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Persuasion Notes

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Likable people are more persuasive: 1. Physical attractiveness- attractive people are more persuasive both in terms of getting what they request and in changing another's attitude.

2. Similarity- we like people who are like us.

3. Increased Familiarity- through repeated contact is another factor

4. Association- By connecting themselves or their products with positive things, advertisers, politicians, and merchandisers frequently seek to share in the positivity through the process of association.

Commitment and Consistency:
People want to be consistent for 3 reasons-
1.To be valued by society- personal consistency is highly valued by society
2. It is beneficial to daily life- also has a positive effect on public image
3. It provides a shortcut through life's complexity
Commitments are most effective if they are-
1. Active
2. Public
3. Effortful
4. Internally motivated
"Throwing a low ball"- telling someone you will do something, then once they agree and join you , you take it back and they will still be "onboard" because they've already found other reasons to be onboard.

Reciprocity:
Rule for reciprocation- one person has to pay back what the other has provided, etc. You scratch my back and I will scratch yours. This rule allows one to give to someone with confidence of what he is giving will not be lost. This sense of future obligation develops the continuation of relationships, transactions, and exchanges.

The decision to comply with another's request is frequently influenced by the reciprocity rule. Reciprocity is exploitable. It is exploitable due to three characteristics: 1. It has a strong impact on us 2. It works even if you didn't ask for what you got! 3. We want to get rid of the feeling of being in debt so we just settle for less and do it. i.e the person does a HUGE favor in return when in fact he only received something small and should only have to repay with something small- yet he does not want this feeling of "owing" on his shoulders so he returns the HUGE request.

Door-in-the-Face- a method used that includes reciprocity AND compliance
Also known as "Rejection and then retreat technique. It relies heavily on the pressuring to reciprocate concessions. By starting with an extreme request that is sure to be rejected! Then the requester can profitably retreat to a smaller request (the one that was desired all along) which is likely to be accepted because it appears to be much more reasonable than the first request.
This rejection-then-retreat Technique is ALSO known as " perceptual contrast"
You take two things and put them side by side and naturally one will seem better than the other so you chose it, even tho both are bad choices.

CIALDINI Chapt. 1.
Humans are like animals, at times we process automatically –like when we use heuristics. It saves energy and relieves us from cognitive work.
Pro's VS Con's:
Pro- efficient, fast, and easy
Con-Naturally increases the chance for error, especially when someone is directing a specific stimuli at a bad time.
We've programmed automatic shortcuts for responding with compliance to certain situations. These "TRIGGERS" can be used by others to manipulate behavior.

EXAMPLE QUESTIONS TO KNOW:
1.A cogent deductive argument must be _VALID_ a cogent inductive argument must be _STRONG__.

2. Fixed action patterns in non-human animals resemble which of the following behaviors in humans? use of heuristics

4. 3. The success of the rejection-then-retreat persuasion technique is based in part on: b. perceptual contrast.

4. According to Cialdini, banning information (i.e., censorship) typically leads audiences to… a.Want the information more than they did before it was banned
b. Believe the information more than they did before it was banned

5. According to Asch’s (1951, 1956) conformity experiments, the rate of conformity concessions is reduced under which of the following conditions?
a. When at least one other dissenter is present.
b. When responses are private.
c. When the number of confederates is less than 3.
d. All of the above.

6. What is pluralistic ignorance:
Pluralistic ignorance is

7. ELM model?

READINGS TO KNOW:
READING#1:
Aronson-mass communication, propaganda and persuasion: 1. Media Influence- i.e "The day after" movie (1983) caused 40million US households to tune in and received vast coverage in national news magazines, hotlines were created to assist disturbed viewers afterwards, it even EFFECTED president Ronald Reagan who wrote about it in his diary. It made the people think about nuclear war and it influenced their attitudes towards a potential threat of nuclear war.

IT HAD A NEGATIVE EFFECT: 2. Attempts at persuasion-
Mass persuasion. This may effect our vote, our attitude toward other nations. REPEATED vivid imagery shapes attitudes and opinions.
-Influence is subliminal
-Media can determine which events are given exposure
-Action is more entertaining
-News and Media tends to show violence because people want to see "action" so those who are involved in more peaceful positive things will not be heard of in the media. Coverage does nto present a balanced picture of what is happening.

3. MEDIA CONTAGION:
i.e. Tylenol Example: in 1982 tylenol was laced with cyanide. This tragedy was all over the news media nationally. "Copycat poisonings" then took place across the nation.
This can also be seen in "copycat suicides" 4. Politicians as entertainers:
It has become a reality that contemporary candidates must look good on television. Most candidates spent much time making TV Commercials and being groomed in public appearance and speaking. TV Commercials being made are millions of dollars.

5. Effectiveness of media appeal?
TV commercials are lying to us buy yet we still cannot resist. The more familiar an item is, the more attractive it is. "I may just reach for the most familiar item". It was also discovered that the candidate who dishes out he most $ to get his/her name out there will in the end get the most votes. More publicity, more familiarity, more likely to be the one chosen.

6. Two Major Routes to Persuasion: * Central= consists of solid arguments based on relevant facts and figures that get people to think about issues in a systematic fashion * Peripheral= Less judicious- the person responds to simple, often irrelevant cues that suggest the rightness, wrongness, or attractiveness of an argument without giving it much thought.

* READING #2: * Zajonc, R.B. (2001). Mere exposure: A gateway to the subliminal. Current Directions in Psychological Science,:

* Preference is the result of rationality- or is it?...............repeated exposure.
The more you are exposed to something, then the more "normal" it seems. Also when you are not even aware that you have been exposed this too can effect your choices,decisions, outcomes. The more exposure you have the more comfortable you are with it.

READING#3
Morales, A.C. (2005). Giving firms an “E” for effort:
This research shows that consumers reward firms for extra effort. The rewarding process is defined broadly as general reciprocity. When consumers infer that effort is motivated by persuasion, however, they no longer feel gratitude and do not reward high-effort firms.

READING4:
Mrs. Keech and prophecy: In the 1950's a cult that brainwashed people into leaving their homes, families, jobs, etc. to prepare to leave on a flying saucer.

MOVIES:
The Persuaders (Douglas Rushkoff, 2004)-how advertising companies are using Media, film, Commercials to win over consumers. How Political parties are doing this as well. …i.e DATAMINING- how there are rooms full of information on each person in the world. So that companies can know each person's habits, likes, dislikes, statistics etc.

Wag the Dog (Barry Levinson, 1997- When the president is caught in a sex scandal 2weeks before re-election, PR crisis Management agent comes in to create a diversion----by creating a "fake war". He hopes that the media will focus on this instead of the current sex scandal.

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