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Pest Analysis of Romania

In: Business and Management

Submitted By kimyugaychik
Words 1610
Pages 7
8 elements of Culture in Romania
Geography
—Romania is located in Central Europe, bordering the Black Sea, the neighbors are Bulgaria, Ukraine and Hungary. The Danube is the second longest river after Volga in Europe, it originates in Black Forest in Germany, and flows through 9 European countries: Germany (7.5%), Austria (10.3%), Slovakia (5.8%), Hungary (11.7%), Croatia (4.5%), Serbia (10.3%), Bulgaria (5.2%), Moldova (1.6%), Ukraine (3.8%) and Romania (28.9%).

—Conclusion: Romania is a Central European country, and has close connection with neighbors (both Western and Eastern European countries).

Ethnic Group
—About ethnic group in Romania, the main group is Romanian, which is 89.5% of whole population in Romania. The second one is Hungarian which is 6.6%, Roma is the third one that is 2.5%, the next two groups are German and Russian which are 0.3% and 0.2% respectively. There are some other minorities that is 0.4%.

—Conclusion: According to information of ethnic group in Romania, this obviously is a diversified country that includes various minorities.

Language
—About 89% of the people are ethnic Romanians, a group that-in contrast to its Slovakian or Hungarian neighbors-traces itself to Latin-speaking Romans, who in the second and third centuries A.D. conquered and settled among the ancient Dacians, a Thracian people. As a result, the Romanian language, although comtaining elements of Slovakia, Turkish and other languages, is a Romance language related to French and Italian. In conclusion, Romanian language includes: Romanian (official, 91%), Hungarian (6.7%), Romany (Gypsy, 1.1%), others (1.2%)

—Conclusion: This country may have various languages because of different minorities, although Romanian is the official language.

History
—The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; They were actually linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania.

—The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)

—It joined the Allied Powers in World War I; In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR; 1943, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice.

—The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a Communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king.

—The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae Ceausescu, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. Ceausescu was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former Communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.

—Conclusion: By the press of neighbors ( ie. Germany, Russia), its history is seriously influenced. As well as, its relationship with others usually depends on major trends of the world. Especially, during the two world wars, it was struggling to survive aground different powerful groups.

Political philosophy
—Government type: Republic
—Legal system: Civil law system

—Executive Branch: *Chief of state: President Traian BASESCU (president elected by popular vote for a five-year term, eligible for a second term); *Head of government: Prime Minister Emil BOC, Deputy Prime Minister Marko BELA (prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament); * Cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister.

—Legislative Branch: * The Senate or Senat (137seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms); * The Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (334 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms).

—Judicial Branch * Supreme Court of Justice (comprised of 11 judges appointed for three-year terms by the president in consultation with the Superior Council of Magistrates, which is comprised of the minister of justice, the prosecutor general, two civil society representatives appointed by the Senate, and 14 judges and prosecutors elected by their peers); * A separate body, the Constitutional Court, validates elections and makes decisions regarding the constitutionality of laws, treaties, ordinances, and internal rules of the Parliament; it is comprised of nine members serving nine-year terms, with three members each appointed by the president, the Senate, and the Chamber of Deputies.

—Conclusion: This country is a democracy political system, its brief of country system can be as following: [pic]

Religion
—Romania: Eastern Orthodox (86.7%).

—Germany: Christian. ( The biggest group of religion in Germany. However, Eastern Orthodox is one of the branches of the Christian. In Germany, Eastern Orthodox is the third group of the religion, which is 1.5%. Most people believe in Eastern Orthodox in Germany usually are from Romania, or other central European countries.)

—Russia: Eastern Orthodox is the major religion for most citizens.

—Conclusion: Romania, Germany and Russia all have the same or the same branches of religion. In Germany, the first group of religion is Christian, and its braches Eastern Orthodox is the major religion in Russia and Romania both.

Social structure
| |Agriculture |Industry |Services |Population below poverty|
| | | | |line |
|Romania |29.7% |23.2% |47% |25% |
|Germany |0.9% |27.8% |71.3% |15.5% |
|Russia |10% |31.9% |58.1% |13.1% |

—Conclusion: Romanian “agriculture data” is 29.7%, which is the highest in 3 countries above. However, its “Industry& Service data” are the lowest. Both “industry and services” are obvious symbol to show countries’ economic and developmental level. Moreover, the “population below poverty line” in Romania is the highest in 3 countries.

Economic Philosophy
—Romania, which joined the European Union on 1 Juanuary 2007, bagan the transition from Communisme in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country’s needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in Eu export markets. Domestic consumaption and investment have fuelled strong GDP growth in recent years, but have led to large current account imbalances. Romania’s macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and address Romania’s widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to handicap its business environment. Inflation rose in 2007-2008, driven in part by strong consumer demand and high wage growth, rising energy costs, a nation-wide drought affecting food prices, and a relaxation of fiscal discipline. Romania’s GDP contracted markedly in the last quarter of 2008 as the country bagan to feel the effects of a global downturn in financial markets and trade, and GDP fell more than 7% in 2009, prompting Bucharest to seek a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders. Drastic austerity measures, as part of Romania’s IMF-led agreement led to a further 1.9% GDP contraction in 2010. The economy is expected to return to positive growth in 2011.

—Conclusion: With the fall of the Iron Curtain and the 1989 Revolution, Romania began to transition towards democracy and a capitalist market economy. Romania is now an upper middle-income country with high human development.

Analysis (workplace, sub-culture and in Romania):
Sub-culture: Every country has its own culture. Usually, the culture of country experienced centuries to be formed. Some countries’ culture were much more powerful, it because the primitive tribes of the countries were much more dominated and formed culture by themselves in ancient time. For other countries in history, their culture may be under influence from those powerful and dominated countries

—History: According to the history, Romania’s culture is seriously influenced by its neighbors, especially Germany and Russia, as well as Hungary. Here are 3 steps to form Romania’s culture: *Firstly, Romania was under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire for centuries. *Secondly, Romania joined Allied Powers with Germany in World War I, and also joined Nazi Force to invade USSR in World War II. *Thirdly, Romania became a member of a Communist “people’s republic” from 1947, until revolution in 1989. After that, the country changed to democracy.

—Language & Ethnic Group: In the first step, when Romania was dominated by Turkish Ottoman Empire, the biggest influence for Romania’s culture should be language& ethnic group. Romanian is the official language and has 91% group in Romania. After that, however, the second biggest group is Hungarian that is 6.7%. The similar phenomenon also comes out in Romania’s ethnic group, after 89.5% of Romanian, the second group is also Hungarian which is 6.6%.
—Economic Philosophy & Political Philosophy: Both the second and third steps could influence Romania’s economic situation and political system. During the World Wars, especially World War II, Nazi took advantage of Romania’s natural resources such as oil to fight against with the Allies. From 1940 to 1941, Romania exported 1.981 Million tons of oil to Germany. After the war, Romania became the members of Communist “people’s republic” from 1947 to 1989, during this time, the country was influenced by Russia in political and economic philosophy. It turned to imitate the planned economy and became Communist in its policy. In 1989, Romania experienced revolution like other countries of Communist “people’s republic”, then changed to be democracy and followed capitalist market economy, which is the same as Germany. As well as, Romania’s legal system is Civil law system, the law was originated in Germany and France.

—Conclusion: Romania’s sub-culture was influenced by Germany, Russia and Hungary in economic and political philosophy, as well as in language and ethic group because of its history and geography with these neighbors.…...

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