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Pharmacology

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Olayemi et al., Journ. Pharm. Sci., March, 2008, Vol. 7 No. 1, P. 131– 138

Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol. 7, No. 1, March, 2008, ISSN: 0189-823X
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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF MAIZE, RICE AND WHEAT
STARCH POWDERS AS PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS
*Olayemi O. J., Oyi A. R. and Allagh T . S.
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

*Author for Correspondence:

olubunmibiala@yahoo.co.uk, +234 80 33532299

ABSTRACT
This investigation aims at comparing locally developed starches from three grains; Maize (Zea mays), Rice (Oryza sativa) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains. These grains are used mainly as foods and they contain high amount of carbohydrate. The presence of starch in these grains varies and thus their use as pharmaceutical excipients will vary to the degree of their starch functionality. The powders obtained were characterised for their particle size, particle size distribution. The organoleptic and physicochemical characterisation such as viscosity, hydration capacity, swelling capacity, moisture sorption capacity, pH, flow rate and porosity, Carr’s index and Hausner’s ratio were evaluated. The powders passed the identification and solubility tests as required by the BP. Rice starch showed the least Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, porosity, moisture sorption capacity and the greatest flow rate. Rice starch also showed the highest hydration capacity and swelling capacity. The results obtained showed that among the three starches in relation to their flowability, rice starch possesses the best flow property. This knowledge of starch properties will help explain the behaviour of these starches when used as tablet excipients.
Key words: Maize, rice, wheat, starch, pharmaceutical excipients.

cassava starches could be used as tablet
disintegrant....

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