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Persuation Tactics

In: Psychology

Submitted By kunal
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2011

Assignment 2

Persuasion, Science of influence

Kunal Nagar,W0782056 MSIS ,Santa Clara university , 3/10/2011

Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion
Persuasion is a form of social influence. It is the process of guiding oneself or another toward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and symbolic (though not always logical) means.1Persuasion is often referred to as an art and influencing others isn’ luck or magic –its science. t Persuasion and Influence is big part of any consumer behavior, this goes in line with self-actualization theory and projected self or a corporation. There are proven ways to help make you more successful as a marketer and an office politician. In a world where every e-mail, every request and every event we plan competes against other compelling demands, the skill of persuasion is essential ,The ability to persuade others is critical to success, whether you are selling cars or a new corporate strategy. Psychology and marketing Professor Robert Cialdini has examined the component parts of influence, in the lab and on the street. He has learned that persuasion is a science as well as an art. So why do you want to know it? To communicate with your customers so that they become your raving fans ,they like you ,they like to read your message ,they give positive response ,cialdini ‘ techniques are used to increase sales ,to have s more responsiveness for customers, in case you want to research for requirement ,to make customers take desired action that is favorable to you .Cialdini’ methods are used to get more responsiveness from s customers and build relationship.. So by using Cialdini’ method the possibility of gaining more responsiveness from customer’ increases s s exponentially for example you are working in a product development team and if you need some information while gathering requirements, the quality of that requirement given to you will be efficient and more valuable if you use these techniques. Using the principles wisely This article describes six influence principles and the fundamental ways by which the influence process proceeds under each one. Two related issues, however, require additional elaboration. First, although the six principles can be treated separately (as we have just done for the purpose of clarity), they Should not be employed separately. They are best applied in combinations and strings that multiply their impact. Effective practitioners will be aware of influence opportunities that allow the principles to be employed conjointly or sequentially. Second, the science of social influence, like any powerful technology, can be commissioned for good or ill. One needs to understand the acceptable versus the objectionable use of the process. Just because we can employ the lessons of that science to influence others doesn’ mean that we are entitled— or even wise— to do so using these principles to trick or trap t others into assent has significant ethical and practical downsides. As the best influence professionals have long realized, to the extent that dishonest or high pressure tactics work at all, they work only in the short run. Their long-term effects are malignant — undermining trust and damaging the reputation of the practitioner who employs them. Thus, the deceptive or coercive use of social influence principles within professional relationships is not only ethically wrong, it’ pragmatically s wrongheaded. Yet the same principles, if engaged appropriately, can influence decisions in a positive way. When the similarities are authentic, the windows of opportunity truly closing, the authority legitimate, the commitments freely made, the obligations genuine, and the social proof real, the resultant choices are likely to benefit everyone.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persuasion

LIKING
“ People prefer to say ‘ yes’to those they know and like,”Cialdini says
This principal can be defined as "the more we like a person, the more we want to say YES to that person". If anyone from your family or your friends came and approached you for help, how many times have you said "NO" to them? I'm sure that most of the time we have somehow said "YES" and helped them. People prefer to say yes, to those they know and like. We like people who are like us, we like people who like us and say so, and we like people we can work with in a cooperative way. We will see how liking can create influence and how compliance professionals can emphasize certain factors and/or attributes to increase their overall attractiveness. We can increase our chances of someone liking us by identifying similarities, complimenting people, and by cooperative efforts and understanding. This is another reminder of why rapport is so important. Research has uncovered several factors that affect how much one person will like another (e.g., physical attractiveness, compliments and cooperative efforts).  Physical attractiveness seems to engender a "halo" effect that extends to favorable impressions of other traits such as talent, kindness, and intelligence. As a result, attractive people are more persuasive both in terms of getting what they request and in changing others' attitudes. That’ the s reason nearly every pitchman, model, and TV commercial family is good looking, and all those Bud Light commercials feature women in bikinis. Similarity--is a second factor that influences both Liking and compliance. That is--we like people who are like us and are more willing to say yes to their requests, often without much critical consideration. Praise is another factor that produces Liking; this is a very important quality though this can sometimes backfire when they are crudely transparent. But generally compliments most often enhance liking and can be used as a means to gain compliance. Increased familiarity--through repeated contact with a person or thing is yet another factor that normally facilitates Liking. But this holds true principally when that contact takes place under positive rather than negative circumstances. One positive circumstance that may works well is mutual and successful cooperation. A final factor linked to Liking is often association. By associating with products or positive things--those who seek influence frequently share in a halo effect by association.

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"We will take care of the people we like," Cialdini says. "We'll be sure they don't get exploited. If we don't walk into a situation with the first question being, 'How can I get this person to like me?' but instead ask ourselves, 'How can I come to like this person, genuinely?' then both sides win. Both sides benefit from that." "You shouldn't be turned off by that general sense of, 'Oh, I don't like that person,'" Cialdini says. "That's a fool's game, to run away from that situation. What you need to do is uncover that one aspect of an individual that you might genuinely respect. Focus on that. Mention it. Don't just leave it in your head you have to mention it. It changes the tone of interactions from that point on."

The rule of reciprocity also applies to non-material exchanges. So that if you make a large request, are refused, and then make a smaller request as a concession, you are three times more likely to get compliance than if you asked for what you wanted straightaway (Cialdini, Vincent, Lewis, Catalan, Wheeler, & Darby, 1975).

RECIPROCITY:
People repay in kind. Give what you want to receive.
Lend a staff member to a colleague who needs help; you’ get his help later. ll By Prof. Cialdini, R. B. Given that every human culture follows a rule of reciprocity, we can think of it as a powerful universal law. It’ very simple: “ you give something to me, I am obligated to give something in return.” s If Reciprocation does not always need to be an exact / specification exchange, the point to focus on is the obligation. So seems obvious, but many of us just throw away this powerful weapon of obligation. How often have you done something for someone, and then when they say thank you, you destroy the situation with “ problem, it was nothing” Kiss it good bye, you have lost your vantage point. Prof. No . Cialdini says, you are given a moment of power after someone has thanked you. Take care to use the moment productively. For example, don’ say, “ was nothing, no problem at all.” Use the influence t It you’ just won by saying “ was glad to help or you would say. I’ sure you would do the same for ve I m me.” In that simple response you ensuring that you will receive same treatment in future and the great thing about obligation is there is no real time limit on when you decide to cash it Another important technique is Rejection-then-retreat because the rule for reciprocation governs the compromise process; it is possible to use an initial concession as part of a highly effective compliance 2 technique. The technique is a simple one that we will call the rejection-then-retreat technique , and the time when we can leverage this technique is when someone says no “ one likes to hear it, and no one No likes to say it either” We can use the rule of reciprocation in any negotiation situation in the form of . concessions. An example is the following. You ask your boss if you can have funding to go to an expensive conference, and you are denied. A few days later you ask again, but this time for a cheaper conference. This is seen as a new request, and once again denied. We can be more successful if we look for reciprocation. After someone says no, they are vulnerable, and would ideally like to please. This is the time to strike and ask again for something more reasonable. There is a high probability of this being accepted, due to reciprocation.”use of the rejection-then-retreat tactic also engages the action of the contrast principle. Not only did the initial higher request make the lower one seem like a retreat, it made 3 that second request seem smaller, too. “ Caldini. So next time you want to attend a conference, aim By higher and when denied ask for the conference you wanted to go to. You stand a higher chance, and if they said yes anyway to the more expensive conference you are sure they would not have agreed to, then even better. There are applications inside organizations, too. If you're a manager and see a colleague struggling with staff shortages, try lending her one of your staffers. Doing so not only helps a friend in need (and your
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Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. Page 38 Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. Page 50

company but may insure you against similar problems in the future. More likely than not, if the time comes when you're short-staffed, your colleague will reciprocate in kind. "Because once you've benefited somebody, and once you've helped elevate their outcomes, that person will feel honor-bound to benefit you, and help your outcomes in return," Cialdini says. Using reciprocity is not complicated, Cialdini says. All it takes is a little foresight and the willingness to help others before they help you. In the sometimes-cutthroat world of modern business, that may seem to be a leap of faith.

SOCIAL PROOF:
People follow the lead of similar others.
Use peer power to influence horizontally, not vertically; e.g., ask an esteemed “ timer”to support your old new initiative if other veterans resist. By Prof. Cialdini, R. B. Of all the six principles, I believe we experience and are influenced by social proof most strongly and most often. The principle of social proof illustrates that we often copy behaviors simply because if many others are doing something, we believe it must be the correct thing to do .it’ the power of the s crowd. If there is a perception that everyone else thinks something is a good idea, or an individual is knowledgeable / authoritative, then we tend to fall in line and accept often without question that it must be true Example for social proof (research on preschool children)4 Cialdini cities several studies in the book, including one that analyzed reclusive pre-school children. Researchers showed each reclusive child videos of other children their age observing a social activity, and then actively joining into the activity. At recess the next day, the formerly isolated children immediately began to interact with their peers at a level equal to that of normal children in their schools. The children in the experiment perceived that being social were the “ normal”thing to do, and which gave them the courage to alter their own behavior. The principle of social proof is applicable to far more than elementary school behavior, and there are further examples in the book that examine social proof as an explanation for buying decisions, mass suicide, and traffic jams and for that we have several examples in his book Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion . Entrepreneurs also run head-long into the social proof principle when raising capital for the first time. Many venture firms are reluctant to invest until they hear that others have invested as well. If you’ able re to secure a commitment from a big name VC firm like Sequoia or Khosla, you’ probably not have much ll difficulty filling out the rest of your funding round. This is due to the principle of social proof –if others are willing to invest, it must be a good deal. Similarly, when you go to raise a second round of capital, any new investors will want to see participation from the firms that initially invested in your Series A. After all, if your original investors are unwilling to commit further capital, why should anyone new invest? Multiple others and similar others are the key amplifiers of the social proof effect," says Cialdini, one of the world's leading experts on persuasion. The best way to pass an idea in the company is find out people who are similar to the person you're trying to persuade to speak on your behalf, it's a lot easier for you than if you have to try to hammer your message one more time into a reticent mind."
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Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. Chapter 4 Page 103

CONSISTENCY:
People fulfill written, public, and voluntary commitments.
By Prof. Cialdini, R. B. Make others’commitments active, public, and voluntary. If you supervise an employee who should submit reports on time, get that understanding in writing (a memo); make the commitment public (note colleagues’agreement with the memo); and link the commitment to the employee’ values (the impact s of timely reports on team spirit). By Prof. Cialdini, R. B. Nobody likes being known as a liar or as wishy-washy or erratic. So, when people make public commitments or promises, they will almost always want to back up those words with action. They have little choice: For reputation’ sake, they must do so. In the world of psychology, this is a principle known s as "consistency," and according to Robert Cialdini, it's one of the six key principles behind the science of persuasion The consistency principle states that “ Once we have made a choice or taken a stand, we will encounter personal and interpersonal pressures to behave consistently with that commitment. Those pressures will cause us to respond in ways that justify our earlier decision. We are more willing to say yes to a request that is consistent with something they have already said or done. If we look for people to make a commitment to something, there stands a good chance they will be consistent with what they have said or written. Research shows if we can get someone to commit to doing something verbally, or ideally written down they are more likely to do it. It is this fact that they have already said and confirmed they will do something that gives us the consistency. For example, if I can get you to make the statement “ love discovering new music”(and who doesn’ I t), you’ be more than twice as likely to pull out your wallet when I then ask if you’ buy my band’ CD. ll ll s Because not buying the CD would be inconsistent with your previous assertion that you enjoy new music (a feeling known as cognitive dissonance) you feel compelled to purchase the album. Each time we comply with a request, even a trivial request, it modifies our attitudes and self-concept such that we will tend to act more consistently with that type of action (Bem, 1972; Vallacher & Wegner, 1985). Charitable organizations and nonprofit groups survive on donations, and so leaders of these organizations need to find ways to convince people, nearly all the time, to open up their wallets and give, often for nothing in return. It's no small challenge. But it's one that can be tackled, says Cialdini, by using consistency and by asking potential donors to take small steps toward true commitment before then asking them to chip in financially. It's known as the "foot-in-the-door technique," and it leverages the principle of consistency perfectly. That technique asks people to say 'Yes' to a small request, like signing a petition Example: People asked to place a small “ a Safe Driver” placard in their windows were 60% more likely to comply with a Be

request, two weeks later, to allow a large poorly-lettered “ DRIVE CAREFULLY”billboard to be placed in their front yards (Freedman & Fraser, 1966). There are other kinds of strategies as well that all involve this sequence of getting people to commit initially, then later asking for a request consistent with what was originally committed to Many groups who ask you to sign petitions never do anything with the actual petitions. Once you have signed the petition, your self-concept is modified to include related types of civic action. Example: Tribal cultures in which members submit to the most dramatic and stringent initiation ceremonies are those with the greatest group solidarity (Young, 1965).5

AUTHORITY:
People defer to experts who provide shortcuts to decisions requiring specialized information
Don’ assume your expertise is self-evident. t By Prof. Cialdini, R. B. “ What? Am I saying that these people just handed over cash, checks, and private information merely because a guy in an official-looking uniform asked them to? Yup. That's what I'm saying.”By Prof. Cialdini, This is one of the finest examples I've ever seen of the Rule of Authority — the principle that people are instantly deferential to those in positions of power. Additionally, it is also frequently adaptive to obey the dictates of genuine authorities because such individuals usually possess high levels of knowledge, wisdom, and power. For these reasons, deference to authorities can occur in a mindless fashion as a kind of decision-making shortcut. When reacting to authority in an automatic fashion (example while buying cloths we just look at the tags of the brand) there is a tendency to often do so in response to the mere symbols of authority rather than to its substance. It's not just security guards and people in uniforms who command our obedience, though; it's anyone with authority, special knowledge: if in need to persuade someone I consider Caldini, Roger fisher, Daniel Shapiro as authority and I will use their technique to persuade someone. impressive credentials- .I consider cio.com as an authority for information on computer technology because that is the place where I can get accurate information because of its popularity among professionals and for credentials visit this link http://www.cio.com/about-cio Instead, establish your expertise before doing business with new colleagues or partners; e.g., in conversations before an important meeting, describe how you solved a problem similar to the one on the agenda. People are more easily influenced by those they perceive to be legitimate authorities. This response makes great sense because legitimate authorities have typically attained their positions by virtue of greater knowledge or skill or experience in the matter at hand. There is evidence of the strong pressure within our society for compliance when requested by an authority figure.

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Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. Page 81 Chapter 3

Authority: Once someone has accepted you as an authority, they will follow your instructions even against their own judgment, ethics, and feelings Example: Mailgram’ (1974) obedience study s (Milgram, 1974).6 o Example: Sanka made a commercial for decaffeinated coffee that was so successful that it ran for years, which featured an actor who had played a doctor on a medical show extolling the health benefits of decaf.7 Example: Nearly all pedestrians complied when an experimenter in a guard costume instructed them to pay someone else’ parking meter, even if the guard was no longer present (Bickman, 1974)8 s

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SCARCITY:
People value what’ scarce. s Use exclusive information to persuade. Influence and rivet key players’attention by saying, for example: “ Just got this information today. It … Won’ be distributed until next week t By Prof. Cialdini, R. B. The principle of scarcity one of the six basic principles of persuasion states that rare or unique objects, ideas, and information hold greater value than more common versions of these things. Humans are generally more motivated by fear of loss than want of gain. Combining the idea of scarcity with loss language, then, makes for a particularly powerful argument. According to the Principle of Scarcity--people assign more value to opportunities when they are less available. Things difficult to attain are typically more valuable. The use of this principle for profit can be seen in such high-pressure sales techniques as only a "limited number" now available and a "deadline" set for an offer. Such tactics attempt to persuade people that number and/or time restrict access to what is offered. According to psychological reactance theory, people respond to the loss of freedom by wanting to have it more. This includes the freedom to have certain goods and services. In addition to its effect on the valuation of commodities, the Principle of Scarcity also applies to the way that information is evaluated. Research indicates that the act of limiting access to a message may cause individuals to want it more and to become increasingly favorable to it. The latter of these findings, that limited information is more persuasive--seems the most interesting. In the case of censorship, this effect occurs even when the message has not been received. When a message has been received, it is more effective if it is perceived to consist of some type of exclusive information.

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Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. page 180 chapter 6 Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. page 188 Chapter 6 Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. page 194 Chapter 6

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The scarcity principle is more likely to hold true under two optimizing conditions scarce items are heightened in value when they are newly scarce. That is things have higher value when they have become recently restricted--more than those than those things that were restricted all along have. People are most attracted to scarce resources when they compete with others for them. How to use it Cialdini says. "It's not just about talking about what your client stands to gain … It's often more important to explain what stands to be lost if they fail to move in the direction you recommend." What the scarcity principle recommends is that a communicator honestly informs recipients of those unique features of what he or she is recommending, and what makes those features unique. You have to tell them what differentiates your product, service, or recommendation, so the other recipient knows what he or she will be missing by failing to move in the direction that is being recommended. People are much more sensitive to potential losses than to potential gains (Hobfoll, 2001). Therefore opportunities seem more valuable to us when they are less available9. Example: A salesperson can easily secure a commitment to purchase an item when it is presumed that the item is unavailable, while the information that a desired item is in good supply can make it less attractive (Schwarz, 1984).10 Example: College students had a greater desire to read a book, and a greater belief that they would enjoy the book, when they were informed that it was “ adults only, restricted to those 21 years and older” for 11 (Zellinger, Fromkin, Speller, & Kohn, 1974) .

Example: People become more sympathetic to arguments when they learn that the argument has been censored— even when they have never been exposed to the argument’ justifications (Worchel, Arnold, & s Baker, 1975).12

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Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. Scarcity chapter 7 Page 200 Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. Scarcity chapter 7 Page 206 Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. Scarcity chapter 7 Page 216

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Cialdini, R. B. (2001).Infuence, The Psychology of persuasion. Scarcity chapter 7 ,page 215

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