are looking for is active. We do not believe that one is disciplined only when he is artificially made as silent as a mute and as motionless as a paralytic. Such a one is not disciplined but......

Words: 1889 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Explain the Relationship Between Discipline and Obedience from the Montessori Perspective. Explain How Discipline and Obedience Are Linked to the Development of the Will.

...EXPLAIN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DISCIPLINE AND OBEDIENCE FROM THE MONTESSORI PERSPECTIVE. EXPLAIN HOW DISCIPLINE AND OBEDIENCE ARE LINKED TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WILL. The present document will focus on the relationship between discipline and obedience according with Montessori’s philosophy. I will explain to how discipline and obedience play a vital role in the development of a child and how both these are linked or connected to the development of the will. First, current definitions of the terms discipline and obedience will be discussed and will be compared with Montessori’s interpretation of these concepts. The influence of favourable environment in the development of the will and in discipline will be explained. Following there will be explained how the maturational develop of discipline is linked to the development of the will. Then there will be a consideration in how these aspects of development are the foundation of the development of obedience. I will then describe the there levels of obedience linking the first two relevantly to the spiritual and social embryonic stages of the absorbent mind. Finally I will conclude my argument by summarising the main ideas of this essay. The term DISCIPLINE is often define in the dictionary by “training to act in accordance with rules; drill; punishment inflicted by way of correction and training; behaviour in accord with rules of conduct;” This term is still very associated with punishment in your society. We say a child......

Words: 1021 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

As a New Hr Representative, You Have Been Asked to Facilitate a Session on Attribution Theory to a Group of Perspective Managers Participating in a Management Development Program. Your Manager Has Asked That You Explain

...Internet and Commerce relation is an interesting topic especially for researchers in the marketing field. It is a new way of marketing a product/service globally to the targeted market around the world. This paper introduces a new approach concerning Internet marketing in electronic commerce; showing how advertisers need this innovation to be successful. This also relieves marketing managers for more value added tasks such as marketing plans for better development of the company. Keywords - Internet marketing, innovation, E-commerce 1-INTRODUCTION Internet marketing (IM) is also known as digital marketing, web marketing, online marketing, or e-marketing. As the name states, it is the advertising of products or services over the Internet. However, it also implies marketing through the wireless media and through e-mail. Electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) systems are also categorized under Internet marketing. IM can be creative, as well as, technical through its design, development, advertising, and sales over the Internet. This paper is a secondary research regarding how E-commerce gradually forms part of our daily lives. It concerns different aspect of advertising in terms of electronic commerce. 2. THE...

Words: 1760 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Personality Paper

...four perspectives of personality are as follow: The psychoanalytic perspective, the trait perspective, the humanistic perspective and the social cognitive perspective. The psychoanalytic perspective focuses more on the unconscious mind. The trait perspective focuses on describing, identifying and measuring traits of your personality. The humanistic perspective focuses on human nature and “Free Will”. The social cognitive perspective is where it focuses on the behavior and achievement. The Psychoanalytic Perspective The psychoanalytic perspective focuses more on the unconscious mind. This perspective is the structure of the mind that supports the id, ego, and the super ego. The id of personality is what makes fast decisions and emotional responses. The ego of personality is what thinks about what to do before you actually do it. The super ego of personality is the one that is very critical and very judgmental. The Trait Perspective The trait perspective is based on describing, identifying and measuring traits of our personality. You have two sets of traits. These traits are called introversion and extraversion. The difference between the two is that introversion people focus on the world inside us. Extraversion people are more focused on the world outside. Introvert people may include being quiet, being independent and keeps to themselves. On the other hand extravert people tend to be very talkative, socially out-going, and have many friends. The Humanistic......

Words: 612 - Pages: 3