Premium Essay

Peter Singer Children At War

Submitted By
Words 1129
Pages 5
How does the author define “child soldier”?

When examining the use of child soldiers and children in warfare it is important to know what exactly defines a child soldier. The author of Children at War, Peter Singer, defines a child soldier as any person under eighteen years of age who is engaged in deadly combat or combat support as part of an armed force or group This definition may be acceptable for certain cultures, but in many others, the eighteen-year cut-off is simply the upper limit and the number of soldiers whose ages range from ten to seventeen is a much larger percentage. This barbaric war technique not only takes away the adolescence of the kids, but it also changes the scope of their remaining adulthood life. One boy from Sierra
…show more content…
Recruitment parties often have specific orders of the amount of required recruits, Singer states, “the LRA sets numeric goals for child recruits and sends raiding parties into villages to meet them.” Both state armies and rebel groups target those in “secondary schools or orphanages where children of suitable sizes are collected in one place, but out of contact with their parents.” In some circumstances parents are even driven to offer their children for combat service simply because they know they are too poor to provide for them. No matter how the deed is done these groups have the same principal goal, “to foster a child’s dependency on an armed organization and inhibit escape.” If they can accomplish this, they will have readily available and obedient weapons at their disposal. Recruitment is only the first phase of a child’s path to war, becoming a child soldier is a much longer grueling process, involving indoctrination, training, and then war. In the indoctrination phase of their training it is common for groups to offer their young soldiers drugs, food, and small amounts of money as remunerative motivators in order to get them hooked on military life. Other means of inspiration commonly used by armies include coercive motivators and physical punishment. Singer remarks, “whatever the means, the typical result of the indoctrination process is a moral and psychological disconnection that allows children to engage in what would normally be considered depraved actions.” The length of training within rebel groups is even shorter and less institutionalized, this is because of the constant need for soldiers and commanders’ lack of remorse for lost lives. The majority of children are trained in guerilla warfare techniques and this is typically administered in short lessons of basic infantry

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Behavior Model of Personality

...Singer’s Moral Guilt T PHI 208 January 7, 2013 Peter Singer’s goal in “Famine, Affluence and Morality” was to try and to get people all around the world to realize that they, as human beings, have a moral responsibility to help other human beings in need if they can. He argues that the way we view moral issues and our moral conceptual schemes need to be altered, and in fact the whole way in which our society takes our way of life for granted. Peter Singer’s argument is that “if it is in our power to prevent something bad from happening, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we ought, morally, to do it”. (Singer, 1972). He believes that everyone in similar circumstances as himself should give as much as possible, up to the point that they might also be at risk of poverty themselves. He argues that if everyone in society all across the world did this, that the world would not only solve the Bengal crisis, but would also end world hunger all together. That also by not contributing to helping people suffering from tragedies we are not being morally responsible as a race to our “global village”. Counter points to Peter Singer’s argument that he makes are as follows: First he states that the view that he has taken on the Bengal crisis and world hunger may seem “too drastic a revision of our moral scheme”. (Singer, 1972). That in fact people would not judge other people in the way that he suggests they should, that they would save their......

Words: 1655 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay


...states which is considered by most philosophers to be our infant years or pre-civilization era. Next, bad is defined as an individual that is depicted from society to be selfish, dishonest and uncaring. Firstly, a philosopher peter singer introduces that we are essentially bad people for the soul purpose of our apparent uncaring nature. Singer presents the idea that if each individual were to donate one dollar a day to assist the less fortunate our population as a whole would become much healthier. However, majority of society continue on with their lives disregarding this aspect simply because we do not care about our wellbeing. Singer also provides a situation where a boy is drowning and we have the ability to save that boy with minimal risk to our own safety. Not caring enough to donate one dollar a day to those who are in need is equivalent to walking past the drowning boy and refusing to help. Furthermore, another philosopher by the name of Thomas Hobbes also provided evidence as to how humans are essentially bad. Hobbes studied native tribes as he believed them to be the closest representation as to humans in their natural state. While amongst the tribes Hobbes began to see that there was no form of government in tribe life which led to constant wars and disputes between tribes. In the past without laws if an individual were to steal from you it would lead to two options; you would either steal back from that individual or kill them. Hobbes defined life before......

Words: 758 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Ethics exasperation, I saw the title, “U.S. Troops Leave Widows Jobless”. The article takes a bit of a different view on things. It details the events where soldiers from the United States enter Afghan poppy fields and destroy them which, of course, leaves the owners of the poppy fields void of income. In many cases, widows cannot get another job and they fail to gather enough money to feed the children; the result is starvation. As I was reading the article, I found that I empathised with the widow to the point where I knew that if I were that soldier, I would not be able to destroy those poppy fields. However, would my empathy-borne actions eventually be beneficial? Would they truly be ethical? In 2005, 70% of the acute drug deaths were thanks to opioids. Meanwhile, opium production is still increasing in Afghanistan, up to a 6,400 ton increase in 20014. Thus from this dilemma, I formed the knowledge question, “To what extent can we rely on empathy to make ethical decisions?”. This knowledge question highlights how one should make morally-correct choices in any situation, whether it be at war or debating whether we should donate $5 to the homeless man or not. I will investigate this knowledge question through two areas of knowledge, Ethics, the study of morals, and Human Sciences. Each AOK will be explored through various experts and their WOK. I will conclude my presentation with my own answer to the knowledge question, personal thoughts and what my answer...

Words: 1902 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

The Navajo

...            The Dineh or "The People" as the Navajo call themselves are a horticultural society that migrated to the Southwest between the fourteenth and fifteenth century.  They relied on what little food that they could hunt or gather but because of the lack of water in the region, grew to largely depend on their herds of sheep as both a source of food and wealth in their society.  The Navajo are made up of a matrilineal society, where the women took care of the family and the household, while the men go hunt.  They are a very spiritual people that believe in the balance and harmony of one’s life, which is obtained through many religious rituals and the help of a medicine man.  The Navajo people are a very full and colorful society but due to wars and forced migrations into territories, have slowly faded into today’s society and are still losing the brilliant and peaceful culture that made them so strong, so long ago when just worrying about what pattern they would weave was a burden.             The Navajo tribe is not really made up of any social organization, in a sense that there is no rank or political position in their tribe.  The hierarchy is more determined by kinship and the family that a person resides with.  There is a tribal leader in the Navajo community but he does not really have any coercive power or authority, unlike today’s tribal hierarchy which is similar to our own democracy.  It consists of a Tribal Chairman and a Vice Chairman, which is elected by......

Words: 2327 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Model Of Disability

...Singer is in favor of infanticide as an option for parents of disabled newborns, since disabled people do have a generally harder life than abled bodied people. Singer argues, “Some children with spina bifida have had forty major operations before they reach their teenage years” (Singer 5). This would clearly be traumatic to any child, and from the social model viewpoint this suffering cannot be blamed on society, but the physical impairment itself. Singer believes infanticide is the best way to help the disabled infant who in his opinion will not live a happy life, and society who will not be burdened with a non contributing and unproductive member. He argues that since people generally accept aborting fetuses that have been screened and have detected issues, they should accept infanticide since babies have the same level of consciousness as fetuses and after birth the parents have more information than they had with the fetus. Harriet McBryde-Johnson, a wheelchair bound lawyer sees Singer’s ideas as completely misguided, even though she recognizes in his reasoning, what he says is logical. She meets and discusses ideas about society’s view on disabled people and what the proper way to treat disabled community with Singer. She recounts how when talking about taking care of the unconscious, he poses the question, “‘don’t you think continuing to take...

Words: 1554 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Great Ape Project

...J412 Communicating Nature Case Study 7 December 2010 The Great Ape Project aims to give apes the same basic rights to life that humans have. Paola Cavalieri and Peter Singer published a book in 1993 titled, “The Great Ape Project.” The novel is composed of different essays written by advocates of the projects who aim to discuss the ethology and ethics issues between human beings and apes. Cavalieri and Singer argue that we now have “sufficient information about the capacities of chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans to make it clear that the moral boundary we draw between us and them is indefensible.” The novel became instantly popular and eventually led to the creation of the self-titled Great Ape Project. The Great Ape Project was founded in 1994 and put into action six years later in Sorobaca City. The Great Ape Project is an international movement that “aims to defend the rights of the non-human great primates-chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and bonobos, our closest relatives in the animal kingdom.” According to the project, the three main rights his project wants to ensure for apes include, the right to life, the protection of individual liberty, and the prohibition of torture. The Great Ape Project argues that apes deserve the right to live a higher standard of life. Studies have proven that chimpanzee’s are the closest relatives of human beings. Chimpanzees share 98.4% of the same DNA that human’s have. DNA tests also say that gorilla’s share 97.7% of......

Words: 4140 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

Kurt Vonnegut print as "Kurt Vonnegut, Jr." throughout the first half of his published writing career; beginning with the 1976 publication of Slapstick, he dropped the "Jr." and was simply billed as Kurt Vonnegut. His older brother, Bernard Vonnegut, was an atmospheric scientist at the University at Albany, SUNY, who discovered that silver iodide could be used for cloud seeding, the process of artificially stimulating precipitation. After returning from World War II, Kurt Vonnegut married his childhood sweetheart, Jane Marie Cox, writing about their courtship in several of his short stories. In the 1960s they lived in Barnstable, Massachusetts, where for a while Vonnegut worked at a Saab dealership. The couple separated in 1970. He did not divorce Cox until 1979, but from 1970 Vonnegut lived with the woman who would later become his second wife, photographer Jill Krementz.[2] Krementz and Vonnegut were married after the divorce from Cox was finalized. He raised seven children: three from his first marriage; his sister Alice's three children, adopted by Vonnegut after her death from cancer; and a seventh, Lily, adopted with Krementz. His only biological son, Mark Vonnegut, a pediatrician, wrote the book The Eden Express: A Memoir of Insanity (Seven Stories Press, 2010),[22] about his experiences in the late 1960s and his major psychotic breakdown and recovery. Mark was named after Mark Twain, whom Vonnegut considered an American saint.[23] His daughter Edith ("Edie"), an artist, was......

Words: 522 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Peter Singer's Essay Famine Affluence And Morality

...Peter Singer’s main argument in his essay “Famine Affluence and Morality” is that we, in affluent countries, have a moral obligation to give equally and substantially to those suffering across the globe. Thus, he would refute any claim that there is moral justification for people to care more about those close by than those far away. His Principle of Sacrifice highlights this idea: If it is in our power to prevent something bad from happening without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we ought, morally to do it. [Singer 1971: 231] Whilst Singer’s principle appears to make sense, as long as we agree with his first premise that suffering resulting from ‘lack of food shelter and medical care are bad’, it does not explain why people do tend to care more about the suffering of those close by than those far away. As humans we seem to have an innate moral inclination to help those who are suffering, for example when we see a child crying because they have hurt...

Words: 1649 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

What Is the Ramayana

...­ is an American actress, singer, and animal rights activist.  Red China​ ­ It is a term used for the People's Republic of China, commonly called a  Communist country.  Johnnie Ray​ ­ was an American singer, songwriter, and pianist.  South Pacific­​  Some of the most deadliest battles of World War II were fought in the  south pacific. Japan took over nearly all the islands which drew America to go and free  them.  Walter Winchell​ ­ was an American newspaper and radio gossip commentator.  Joe DiMaggio​ ­ played for the Yankees from 1936 to 1951, with time out for military  service in World War II.  Joe McCarthy​ ­ an American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from  the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957.   Richard Nixon​ ­ was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974.  Studebaker​ ­ was an American wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South  Bend, Indiana.  Television​ ­ is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting sound with moving  images in monochrome, colour, or in three dimensions.   North Korea​ ­ officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a country in East  Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.  South Korea​ ­ officially the Republic of ​ Korea​ , and commonly referred to as ​ Korea​ , is a  sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.  Marilyn Monroe​ ­ was an American actress, model, and si......

Words: 2898 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Applied Ethics

...APPLIED ETHICS A. What is applied ethics? 1. So far we have been focused either on normative ethics, which studies what features make something good/bad, an act right/wrong or a trait virtuous or vicious - or metaethics, which studies philosophical questions about the meaning of ethical words, or the nature of ethical facts 2. Applied ethics is a distinct category of ethical philosophy A. What is applied ethics? 3. Deals with difficult moral questions and controversial moral issues that people actually face in their lives Examples: the moral issues regarding… abortion euthanasia giving to the poor sex before marriage the death penalty gay/lesbian marriage (or other rights) war tactics censorship so-called “white lies” etc. A. What is applied ethics? 4. Given the time we have left in the semester, we’re going to focus on only two example issues: • Whether or not we are morally obligated to help the less fortunate (especially those in other nations) • Whether or not abortion is morally wrong 5. Why we haven’t spent more time on this: • Often results in gridlocked or endless discussions • Having some prior knowledge of some normative theories helps give a framework for discussion • Brings in issues that are not philosophical E.g., a discussion about whether or not the death penalty is morally OK may require sociological information about its effectiveness, etc. B. Suggestions for having good discussions 1. Abortion is a very emotional and charged issue - Students are......

Words: 2993 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Song And Dance Festivals

...Centuries of Song and Dance Festivals Everyone in their lives should be witness to the amazing scene of tens of thousands of people who belong to various choirs standing and singing together or dancing folk dances during a song and dance festival in Riga, Latvia. The participants are a mix of small children, teenagers, young adults, middle aged adults and even senior citizens. They continue even today and are held every four years. Song festivals usually begin with a grandiose parade where people are dressed in their Latvian national costumes which differ from region to region. The site is wonderful and colorful. People are carrying bunches of flowers and waving them to the people who are watching and the many choirs who are participating carry...

Words: 1858 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Humanities 370 Notes (this is an offensive term which the root word is mule) o Quadroon – ¼ black o Octoroon – 1/8 black Video – Fisk singers and early white gospel video • Literacy was a problem – acapella singing. • Gospel – “Good news” • Fisk = HBCU in 1866 Video: the history of gospel music 02 • In the African heritage it had to be the music, the preacher and the religious. o Had to be the preacher and the response • Music was to be free but then brought Christianity which was pulled out from that they say. • Involving percussion tones • Melees tone – not singing the tone right to but to shape it. We wear the mask poem: Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872 – 1906) • Mask – façade, disguises you, hides you, masquerade, protection, performers. Performance v. rituals • Ritual o Gospel • Performance o For others/benefits o Entertainment o Image Video: Education on Minstrel – goes into the Images topic • Developed in 1820. • T.D. Rice • Jim crow presents himself as an African (black face) by performing how the Africans perform. Performance within a performance. • Compromise of 4, etc. o Paid performances • Call and response Images: • Co-opted • Corruption of the history image • Massive available – were everywhere. • The images like the lips exaggerated, clothing, hair. • Looked more animalistic in the pictures • Children in images that they were alligator bait • Food that they ate – watermelon and chickens. Watermelons grow in Africa so......

Words: 3558 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Global Justice Essay

...Global Justice In today’s world there is much suffering occurring such as war, famine, unequal opportunities and treatment of people, disparities between rich and poor countries. The problem in today’s society is there is a lack of global justice. According to Drydyk global justice means freedoms and opportunities to learn, work and feed and clothe people globally (Drydyk, 23). The importance of justice to business and society is to make the world just and bring equality for all. It is important for business and society to help other countries and treat them equally. It is important for business as well so that they can work fairly together to achieve the goal of global justice. Studying global justice allows people to become aware of the injustices that people around the globe face such as war, poverty, limited opportunities, etc. Moreover, global justice allows countries to be united under a legal system (Drydyk, 23). My research questions is what are the root causes of injustices in our world and how can they be solved? In this essay, I will demonstrate that the causes of injustices in our world stem from materialism (not helping the unfortunate nation because of selfishness and only caring about one countries profit), ignorance and capitalism where richer nations exploited poorer nations. First of all, I will discuss the issue of institutions of cosmopolitan failing to provide justice. Cosmopolitan principles urge for equality and moral worth of all humans......

Words: 4052 - Pages: 17

Premium Essay

Bessie Smith Research Paper Outline

...BESSIE SMITH essie Smith, “The Empress of the Blues” was the most popular female blues singer of the 1920’s and 1930’s. Bessie is often regarded as one of the greatest singers of her era. She and Louis Armstrong were a major influence on other jazz vocalists. Her birthday isn’t known for sure, but the 1900 census indicates that Bessie was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee on July 1892. The 1910 census recorded her birthday as April 15, 1894, a date that appears on all subsequent documents and was observed by the entire Smith family. Census date also contributes to controversy about the size of her family. The 1870 and 1880 censuses report three older half-siblings, which later interviews with Smith’s family and contemporaries did not include these individuals among her siblings....

Words: 4886 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Animal Rights

...important to let humanity know why animals should have rights. Informing on the physical and psychological abuse that they suffer through violence, research of educational and scientific purposes and for the entertainment of people. Animal Rights, also known as Animal Liberation, is the the idea that the most basic interests in animals should be allowed the same amount of attention as basic interests in human beings (Wise, 2007). Peter Singer, a philosopher with a sensible focus on suffering in animals, incites people to extend their moral care boundaries to include animals. He says that animals shouldn't be discriminate against because they are not part of the human species (Yount, 2008).I agree completely with that just because animals don't have the same rationality as human beings, that doesn't mean that we have the right to manipulate them and use them. Animals should be treated the same as humans who have a capacity for suffering similar, such as human babies or people with severe brain damage. Philosopher, Tom Regain went beyond Singers ideas and literally used the term "rights" to associate with Animal Rights animals, rights to life and respectful...

Words: 1560 - Pages: 7