Free Essay

Peru Chile Country Analysis

In: Business and Management

Submitted By 13tcovert
Words 2514
Pages 11
Taylor Covert (3/9/16)- ISP Country Analysis Report
I. Country Introduction: Chile v. Peru
Extending 2,880 miles down the western coast of South America, between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes mountains, is the remarkably slender country known as Chile. Due to its large geographical scale, encompassing 38 degrees in latitude, Chile has a range of climatic zones, from the arid Atacama Dessert in the north to the subtropical regions in the south. These diverse climates and topographies provide Chile with a wealth of natural resources including timber, iron ore, hydropower and most prominently, copper, an element known for its inherent ductility and electrical conductivity. Beginning in the mid 1960s, concurrent with China’s exploding GDP growth rate, the value of copper in the modern industrial market place began to soar due increased global demand. Chile, whose copper reserves account for 28% of the world’s total supply, experienced the positive economic impact from this increased demand, as seen through the country’s GDP growth of over 400% between 1970 and 2014, adjusting for inflation, (Appendix 1). Coupled with the solid GDP growth over the last 45 years, Chile was also able to establish strong institutions, an efficient government with relatively low levels of corruption, and solid macroeconomic stability, which subsequently established Chile as the most competitive economy in Latin America according the 2015 Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) (Appendix 2).
Directly to Chile’s north lies Peru, a country almost double Chile’s size and population (Appendix 3). Similarly to Chile, Peru’s economy reflects its wide-ranging topographies including arid coastal regions in the west, mountainous highlands in central Peru, and tropical Amazon forests bordering Colombia and Brazil. These provide the country with an abundance of natural resources comparable to Chile’s: timber, fish, iron ore, hydro-power, and copper, of which Peru has 13% of the world’s supply, making it the second largest copper producer. Peru also has extensive supplies of coal, natural gas, and crude oil, reducing its energy dependence, and precious resources of silver and gold, further diversifying its economic exports. However, according to the 2015 GCR, Peru was ranked #65 in terms of global competitive advantages, significantly worse than Chile’s #33 rank (Appendix 2). While having the necessary natural resources to support a prosperous economy, ongoing issues concerning the effectiveness of Peruvian institutions, the quality of its education system, its resistance to technological adoption, and its government’s apparent corruption have stunted Peru’s economic growth.
Despite the aforementioned issues, for the past five years, Peru’s economy has been growing steadily at 5.6% due to high global prices for metal exports. Metals and minerals account for 60% of Peru's total exports, of which copper alone accounts for 18% (Appendix 4). Chile, notwithstanding its relative political, institutional, and technological strengths, has an even greater reliance on copper exports, accounting for 49% of its total exports. Evidently, Chile and Peru’s dependency on copper exports makes both economies susceptible to copper commodity price risk. Thus, it is necessary to investigate both country’s copper industries, as well as the competencies and inefficiencies of key industry players, in order to determine ways to sustain the copper industry’s growth within the ever-changing global economy.
II. Copper Industry Analysis:
In Chile, large-scale copper mining began in the early 20th century when an influx of American capital launched extensive copper mining projects in the Atacama Desert. By 1951 however, the Chilean government made their first intervening step into industry by creating The Washington Agreement. This agreement gave the Chilean government 20% control of domestic copper production. By 1971, the government further intervened by nationalizing Chile’s American-owned mines, forming the Chilean mining company Codelco. Today, Codelco is the world’s largest copper producer, responsible for mining over one tenth of the world's copper. This brief history of the copper industry’s nationalization, culminating with Codelco, highlights three basic strengths of the Chilean copper industry: the sheer size of Chile’s reserves, the unwavering government support for mining, and the country’s overall stability. Firstly, Chile controls 28% of the world’s copper, while Peru, the second largest copper producer, only has 13% (Appendix 8). This advantage, along with Chile’s free trade agreements with the US and China, will enable Chile to remain the world's largest copper producer for the forecasted period through 2020 (Appendix 5). Secondly, Codelco’s success indicates that there are industry advantages in being nationalized, primarily in the form of government support. The Chilean government has historically maintained a pro-mining outlook due to the sector's importance in generating government income. To ensure additional growth and stability of the copper sector, the government has been willing to provide billions of dollars to Codelco in the form of aid and investments (Appendix 6). And lastly, Chile’s overall stability compared to its Latin American neighbors has led to increased prospects for mining investments. Compared to its population and GDP in 2006, Chile had the largest amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Latin America at $86.1 billion, with investments in mining accounting for approximately 35% of that amount. FDI provides significant advantages for the receiving companies including resource transfers and reduction in the disparity between revenues and costs. Thus, Chile is able to attract FDI due to its sound infrastructure, uncorrupt government, and strong financial institutions etc. This benefits Chile’s copper industry and stimulates further economic development.
In contrast to Chile’s advantageous political stability, the Peruvian government has a history of corruption, with bribery and favoritism amongst government officials in awarding contracts being common practice. This corruption, in the form of preferential treatment towards mining companies, has led to upheaval and anti-mining protests showing the Peruvians distrust of mining companies and their relations with the government. Further, social protests over income inequality and environmental degradation continue to create domestic uncertainty within Peru, weakening the country’s ability to attract FDI. In contrast to Chile, the Peruvian copper sector has experiences some benefit from being not nationalized. Peru’s mining participants, Rio Tinto PLC, Anglo America PLC, and Southern Copper Corporation, are predominantly multinational firms that maintain active mines while constantly investing in new projects, subsequently stimulating industry growth. In addition, these Peruvian private sector mines have proven to be more efficient in their production of copper than Chile’s state-owned Codelco. As such, Chile’s nationalization of copper can be viewed as a strength or a weakness dependent on perspective (Appendix 7). Another notable strength of Peru is its mining diversification, producing gold, silver, tin, lead and zinc as well as copper. Thus, Peru’s economic growth is not solely reliant on copper, placing less emphasis on the copper industry to maintain production in the face of decreasing demand. On the contrary, Chile has significant revenue reliance on copper as a primary source of export revenues. This threatens Chile’s economic stability, exposing the market to copper price fluctuations and the probable decreases in world demand.

However, Chile’s greatest threat is its dependence on water and electricity, both scarce resources, which keep copper production costs high. Chile's copper miners have begun investing in alternative water projects, particularly relating to desalinization, but the steep upfront costs have reduced cash flows and caused operational disruptions. Currently, Chile’s government is considering implementing reforms to lessen red tape and to mitigate project delays because, once the desalinization plants are complete and the necessary procedures are properly implemented, they will alleviate water conflict within local communities and improve long-term corporate efficiency. While alternative water sourcing is a long-term opportunity for Chile, recently, Chile has attempted to combat increasing production costs by reducing capital expenditures. And yet, Chile’s operational costs remain markedly higher than Peru’s, presenting an opportunity for Peru. Although Peru has higher tax rates than its neighbors, due to its open investment framework, supportive political environment, and low operating costs, Peru's copper mining sector has a competitive stance, particularly given the elevated production costs in Chile.

While distinct opportunities and threats exist for each country, both Peru and Chile face the threat of a slowdown in global copper demand. Considering that 45% of global copper consumption comes from Asia, the slower-than-expected 2015 growth rate in China weighed heavily on copper prices (Appendix 8). Additionally, weak investor sentiment across that commodities sector could continue to negatively affect future willingness to invest in copper. So, what strategic approaches will copper mining companies like Peru’s Southern Copper and Chile’s Codelco take in order to combat these country-specific threats while capitalizing on the opportunities?
III. Copper Company Comparison: Peru’s Southern Copper V. Chile’s Codelco
Southern Copper Corporation currently operates two mines in Peru that, as of 2007, were producing approximately 359,665 tons of copper per annum. Additionally, Southern Copper Corporation has two equally significant mining operations in Mexico, making the company the seventh largest copper mining company in the world. Southern Copper has attained this global success by strictly focusing “on copper production, cost control, production enhancement and maintaining a prudent capital structure to remain profitable,” avoiding diversification into other commodities like most of its competitors. Instead, Southern Copper has attained its growth by maintaining output of existing operations while developing new mining projects, like the $1.4 billion Tia Maria mine project in southern Peru started in 2011. Despite receiving immediate approval from the Peruvian Ministry of Engineering and Mining, the project had to be stopped due to violent local protests in 2011 and 2015, claiming the project had dangerous implications for the environment, particularly the Peruvian water supply. Southern Copper plans to resolve the dispute and start copper production in the Tia Maria mine by 2018. While there is resolution in sight for the Tia Maria mining project, the incident exposed Southern Copper’s weakness: their willingness to take advantage of the Peruvian government’s pro-mining orientation without consideration for all of the stakeholders. Southern Copper’s strength clearly lies in their knowledge of effectively producing copper, while controlling costs in order to obtain a profit. But if they plan to continue expansion in Peru, the company must not repeat this costly mistake of not considering the broader consequences to communities and to the environment. These community protests against the copper industry are frequent and effective in Peru, as seen through the abrupt halt of the $5 billion Conga mine project earlier in 2011 due to community remonstrations. Recognizing this trend would present an opportunity for Southern Copper if instead of brushing off the public outcry, they developed technological solutions to resolve the issues associated with mining and environmental damage.
Chilean state-owned Codelco copper mining company has similarly put it expansion plans on hold, but for different reasons. With persistently low copper prices and increasingly high production costs, the firm strategically chose to reduce costs by delaying their El Teniente mine expansion plan and by reducing their $7.5 billion Andina mine expansion plan. Overall, through these cost reductions, Codelco reduced total investments in 2014 Q4 by $4.0 billion. Codelco demonstrated corporate sagacity in recognizing financial limitations, but without expansion, Codelco cannot expect to continue significant growth. Codelco recently indicated that their 2015 strategy was to remain focused on maintaining output levels while cutting operation costs, but with the threat of falling copper prices and the imminent decrease of the global copper demand, this strategy may not be enough.
The shifting industry with low projected growth rates requires copper companies to use innovation to turn industry threats to opportunities. As the world’s largest copper producer, Codelco has the resources and know-how to implement a more innovative strategy that would sacrifice short-term profits for long-term solutions. Codelco should continue strategic investments that would turn the Chilean copper industry’s threats, like reliance on commodity pricing, high domestic production prices, and public outcry over environmental concerns, into opportunities. Codelco has started taking steps to address the issue of dependence on copper by looking to diversify interests into gold and uranium. Additionally, domestic production challenges have encouraged Codelco to look abroad, to Ecuador, for new mining opportunities and to invest in its own power production facilities. Investment in power production would enable Codelco to avoid power supply shortages that affect production in most Chilean mines. The firm has embraced the notion of renewable energy technology to reduce operational costs, thus planning to capitalize on solar power in the north and wind power in the south. However, successfully implementing these advanced power generation facilities would require significant investment, of which Codelco has been purposefully cutting back. Yet, one of Codelco’s strengths is its support from the Chilean government, most recently demonstrated in 2015 by the first $600 million installment of a $3 billion governmental aid package. Codelco seems to have recognized the industry threats. Now, the company must act strategically with their capital from investments and government aid to convert threats into opportunities, enabling long-term development and growth in the volatile global copper industry. IV. Report Overview: The Key Success Factor
Globally, copper producers have been able to maintain production, but if low copper prices continue into 2016, there could be “further production curtailments and mine shutdowns down the road.” Projections for the industry suggest zero to slow growth in the near term, with many experts forecasting industry-wide contractions due to decreasing Chinese growth rates and demand. We have reached an inevitable shift in the copper industry at large, where mining companies, even the world’s strongest, can no longer rely on rising copper prices to facilitate growth. Despite major differences existing between Chile’s nationalized copper industry, seen through Codelco, and Peru’s multinational copper industry, seen through Southern Copper, for both countries, the key to future success lies in their abilities to adapt and innovate.
According to the GCR, with its high GDP per capita, relative political stability, etc., Chile has begun to transition from a Stage 2 efficiency-driven economy to an advanced Stage 3 innovation-driven economy. Yet relatively low innovation investment, especially in the private sector (77th) has resulted in low overall innovation capacity (76th), which could ultimately threaten Chile’s transition towards a knowledge-based economy. Chile must look to innovation to reduce copper production costs, not just merely cutting employment and investments. Codelco has identified prospects in renewable energy sources and desalinization processes that could propel the mining industry, allowing it to lead Chile into the highest GCR stage based on innovation and knowledge. Peru, classified as a Stage 2 efficiency-driven economy, should be looking to emulate Chile by boosting innovation in order to enter into the transitional phase between Stage 2 and 3. The Peruvian mining sector mainly consists of Multinational Corporations, thus there should be a greater flow of information and technology between Peru and developed countries. Peru’s goal is to boost technology adoption (92nd) in order to raise its innovation capacity (117th), which still remains fairly small. The mining industry needs to further innovate in order to reduce the environmental impact of its operations. These renewable energy and water innovations would improve miner’s rapport with local communities while reducing production costs, allowing both Chile and Peru to sustainably continue production and maintain their competitive edges in in unpredictable global copper market.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

The Wine Industry of Chile

...Part One: The Chile Wine Industry The Chilean wine industry has experienced various transformations over the past 30 years – its quality revolution led by the complete technological renovation during the 1980s, the export boom of the 1990s, and the new terror developments during the 2000 decade. This transformation has allowed a new generation of talented viticulturists and winemakers to capitalize on Chile’s viticultural paradise and to produce World Class Wines of unique character and personality. Chile is the world’s eighth largest wine producer and the fifth largest exporter, reaching a market share of 8% by volume of the global international wine market at the close of 2010. However, and most importantly, Chile exports 70% of its wine production, making it the world’s most globalized wine industry, with great flexibility, innovation and a long-term commitment to quality and service. With 150 destination countries and 1.5 billion consumers for each year, Chilean wines are positioned as the country’s most emblematic and best known world ambassador. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Chileans adopted advanced technology and invested in new machinery for optimizing the winemaking process in the field. The winemaker offered an innovative higher-quality product that was conducive to the development of new wine varieties. Later producers also perfected their wine cellars and invested in better labels and packing, such as boxes, bottles and cartons, that were more attractive......

Words: 1518 - Pages: 7

Free Essay


...a hypothetical scenario of a company that is considering making an investment in a Latin American country. (You will not know the industry of this hypothetical company until the exam.) You will be asked to assess any TWO of the countries that we have covered since the midterm: Mexico, Costa Rica, Chile, Peru, Venezuela, and/or Colombia. The format will be identical to what you saw in the midterm, as follows: a) provide an assessment of prospects for the continuation and sustainability of market-oriented economic reforms in [ANY TWO COUNTRIES OF THE LIST COVERED SINCE THE MIDTERM]. (NOTE: In your answer, you should use the Packenham Model as a framework for your analysis. Don't just summarize Packenham, however; USE the model to assess prospects for specific current and future market-oriented economic reforms in both countries. Also, make reference to lectures/other readings, where relevant.) [MAKE SURE TO DISCUSS BOTH COUNTRIES FULLY.] AND b) discuss any other factors that might be relevant to [THE COMPANY’S INVESTMENT PROJECT], such as possible locations within the country, demographics (age of population and market size), free trade agreements, prospects for a currency devaluation, bargaining, culture, etc. NOTE: you would not need to discuss all of these factors, just as many factors as you can that you think are relevant. [MAKE SURE TO DISCUSS BOTH COUNTRIES...

Words: 739 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Signature Assignment

...prudent, with a structural fiscal rule keeping the level of public debt among the lowest in the region. Nowadays the world lives the era of globalization, characterized by economy and markets expansion, media, and transportation. With it, a new competitive environment arises, requiring countries to open their economies in order to communicate them with these new markets. Peru, a country located in the western coast of South America, is not the exception. Though, it has significant challenges to face in its economic development. ( A country sharply divided in three geographic regions: In the North-west coastal areas contain primary oil deposits. Main traditional agricultural products including cotton, fish, and fruits grow along the Pacific coast. And most mineral resources, that involve approximately half of Peru's exports, come from mines in the Andes. However, despite this bunch of resources, Peruvian economy is essentially heterogeneous, and markets segmentation is extremely high. This can be attributed to major obstacles, differences and barriers in access to these resources companies need to grow their competitiveness. An easier way to classify productive specialization in Peru is by dividing its GDP into four large economic sectors: extractive or primary activities (agriculture, fisheries and mining); basic transformation or infrastructure (construction); intermediate or industrial transformation (manufacturing); and services (home rentals, government,......

Words: 2166 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Mrs. Gf

...and Trade Patterns Analysis paper of the Continent South America, in the Country of Brazil I. Introduction II. Continent of South America/Brazil • Population • Culture • Demographics • Economy III. Country located in South America: Brazil • Population • Culture • Demographics IV. Regions of Brazil • North • Northeast • Center-West • South • Southeast V. Political Culture • Traditional Rural Society during the colonial and independence periods • Rural Urban Migration • Political Culture in different Regions • Public health & Security • Quality Control VI. Economic Growth • Retesting • Treatment • Gross Domestic Product • Monetary Policy • Financial System • Employment VII. Trade Patterns • Trade Regulations • Imports • Exports • Labor VIII. VII. Conclusion Introduction South America was named in 1580 by cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a New World unknown to Europeans. Continent of South America/Brazil South America is the 4th largest continent. It connects to North America by the Isthmus[1] of Panama. The country of Brazil accounts for more almost half of the continent and contains about half of the people. The countries that make up......

Words: 1585 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Chile Marketing Plan

...Chile Compared to the United States United States Chile Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru. Total Land: 756,102 sq. km Coastline: 6,435 km Terrain: Low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east Climate: Temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south. Border Countries: Argentina 5,308 km, Bolivia 860 km, Peru 171 km Notes: * the longest north-south trending country in the world. * Atacama Desert - the driest desert in the world - spreads across the northern part of the country. * The crater lake of Ojos del Salado is the world's highest lake (at 6,390 m). Natural Advantages: Natural Disadvantages: Severe earthquakes; Active volcanism; Tsunamis * Volcanism - significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (elev. 5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (elev. 3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active; Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations. Population Ethnicity * Total Population: 17, 067,369 (July ’12 est.) Religion Age Structure Notes * Literacy Rate: 95.7% * Average Life......

Words: 1817 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...1787/240401404057 OECD Working Papers on Insurance and Private Pensions No. 20 Pension Fund Performance Pablo Antolin* JEL Classification: C80, G11, G23 * OECD, France PENSION FUND PERFORMANCE Pablo Antolin August 2008 OECD WORKING PAPER ON INSURANCE AND PRIVATE PENSIONS No. 20 ——————————————————————————————————————— Financial Affairs Division, Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2 Rue André Pascal, Paris 75116, France ABSTRACT/RÉSUMÉ Pension Fund Performance This report provides an analysis of aggregate investment performance by country on a risk adjusted basis using relatively standard investment performance measures. The report also describes privately managed pension funds around the world and the regulatory environment they face. It compares pension funds across countries according to total assets under management and asset allocation, and briefly discusses certain issues surrounding the data reported by pension funds and regulators on investment returns. JEL codes: G11, G23, C80 Keywords: Investment performance, pension funds, returns on investment, asset allocation, Sharpe ratio, Markowitz mean-variance portfolio maximization. ***** La Performance des Fonds de Pensions Ce rapport fournit une analyse par pays des performances d‘investissement ajustées en fonction du risque et en utilisant des mesures de performance standards. Le rapport décrit......

Words: 9352 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay

Cn Railway

...Table of Contents Executive Summary 3 Issue Identification 4 Slowing Growth in NAFTA Trade 4 Continuation of NAFTA Strategy versus Expansion into Latin America 4 Taking Advantage of Economic Growth in Asia and Emerging Markets 4 Expanding Overseas 4 Environmental & Root Cause Analysis 5 Slowing Growth in NAFTA Trade 5 Continuation of NAFTA Strategy versus Expansion into Latin America 5 Taking Advantage of Economic Growth in Asia and Emerging Markets 5 Expanding Overseas 6 Alternatives and/or Options 6 Slowing Growth in NAFTA Trade 6 Continuation of NAFTA Strategy versus Expansion into Latin America 6 Taking Advantage of Economic Growth in Asia and Emerging Markets 7 Expanding Overseas 7 Recommendations and Implementation 7 Slowing Growth in NAFTA Trade 7 Continuation of NAFTA Strategy versus Expansion into Latin America 7 Taking Advantage of Economic Growth in Asia and Emerging Markets 8 Expanding Overseas 8 Monitor and Control 8 Executive Summary Since Canadian National Railway Company (CN)’s privatization by the Canadian government in November 1995, CN has not stopped growing its sales, profits, cash flow and, as a result, market value. Privatization and deregulation of the rail industry led to some of CN’s success, but CN had to cut costs and increase revenues. Cutting costs meant reducing workforce and closing or selling unprofitable tracks. It also meant investing in more efficient rail equipment and technology. Increasing revenues required......

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...1. Was Falabella prepared for internationalization in 1991? (Justify your response with the readings). “Falabella’s aim is to become the leading retail operator in Latin America, both in terms of presence as well as financial results, combing world-class management quality with commitment to local communities” At that time Chile had a relatively mature and saturated market, so Falabella decided to expand and open their first store in Mendoza, Argentina. As a Chilean company which had been in the market for more than a century, they understood the local market very well and had a value proposition based on local preferences. Falabella knew how to create value for Chileans and thought it would work the same way in Argentina, due to previous experiences with tourists buying in department stores and decided to replicate the same proposition, assuming there would be similar preferences and consumer tastes in both countries. Falabella was not prepared for internationalization and confronted a completely different environment than the one in Chile. Legal norms, difficulties of importing, consumer preferences and shopping habits turned out to be totally different and were not understood before they decided to internationalize and resulted in lower sales than the expected. Falabella didn’t fully understand the Argentine culture and the importance of the European influence and heritage on their culture. Exclusivity was the most important thing at the time of selecting and buying......

Words: 1279 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Commercial Roofing in Peru

...07/03/2014 Construction Industry Analysis Stefano di Fabio Christopher Anderson Daniel Mujica GEOGRAPHIC AREA: Cooley Group assigned us to research the Latin American market and find business opportunities for their roofing products in this specific region. Therefore, we began our study by analyzing all 20 countries in Latin America. At first, we narrowed our selection by evaluating political risks. Due to recent political turmoil in Venezuela and Argentina, we decided to eliminate these nations from our selection. At the same time, countries with high economic-trade dependency with either Venezuela or Argentina were removed from our consideration set. These nations were Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia. After we identified the countries with the highest political risk, we conducted a macro economic analysis of the remaining nations. By doing this, we were able to estimate future economic performance between the selected countries and narrow the constricted consideration set. Moreover, the economic indicators used for this analysis were the following: foreign direct investment (helps predict investors’ confidence level), manufacturing export (positively correlated with commercial construction), Real GDP growth (overall representation of an economic growth), GDP per capita using purchasing power parity (representative indicator of consumer purchasing power), currency fluctuation......

Words: 2285 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Summer Report

...multi-tenant communications sites to wireless service providers, radio and television broadcast companies, wireless data providers, government agencies and municipalities and tenants in a number of other industries. This business is its rental and management operations, which accounted for approximately 98% of its total revenues during the year ended December 31, 2011 It also offer tower-related services domestically, including site acquisition, zoning and permitting services and structural analysis services, which primarily support its site leasing business and the addition of new tenants and equipment on its sites. In January 2012, the Company merged with and into American Tower REIT, Inc. During 2011, the Company acquired additional 125 communications sites from Telefonica Colombia. On February 1, 2011, the Company acquired 140 communications sites from VTR Banda Ancha (Chile) S.A. and its affiliates. On December 30, 2011, the Company purchased 100% interest of a subsidiary of Telefonica Moviles Chile S.A. that owned 558 communications sites. On December 14, 2011, the Company acquired control of an additional 76 existing communications sites from Cell C. On March 1, 2011, the Company acquired 100% interest of a company that owned 627 communications sites in Brazil. During 2011, the Company acquired a total of 179 communications sites and equipment in the United States. In December 2011, it announced the launch of operations in Uganda. In the United States during......

Words: 1149 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Europeaan Avocado Market

...Queensland the Smart State Avocado market in the European Union Asian markets for horticulture initiative – a Queensland export program – Avocado market in the European Union Asian markets for horticulture initiative – a Queensland export program – Principal investigator Clinton McGrath DPI&F Trade and Investment Research Support Team Nick Macleod, Devinka Wanigesekera, Brett Tucker, Leath Stewart, Prue Tatt and Peter Smith Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries • Queensland The Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (DPI&F) seeks to maximise the economic potential of Queensland’s primary industries on a sustainable basis. This publication has been compiled by the Trade, Markets and Investment Unit. While every care has been taken in preparing these publications, the State of Queensland accepts no responsibility for decisions or actions taken as a result of any data, information, statement or advice, expressed or implied, contained in this report. © The State of Queensland, Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries 2008. Copyright protects this material. Except as permitted by the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), reproduction by any means (photocopying, electronic, mechanical, recording or otherwise), making available online, electronic transmission or other publication of this material is prohibited without the prior written permission of the Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries,......

Words: 11224 - Pages: 45

Free Essay

International Management

...(10269890) Index Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………......3 Research Methodology..………………………………………………………………………3 Limitations ……………………………………………………………………………………3 About MANGO………………………………………………………………………………..3 Introduction (Peru an Emerging Economy)…………………………………………………4 Ease of Doing Business……………………………………………………………………….5 Market Attractiveness of Per (PESTEL Analysis)…………………………………………...6 o o o o o o Political analysis………………………………………………………………………………7 Economical Analysis…………………………………………………………………………..9 Socio-Cultural Analysis……………………………………………………………...............13 Technology Analysis………………………………………………………………................17 Environment Analysis………………………………………………………………………..18 Legal Analysis………………………………………………………………………………..19 Entry and Evaluation of MANGO in the Peru Market…………………………………….21 SWOT Analysis………………………………………………………………………………24 Ethics & Corporate Social Responsibilities…………………………………………………28 PESTEL Analysis on Peru Fashion Industry (MANGO)………………………………….28 CSR for Retail fashion Industries…………………………………………………………...29 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………...33 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………34 2|Page Saurabh Mallick (10269890) Abstract This report insights the PESTEL analysis done on the country Peru, in context to fashion retail brand MANGO. Research Methodology Every one of the sources utilized for examination are valid and trusted sources. The majority of the research is done by utilizing the DBS library assets and......

Words: 5927 - Pages: 24

Premium Essay

South China Seal Oil Dispute

...territorial wrangle among certain Asian countries. The rivalry dates back to the Sino-Japanese War of 1894 (Roberts & Buszynski, 2015). The interest by these countries is the suspected oil potential of the region and fishing grounds. China claims the majority of the area covering hundreds of miles east and south of its southern province of Hainan. Other countries involved in the dispute include Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Brunei, all part of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (See Appendix 1). The United States (U.S.) is an interested entity in the dispute based on the enormous number of commercial goods that pass through the sea each year (Dutton, 2014). This study will utilize the outcome of historical resolutions taken to resolve the dispute and analyze the conflict. Conducting a thorough analysis of this dispute is significant because it will set a good precedence for other existing global territorial disputes. In addition, finding a working solution for the dispute will benefit the ASEAN member countries through stability and other interested entities, such as the U.S., who rely on the South China Sea for trade. This paper will propose an International mediation alternative to the South China Sea oil dispute that will promote joint utilization of the natural resources within the territorial area. The Role of the United States The South China Sea is marked by several challenges affecting Asian countries; however, the U.S. is......

Words: 6528 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Land Grabbing

...This article was downloaded by: [Tsinghua University] On: 19 March 2014, At: 22:22 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK The Journal of Peasant Studies Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: Land grabbing in Latin America and the Caribbean Saturnino M. Borras Jr. , Jennifer C. Franco , Sergio Gómez , Cristóbal Kay & Max Spoor Published online: 28 May 2012. To cite this article: Saturnino M. Borras Jr. , Jennifer C. Franco , Sergio Gómez , Cristóbal Kay & Max Spoor (2012) Land grabbing in Latin America and the Caribbean, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 39:3-4, 845-872, DOI: 10.1080/03066150.2012.679931 To link to this article: PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be......

Words: 15852 - Pages: 64

Premium Essay

Sex Education

...APPENDIX 2 SUSTAINABILITY IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF PROPOSED WTO NEGOTIATIONS: THE FISHERIES SECTOR COUNTRY CASE STUDY: PERU Draft – not for citation John Tilman May 2, 2006 1 Glossary ADEX BCRP CCA CPPS DDA DIGESA EEZ EU FAO FIUPAP FONCODES FONDEPES GATS GPS IATTC IMARPE INEI ISC ITP MT NAMA NRI OLDEPESCA PRODUCE PROMPEX SIA SNP SPS SUNAT TBT WTO Exporters Association Central Reserve Bank of Peru Causal chain analysis Permanent Commission for the South Pacific Doha Development Agenda Environmental Health Directorate Exclusive Economic Zone European Union Food & Agricultural Organisation Artisanal Fishermen’s Federation Cooperation & Development Fund National Fund for Fisheries Development General Agreement on Trade in Services Global Positioning System Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission The Marine Institute Statistical & Information Institute Selective Consumption Tax Fisheries Technological Institute Metric Tonnes Non-agricultural Market Access Natural Resources Institute Latin America Organisation for Fisheries Ministry of Production – Fisheries Export Promotion Office Sustainability Impact Analysis National Fishing Society Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures Superintendency of Tax Technical Barriers to Trade World Trade Organization 2 Table of Contents Page Glossary Executive summary 1. Introduction 1.1. Background 1.2. Coastal livelihoods and development 1.3. Objectives of the study 2 6 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 15 16 16 16 16 18 18 19...

Words: 13747 - Pages: 55