Premium Essay

Perspectives of Personality

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By cgiles06
Words 1170
Pages 5
Perspectives Of Personality There are many theories of personality, they have been grouped into four basic perspectives: psychoanalytic, humanistic, social cognitive, and traits. The psychoanalytic perspective focused on the importance of the unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience. The psychoanalytic perspective suggests that there is a structure to the mind which includes the id, ego, and superego. The id is the completely unconscious, irrational component of the personality. It is not affected by logic, values, morality, danger, or the demands of the external world. The ego is the semi-conscious rational part of the personality and the superego is the semi-conscious, moralistic part of the personality. This structure is a very distinct psychological process. (Hockenbury, D.H. & S.E.,2014 pp 419-422)
The humanistic perspective "represents an optimistic look at human nature" (Hockenbury, 2014). Human nature is viewed as primarily good and humanistic theorists, like Maslow, focus on methods that allow fulfillment of potential. The humanistic perspective of personality attributes human characteristics and actions to free will and the drive for self-actualization.
The social cognitive perspective of personality "emphasizes learning and conscious cognitive processes, including the importance of beliefs about the self, goal setting, and self regulation"(Hockenbury, 2014). Albert Bandura was on of the major theorists of this prospective. Bandura emphasized the role of conscious thoughts including self-efficacy.
Another perspective is the trait perspective of personality. The trait perspective "emphasizes the description and measurement of specific personality differences among individuals" (Hockenbury,2014). In this perspective, there are two representative trait theories. Hans Eysenck suggested that there are three...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Personality Perspectives

...Psychology as we all know is the scientific study of the behavior of humans and animals. The following paragraphs will compare and contrast Psychodynamic, Behavioral, and Humanistic perspectives of psychology. Each one of these perspectives searches for answers about behavior through different techniques and through looking for answers to different kinds of questions. Due to the different approaches, each perspective form their own assumptions and explanations. Some perspectives are widely accepted while others struggle for acceptance. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were the key people in developing the Humanistic Perspective, Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson were the key people in developing the Psychodynamic Perspectives and American psychologist John B. Watson was the key person in developing the Behavioral perspective. The Psychodynamic Perspective focuses on unconscious mental activity. This perspective suggests that both normal and abnormal behaviors are determined primarily by unconscious forces (Davis And Palladino). The Behavioral Perspective focus on observable behaviors; but does not speculate about mental processes such as thinking (Davis And Palladino). It also focuses on learning in understanding how various behaviors occur. The Humanistic Perspective focuses on how people can come to achieve their fullest potential as individuals who make choices and who take control of responsibility for their mental, social, and personal experiences. It also emphasizes free......

Words: 440 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Personality Perspectives

...Personality Perspectives Stephanie A. Pingel PSY 203 12/14/2015 Personality Perspectives Personality is a fickle thing; it seems only observational behavior is recognized as a main study, but how this behavior come to be is another story. Understanding both sides is absolutely necessary for understanding the way an individual behaves, and how they come to behave in a certain way. Cognitive and Humanistic Perspectives Cognitive and humanistic perspectives are both necessary in understanding human behavior. Humanistic perspective views personality as expressed through the conscious experience of directing ourselves toward fulfilling our unique potentials as humans. The self is the center of human experience, in the eyes of a humanistic theorist. Coming to know yourself and being true to yourself is the most important view of this perspective (book). Social-cognitive theory explains behavior as a concoction of social and cognitive aspects, looking beyond collective and operant conditioning. In other words, behavior includes not only learned behavior, but what the individual thinks of itself and the world around them. There are three main concepts of each theory to understand before moving on. The humanistic theory offers new concepts to how personality works as well as the cognitive theory. Humanistic theory offers a new light of values when approaching the human nature and condition, opened a broader horizon in the understanding of human......

Words: 676 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Humanistic/Existential Perspective of Personality

...Humanistic/Existential perspective of personality Christine Bernardo Psych 405 December 3, 2012 Thom Mote Humanistic/Existential perspective of personality I would like to summarize the strengths of both the humanistic and existential perspectives of personality. This will focus on strengths and examples of personalities using these theories. Both of these perspectives are part of a progressive and positive attempt to resolve upset and inhibiting behaviors to uncover the better person hiding within. To analyze the strengths of any perspective you have to break down the theory into its strengths and weaknesses. Abraham Maslow has a humanistic theory that is based around self-actualization. This self – actualization is the main part of the theory that envelopes the lower level necessities such as love, safety, esteem and hunger (Feist & Feist, 2009). We need these to survive in a strong positive manner and also to reach the ultimate goal of self – actualization. Maslow felt that other theories did not adequately understand the humanity and psychological health of a person. Maslow has a hierarchy of needs that describes and defines the basic necessities that people need to be the best they can be. This hierarchy consists of five stages of needs, the first is physiological which is the most basic of human needs and consists of the air we breathe, the food we eat, water we drink and maintaining our bodies peak performance levels. The second step is safety, by......

Words: 927 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Personality Characteristics Within the Perspectives

...The learning theories lean toward the belief that personality is an accumulation of learned inclinations that continue throughout the lifespan. Kelly believed present awareness guides the development of personality according to how one anticipates specific events and as such, all human activity is influenced by anticipation. Skinner thought genetics plays a significant role in the development of personality, and genetic variance accounts for unique personalities, but ultimately, environment shapes the personality. Skinner noted personality as "at best a repertoire of behavior imparted by an organized set of contingencies" (Skinner, 1974, as cited by Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 472). Bandura understood human nature as "self-regulating, proactive, self-reflective, and self-organizing" (Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 486). He recognized observational learning enables individuals to learn without performing behavior. Rotter believed people's personal history and experiences shapes their personalities and goals, but emphasized the similarities in people whereas Mischel considered individual differences and variations in behavior more significant. He (Mischel) thought human behavior adapts to the interaction of "stable personality traits and the situation, which includes a number of personal variables" (Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 546). Kelly's theory of dichotomy corollary determined personality constructs are double-sided and individuals choose the one they believe will extend......

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

My Personality from Three Perspectives

...Individual Assignment: My personality from Three Perspectives Individual Assignment: My personality from Three Perspectives It seems the most fascinating question of all among life’s big questions would be: “Who am I?” This question, recently, has been becoming one of the most topic that people keep talking about. “Be yourself”, “Understand yourself and you will understand others”, “What others think about you is not important as what you think about yourself”… they are some of the most popular quotes that have been shared among the social network recently. The bottom line question is, why people start to care about that topic. Actually it is not new that people ask themselves such these question, but before it was challenging to find the answer due to lack of knowledge or direction. Fortunately, thanks to all the theories developed by respected psychologists, we can use those theories as a guideline in order to analyses about ourselves. I, as a mortal, always wonder who I am and why I think, feel and behave like I do every day. Basically, I want know what make me a unique individual and how I differentiate from the others. In psychology, they call it “personality”. There are variety of perspectives to explain one’s personality; and in this essay, I will analyses my own personality based on three different theories of three psychologist: Adler, Eysenck and Kelly. Adler’s Individual Psychology I remember since I was a kid, I have always felt inferior to my peers......

Words: 1778 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Individual Differences

...Classify People - Individual differences Approach Personality Intelligence Values and Beliefs Individual differences Approach Personality Definition Defined as an individual differences in feeling, mood, attitude, thinking, and behaving FACT: Personality forms generalized pattern Explaining Personality Trait Perspective of Personality Biological Perspective of Personality Cognitive Perspective of Personality Trait Perspective of Personality Personality is a set of traits Thinking, Behaviour or Feeling enduring over time (don’t change Quickly) Funny adventurous Talkative Introvert Extrovert Trait Perspective of Personality Enduring over time Disposition (Acting in a particular way in certain situation) Trait 1 Trait 2 Trait 3 Trait 4 Trait 5 Personality Generalized pattern Trait Perspective of Personality FACT: All people have same traits but with different degree -FACT: There Are 3 Types of Trait Cardinal Trait Secondary Trait Central Trait Trait Perspective of Personality Trait Types Cardinal Trait Dominant Trait Secondary Trait Trait Exhibited in a certain Situation Central Trait Characterize an individual’s daily interaction Trait Perspective of Personality - almost 18,000 different traits - Eysenck grouped these traits into 4 Main Traits Extroversion Introversion Neuroticism Stability - Big Five Personality Traits There are five trait dimensions that are......

Words: 721 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Danielle Taliaferro PSY 211 June 5, 2013 Andrea Mc Lellan, MA, MFT Personality The study of personality is one of the major topics of interest within psychology. Each of us, as human beings, influences much that is within us and around us. Each person has many psychological attributes; feelings, thoughts and motivations. It is our personality that orchestrates our psychological qualities. Some individuals cannot help but wonder how the personality works, how it came to be and what it might mean for their future. Some also wonder about the personalities of others; how they are the same or different from them. Although these questions are intriguing, the question that must be answered first is the most basic: “What is personality?” Personality encompasses the many characteristics that arise from within an individual. It is what makes an individual unique. Researchers have developed four different perspectives on personality. Each of these perspectives attempts to describe different patterns in personality, including how these patters form and how people differ on an individual level. Psychoanalytic Perspective emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences and the unconscious mind. This perspective was created by psychiatrist Sigmund Freud who believed that things hidden in the unconscious could be revealed in a number of different ways, including through dreams, free association and slips of the tongue. Freud’s work shaped the fields of......

Words: 1559 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

The Learning Perspective

...The Learning Perspective The Learning Perspective  Personality psychology is the branch of psychology that studies people personality and their individual different. Personality refers to the person cognition, emotions, motivations, and behaviors people will use in different situation. This also refers to patter of thought and social behaviors especially over time. Your personality it is something that changed over time and adjusts and transform, it is the way the brain used mechanism and adapt to a new environment, it also predicts people reaction to situation. Carl Jung say that each person is motivate not only by experience but also the emotional, he understood that everything that a person can be and how a person is motivate is through the emotion an individual will experiences. In this paper we will discuss the assumptions, the strengths, the limitations, and the interpersonal relations using the perspective.  The assumption/ Social Learning  We all understand that personality is a broad and has a lot of history associated with it, it also understood all the major theory such as biological, the social learning, humanistic, evolutionary, perspective, behaviorist, and the psychodynamic. The assumption of the learning perspective is all behaviors are learning through the experience the individual goes through. This perspective see people being born as a blank slate, they don’t see that a person can be born with a personality structure (carver and Scheier)”. Now......

Words: 1213 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality Paper

...Running head: Personality Paper Personality Paper Je’Neil Gant Alfred Hughes According to dictionary.com, personality is the visible aspect of one’s character as it impresses others. The four perspectives of personality are as follow: The psychoanalytic perspective, the trait perspective, the humanistic perspective and the social cognitive perspective. The psychoanalytic perspective focuses more on the unconscious mind. The trait perspective focuses on describing, identifying and measuring traits of your personality. The humanistic perspective focuses on human nature and “Free Will”. The social cognitive perspective is where it focuses on the behavior and achievement. The Psychoanalytic Perspective The psychoanalytic perspective focuses more on the unconscious mind. This perspective is the structure of the mind that supports the id, ego, and the super ego. The id of personality is what makes fast decisions and emotional responses. The ego of personality is what thinks about what to do before you actually do it. The super ego of personality is the one that is very critical and very judgmental. The Trait Perspective The trait perspective is based on describing, identifying and measuring traits of our personality. You have two sets of traits. These traits are called introversion and extraversion. The difference between the two is that introversion people focus on the world inside us. Extraversion people are more focused on the world outside. Introvert people may......

Words: 612 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Personality Paper

...Personality Paper Christina M. Bartlett PSY/211 June 11th, 2013 Dr. Kathlyn J. Kirkwood Personality Paper Often it is thought that people’s personality is just who they are. “Personality is defined as an individual’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving” (Hockenbury, Chapter 10, 2014). But often personality is what people observe, are taught, or even a conditioned process based on events that they have been through. There are several personality theories within psychology, which gives different ideas and attempts to give an explanation about the way personalities develops. “A personality is an attempt to describe and explain how people are similar, how they are different, and why every individual is unique” (Hockenbury, Chapter 10, 2014). Over the years, there have been multiple personalities theories analyzed and discussed. Many of the theories are defined under four major perspectives: the Psychoanalytic Perspective, the Humanistic Perspective, the Social Cognitive Perspective, and the Trait Perspective. Each of these perspectives defines, recognizes, and simplifies the ability to understand the human personality. For instance, Sigmund Freud was considered an influential contributor based on his contribution and development of the Psychoanalytic Theory. “ Psychoanalysis is a theory that stresses the influence of unconscious mental processes, the importance of sexual and aggressive instincts, and the enduring......

Words: 1243 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

• What Were the Major Developments in the Evolution of Mass Media During the Last Century

...Personality As we all know, everyone is not the same. We might be equal or similar when it comes to shape and other remarks but we do not think the same, act or do the same things. Everyone has a mind of their own. How can we describe this? What makes us unique? Personality is the best way to describe how we differ from each other. “Personality is defined as an individual’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving” (Don H. Hockenbury 2014). There are different theories when it comes to personality. They can be grouped into four major theories which are: The psychoanalytic, humanistic, social cognitive, and trait perspectives. Each theory emphasizes on a specific perspective of an individual’s personality. Psychologists use personality theory to identify the basic perspectives. “A personal theory is an attempt to describe and explain how people are similar, how they are different, and why every individual is unique” (Don H. Hockenbury 2014). To understand better how personality can be evaluated or measure is important to know the definition for each perspective. The psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes the importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience. In this perspective childhood experiences have a lot to do; anything done during childhood can affect future personality. The humanistic perspective represents an optimistic look at human nature, emphasizing the self and the fulfillment of a......

Words: 719 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Personality Paper

...Personality ```````````````````` Essentials of Psychology 211 March 8, 2014 Shelly Peed Personality What is personality? According to Hockenbury and Hockenbury (2014), personality is a person’s distinctive and rather consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. But how is that personality developed? What influences certain personality traits and can we find the root of them? Countless theorists have studied and dissected this provocative subject. Psychoanalytic Perspective Cherry (n.d.), “The psychoanalytic perspective of personality emphasizes the importance of early childhood experiences and the unconscious mind” (para. 3). The emphasis is put on the value of unconscious process and early childhood experience. Psychiatrist Sigmund Freud first introduced this perspective on personality. He believed the unconscious mind concealed things that could be uncovered through dreams, free association and slips of the tongue (Cherry, n.d.). Humanistic Perspective The humanistic perspective has a more optimistic approach on human nature as compared to the other perspectives. The focus is more on personal awareness, free will, and psychological progress (Cherry, n.d.). The two more prominent contributors to the humanistic approach were Carl Roger and Abraham Maslow. They were part of the opposition of two dominant perspectives in the 1950s, which were psychoanalysis and behaviorism. They championed a......

Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

To What Extent Is Your Personality a Matter of Choice?

...To what extent is your personality a matter of choice? Discuss with reference to at least two theories of personality. Personality is something that is key in our descriptions of ourselves to others. We use it as a way of defining ourselves as an individual; a way of summing up everything about ourselves (Schultz & Schultz, 1997). The word personality derives from the Latin word ‘persona’, referring to a mask (Schultz & Shultz). The mask being that which we display, a representation of ourselves. There are varying definitions of ‘personality’, and much argument over what it does indeed encompass (Carver & Scheier, 2000), but the term is generally used to encompass who we are. More specifically; the extent to which your personality is a matter of choice is a highly debated issue in regards to our competing inner drives (psychoanalytic); our aim for fulfilment (humanistic); our biological makeup determining our personality and the particular traits we are considered to have (Biological/trait perspectives), amongst many other perspectives (Myers, 2004). This paper aims to address the question of whether personality is a matter of choice, primarily through explorations from a humanistic and biological perspective with considerations of more independent thoughts on the matter and with a consideration of the social-cognitive perspective. The conclusion will consider whether there is choice involved in a persons’ personality and what the implications of this might......

Words: 4302 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Personality

...Personality Paper Robbin Nehls PSY/211 September 25, 2014 Mark Ammer Four perspectives of personalities are the, psychoanalytic perspective, the humanistic perspective, the social cognitive perspective, and the trait perspective. The psychoanalytic perspective emphasizes the most importance of unconscious processes and the influence of early childhood experience. It is theory of personality that stresses the influence of unconscious mental processes, the importance of sexual and aggressive instincts, and the enduring effects of early childhood experience on personality. The term unconscious is used to describe thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness. The humanistic perspective emphasizes free will, self-awareness, and psychological growth. A view of personality that emphasizes human potential and such a uniquely human charactistics as self-awareness and free will (Cain, 2002). Humanistic psychologists also differed from psychologists theorists by their focus on the healthy personality rather than on psychologically troubled people. The humanistic psychologists believe that people are motivated by the need to grow psychologically, they contended that he most important factor in personality is the individual’s conscious, subjective perception of his or her self ( Purkey and Stanley, 2002). Three areas of personality development can be the psychosexual stages, the social cognitive perspective, and the trait......

Words: 813 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Personaility

...Personality Samantha Miller Psy 211 Essential of Psychology March 9, 2015 Jorey Krawczyn Personality Have you ever wonder where people get their personalities from? I know I have always wonder where we get our personality from. Personality is our pattern of thinking, feelings, and our behavior. Our personality shows who we are and why we like the things we do. For example, I have a great personality I always stay positive in everything I do, and I am an outgoing person. Everyone does not have the same personality, there are some people who have a great personality which I don’t mind being around, but there are some people that have a bad personality which most of these types of people are normally negative people. I try to stay away from those people. There are different types’ perspectives helps us determine our personality, such as psychoanalytic, humanistic, social congestive, and biological. Psychoanalytic perspective is when an unconscious determines our personality, such as our likes and dislike we have deep down inside. I truly dislike snakes so I stay as far away from as possible this is an example of psychoanalytic perspective. In the humanistic perspective it’s when our personality is influenced by an innate capacity for personal growth. For instance, my friend Sandy told me the other day she is always board and feels like she has no life. I try to encourage her to the gym, shopping or for us to start doing crafts as a hobby, so she could get out......

Words: 587 - Pages: 3