Pharmacology

In: Other Topics

Submitted By mars2404
Words 1344
Pages 6
Pharmacology is the study of the physical, biological and chemical actions of drugs (Bryant & Knights, 2011). In the practice of medicine, drugs are used to diagnose, treat or prevent disease so for the registered nurse in a clinical setting, the knowledge of pharmacology plays a huge importance in their role of medication administration. Pharmacology knowledge allows the nurse to carry out safe medication administration, monitor medication actions, educate patients, and act legally and ethically within the pharmacological parameters. This knowledge is also vital for the nurse practititioner in their role of nurse prescribing. Pharmacology plays a huge part in these roles for the nurse. This essay below will elaborate on the importance of pharmacology for the five reasons of safe medication administration, monitoring of medication actions, patient education, legal and ethical aspects of pharmacology and the nurse practitioner.
Firstly, safe medication administration. To administer drugs safely it is the nurse’s responsibility to have knowledge of the prescribed medications as well as their therapeutic and non therapeutic effects. Knowledge of the medications include, knowing its approved drug name and classification, correct dose and route of administration. A medication may have as many as three different names- a chemical name, a generic (proprietary) name and a trade name (Crisp & Taylor, 2011). A chemical name refers to the chemical makeup of a drug, a generic name is the drug name listed in official publications such as the MIMS annual, and the trade name is the name manufacturers have registered the medication as. In a clinical setting medication is normally dispensed using the generic name to avoid confusion, but because medications may come under a number of different names nurses must be able to identify the exact name and spelling so that the right…...

Similar Documents

Pharmacology

... the kidneys, allowing images of the kidney function (Grand Canyon University Lecture 1, 2011). 8. What relationship is there between drug response relationship, serum-concentration profile, and drug manufacturing? The relationship between drug response relationship, serum-concentration profile, and drug manufacturing have is they all examine the drug effects in the body. They use the terms known as efficacy and potency to describe the effect and duration of the medication. Efficacy can be described as the degree to which a drug is able to produce the desired effect. Potency is the relative concentration that is needed to produce the effect (Grand Canyon University, 2011). 9. How does an adverse effect of a drug occur? What are the causes of some drug-drug interactions? A drug injury can occur any time during the usage of medication and not just when the drug is administered. An adverse effect can be caused by giving a medication to the wrong patient, wrong medication at the wrong time, and wrong dose administered. In addition to medication errors, drugs cause injury due to an adverse reaction or unwanted side effect. Some reactions are minor, but other reactions can be severe causing serious injury or even death. When patients take two or more medications simultaneously, this can cause a risk for a drug interaction. The effects of the drugs can increase or decrease, or produce a new type of effect that neither produced on its own. ......

Words: 1011 - Pages: 5

Pharmacology

...Pharmacology is the study of the physical, biological and chemical actions of drugs (Bryant & Knights, 2011). In the practice of medicine, drugs are used to diagnose, treat or prevent disease so for the registered nurse in a clinical setting, the knowledge of pharmacology plays a huge importance in their role of medication administration. Pharmacology knowledge allows the nurse to carry out safe medication administration, monitor medication actions, educate patients, and act legally and ethically within the pharmacological parameters. This knowledge is also vital for the nurse practititioner in their role of nurse prescribing. Pharmacology plays a huge part in these roles for the nurse. This essay below will elaborate on the importance of pharmacology for the five reasons of safe medication administration, monitoring of medication actions, patient education, legal and ethical aspects of pharmacology and the nurse practitioner. Firstly, safe medication administration. To administer drugs safely it is the nurse’s responsibility to have knowledge of the prescribed medications as well as their therapeutic and non therapeutic effects. Knowledge of the medications include, knowing its approved drug name and classification, correct dose and route of administration. A medication may have as many as three different names- a chemical name, a generic (proprietary) name and a trade name (Crisp & Taylor, 2011). A chemical name refers to the chemical makeup of a drug, a generic name is...

Words: 1344 - Pages: 6

Pharmacology

...Sarah Gray @02668478 Intro to Pharmacology Case Study 4 Chapter 41 The Furosemide (Lasix) which lessen the fluid volume by escalate the amount of electrolytes and water that the kidneys are getting rid of. When there is less fluid volume the blood pressure will go down. Since her blood pressure is decreasing, the rate of her heart beat will decrease, diminish the amount of work that the heart has to do, and lowering how much fluid has built up in the lungs. The nurse needs to know how fast Furosemide (Lasix) should be given, how it work with other intravenous liquids, and what Lasix’s concentration is. The Foley catheter was ordered so it would accurately measure how much fluid was being released due to the Lasix (furosemide). The nurse should look at her blood pressure, respirations, temperature, pulse, pulse ox, and pain. He or she should also look for sluggishness and unsureness which are signs of hyponatremia; hyperkinesis, uncontrollable muscle spasm, easily upset which are symptoms of hypochloremia; thromboembolism which can be indicated by pain in lower extremities, migraine, inability to breathe, change in level of consciousness, and pain in chest. The nurse needs to let the prescriber know that all though the client’s potassium level was normal it was low in the normal range at the time the labs were drawn, Lasix can cause a drop in potassium, chloride, and sodium. He or she also needs to find out if the patient is currently on a regimen containing...

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Pharmacology

... 1. Imagine that a family friend or colleague has just been diagnosed with cancer. Explain how the American Cancer Society might provide education and support. What ACS services would you recommend and why? Unfortunately, I do not have to imagine having a family friend recently diagnosed with cancer. Sad-fully, this is a true reality for one of my closest friend’s two year old son. Little David was diagnosed with ALS (b-cell) in the past months. Although the mortality rate is lower for “b-cell” rather than “t-cell” ALS, it is heartbreaking to see the devastation that cancer brings to a family unit. The most challenging part of treating cancer for my friend’s son is seeing the psychological, physical and mental deterioration that occurs to a young body going through cancer treatment. Although he is taking the chemotherapy well, he has lost the ability to walk and his extensive vocabulary is down to three simple words. He has states of acute psychosis that are hard for his parents to deal with. David’s father is a CRNA and his mother a CVICU nurse, even at their level of expertise this it is unbearable at times to know everything about a disease yet have no control on its effects to your child. I know I have strayed away from the question, but wanted to stress the importance of why ACS exists. The American Cancer Society is the nationwide, community-based, voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving...

Words: 1545 - Pages: 7

Cardio Pharmacology Quiz

...Cardiovascular Pharmacology Quiz (25 Questions) Protamine sulfate: antidote for heparin (use is when patient’s aPTT is very high) Vitamin K: antidote for coumadin (uses PT/INR); both work slowly. Why are Coumadin and Heparin given together? If you have DVT treatment, it can keep existing blood clots from getting larger or prevent new ones from forming. They do this by preventing the production of certain proteins needed for blood to clot. Lipitor Atorvastatin is used along with a proper diet to help lower "bad" cholesterol and fats (such as LDL, triglycerides) and raise "good" cholesterol (HDL) in the blood. It belongs to a group of drugs known as "statins." It works by reducing the amount of cholesterol made by the liver. Lowering "bad" cholesterol and triglycerides and raising "good" cholesterol decreases the risk of heart diseases and helps prevent strokes and heart attacks. other lifestyle changes that may help this medication work better include exercising, losing weight if overweight, and stopping smoking. Take this medication by mouth with or without food as directed by your doctor, usually once daily. Example: mevacor Questran Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually 1 to 2 times a day. This medication comes as a powder with doses measured by the scoopful (using the provided scoop) or in individual dose packets. Do not take your dose in the dry powder form. Mix the medication in at least...

Words: 2345 - Pages: 10

Pharmacology

...DK is an 18-year-old high school student who began to experience weight loss despite a ravenous appetite and resulting increased dietary intake. She has to make frequent trips to the bathroom to urinate and has difficulty concentrating on her work because of fatigue. She drinks large volumes of coffee to help with a constant dry mouth and to combat her fatigue. At a clinic appointment, it was noted that DK’s weight has dropped from 140 pounds to 128 pounds. She is 5 feet 7 inches tall. Her urine specimen shows glycosuria and ketonuria. A chemstick blood glucose level is 412 mg/dl. DK had eaten breakfast 3 hours before the chemstick blood test. 1. Considering DK’s presenting history and physical data, what form of diabetes mellitus is indicated? 2. What are the physiologic mechanisms involved with the polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia in diabetes mellitus? 3. What immediate and long-term therapy will DK need to manage her disorder? 4. DK will have to frequently monitor her own glucose levels to evaluate her diabetic control. What range of blood glucose should she be advised to aim for? 5. DK needs to understand the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia so that she can quickly intervene to prevent life-threatening complications. How can she recognize hypoglycemia and what should she do when it occurs? 6. DK’s health care provider plans to routinely monitor glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c). What information can be gained from this laboratory test? 7. DK should be...

Words: 265 - Pages: 2

Pharmacology

...Phenomenology According to Potter and Perry (2010) phenomenology is understanding of human experiences as it is experienced. It is understanding and feeling the experiences as it is lived by an individual. Phenomenology is understanding the viewpoint of individuals as they experience it. According to phenomenological perspective an individual’s reality is created through the meanings they attribute to experience. Consequently, an individual’s world is the individual itself and the meaning and relationships they give to everyday experiences. One aspect of phenomenology is the holistic perspective that studies the ‘whole’ phenomenon (CNP BC 2009). Accordingly, holistic perspective sees an individual as a whole individual and not in segments or parts. Similarly, nursing considers the whole person and values their experience. Besides, the central focus of nursing is the client. The client includes the physical, emotional, psychological, spiritual and social dimensions of the individual (Potter & Perry, 2010). Phenomenological perspective will help the writer to understand a nurses role as to be empathic, to be perceptive and to be supportive. It will assist the writer to understand individuals’ experiences as valid and be supportive. Phenomenology will help me to encourage and empower individual to take control over their health and wellness. Phenomenology will assist me to actively listen to individuals, create a therapeutic relationship and respect them...

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

Pharmacology

...When administering medications to patients with dementia or delirium it is important to have an understanding of what dementia and delirium means. Delirium is an acute reversible state of disorientation and confusion. Delirium is marked by disorientation without drowsiness, hallucinations, delusions; difficulty in focusing attention; inability to rest and physical and autonomic over activity. Common causes of delirium are drug and alcohol withdrawal; medication side effects, infections, pain surgery or trauma, hypoxia, and acid-base electrolyte imbalances. Treatment of delirium includes determining the cause of the delirium. Antipsychotic drugs and benzodiazepines may be used cautiously when other non-pharmacological interventions have failed. (Tabors 2009) Dementia is a progressive irreversible decline in mental function marked by memory impairment and often deficits in reasoning, judgment, abstract thought registration, comprehension, learning, and use of language. Symptoms may take months to years to progress and they include poor judgment, clouding of consciousness and orientation, depression, agitation sleeplessness, Patient may become dependent of activities of daily living. Dementia may result from AIDS, chronic alcoholism, Alzheimer’s disease, vitamin B12 deficiency, carbon monoxide poising, hypothyroidism and subdural hematomas. 4.5 million People in the U.S are affected by dementia. 20-40% of patients with dementia are over the age of 85. (Tabor’s 2009) Some of...

Words: 483 - Pages: 2

Pharmacology

...MONONUCLEOSIS Also known as “MONO” Mononucleosis is a common illness that can leave you feeling tired and weak for weeks or months. It goes away on its own, but lots of rest and good self-care can help you feel better. Illness usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Often seen in teens and young adults, children can get the virus, but it often goes unnoticed because their symptoms are mild. Mono can be spread through contact with saliva, mucus from the nose, throat and sometimes tears. This is known as the kissing disease. However, Mononucleosis isn’t as contagious as some infections, such as the common cold. If you have mono, it’s important to be careful of certain complications such as an enlarged spleen. Rest and adequate fluids are key to recovery. Epstein-Barr is a very common virus. About 85% to 90% of American adults have developed antibodies by the time they are 40 years old. Which means that they have been infected with the virus at some point in their lives. This Disease is usually diagnosed based on the patient’s symptoms such as: Fever, swollen tonsils, and swollen lymph nodes in your neck and arm pits, skin rash and strep throat that doesn’t get better with antibiotic use. The doctor may order blood tests, particularly the mono spot test. Other blood tests, such as a complete blood count, might be done to see if the number of lymphocytes is higher than normal. Occasionally, titers of antibodies against the viruses that cause mono may need to...

Words: 541 - Pages: 3

Pharmacology

...PHARMACOLOGY STUDENT NAME: DATE HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT #1: Complete the following questions after reading Chapter 3: Drug Administration. Fill in the Blank: Complete the following sentences using the correct key term. 1. Drugs administered into the GI tract are given via the enteral route. 2. A good example of an intradermal injection is a PPD test. 3. Drugs applied directly on the skin are administered via the topical route. 4. Drugs applied topically to the skin or mucous membranes exert a local effect 5. Drugs that distribute throughout the body exert a systemic effect. 6. Drugs that come as an emulsion must be shaken well before administration. 7. An enteric coating resists the acid environment of the stomach. 8. A solid drug dispersed within a liquid is called a suspension. 9. Administration of a drug into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) uses the intrathecal route. 10. Sublingual tablets are placed under the tongue. 11. A tablet placed between the cheek and gum in the mouth is an example of buccal administration. 12. A drug compressed or molded into a specific shape is called a tablet. 13. An intravenous drug is administered directly into the bloodstream. 14. A sustained release tablet is formulated to release a drug slowly over an extended period. 15. A drug encased in a hard or soft gelatin container is known as a capsule 16. A syrup is a concentrated solution of sugar in water. 17. The technique of instilling drugs into a muscle uses...

Words: 415 - Pages: 2

Pharmacology

...Keyontaye Meariday February 18, 2015 LRC project #3 Restless Leg Syndrome: * Restless Leg Syndrome is a disorder characterized by an unpleasant tickling or twitching sensation in the leg muscles when sitting or lying down, which is relieved only by moving the legs. Causative Agent: * RLS also appears to be related to the following factors or conditions, although researchers do not yet know if these factors actually cause RLS, chronic diseases such as kidney failure, diabetes, and peripheral neuropathy. Transmission: * Experts believe that restless legs syndrome is caused by an imbalance of dopamine, a chemical that transmits signals between nerve cells in the brain. Restless legs syndrome is usually genetic, about 60% of people with restless legs have a family member with the condition. Although anyone can have restless legs syndrome, it is more common in older adults and women. In fact, about 40% of mothers experience temporary restless legs syndrome during pregnancy. Health conditions such as diabetes, iron deficiency, rheumatoid arthritis, and kidney failure can also trigger restless legs syndrome. Signs of Symptoms: * Not only are the signs and symptoms of restless legs syndrome different from person to person, but also they can be tricky to explain. Some describe the leg sensations as creeping, prickling, burning, tingling, or tugging. Others say it feels as if bugs are crawling up their legs, a fizzy soda is bubbling through their veins, or...

Words: 402 - Pages: 2

Pharmacology

...CHAPTER 1: Pharmacology is defined as the STUDYING OF DRUGS, THEIR USES, AND THEIR INTERACTIONS IN LIVING TISSUE The physician must have permission from the FDA to dispose of any outdated medications. FALSE What government agency or agencies control prescription or legend medications? A AND C (DRUG ENFORCEMENT AGENCY AND FDA) Drug testing is done on which of the following before being named an Investigational New Drug? ANIMALS The physician must keep which of the following records when using drugs found on the DEA list of scheduled medications? ALL OF THE ABOVE The FDA is a division of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES The person(s) with the responsibility for obtaining information and keeping records of all drugs used by a patient (both prescription and over-the-counter medications and herbs) is/are the A AND B (PHYSICIAN AND MEDICAL ASSISTANT) Prescription pads make wonderful notepads and paper for ordering blood tests and X-rays. FALSE OTC means OVER THE COUNTER Who dispenses medications? PHARMACISTS CHAPTER 2: Anaphylaxis is a possible allergic response with any medication and may be fatal. TRUE Which of the following are considered the major drug actions? DEPRESSION, STIMULATION, IRRITATION, DEMULCENCE The amount of drug circulating in the body is called the drug’s BLOOD LEVEL Recombinant DNA technology uses artificially manipulated DNA segments for transfer from a cell of one species to a...

Words: 1605 - Pages: 7

Pharmacology

... wheat and then maize starch. Table 1: Physicochemical Properties of the Starches Maize Parameters Starch Viscosity (mPa.s) 27 Shape Round Moisture content (%) 4 Moisture sorption capacity (%) 4.87 Swelling capacity (%) 16 Hydration capacity 2.54 True density 1.5 Bulk Density (g/ml) 0.37 Tapped Density (g/ml) 0.67 Carr's index (%) 44.8 Hausner's ratio 1.81 Porosity (%) 75 Flow rate (g/sec.) 0.54 Packing fraction 0.25 pH 6.53 Rice Starch 12 polygonal 6 1.86 18.8 3.29 1.51 0.61 0.91 33 1.49 60 0.88 0.4 6.77 Fig.1: Maize starch X 40 Mag 135 Wheat Starch 10.6 Oval 12 2.55 13.9 2.29 1.44 0.49 0.77 36.4 1.57 66 0.71 0.34 6.23 Olayemi et al., Journ. Pharm. Sci., March, 2008, Vol. 7 No. 1, P. 131– 138   Fig. 2: Rice starch X 40 Mag Fig. 3: Wheat starch X 40 Mag 110 100 C u m m u la t iv e f r e q u e n c y ( % ) 90 80 70 maize rice wheat 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Particle size (µm) Fig. 4: Cummulative particle size of the local maize, rice and wheat starches. 136 Olayemi et al., Journ. Pharm. Sci., March, 2008, Vol. 7 No. 1, P. 131– 138   Ibezim, E. C., Ofoefule, S. I. Omeje, E. O., and Odoh, U. E. (2008). Performance of starch obtained from Dioscorea dumetorium as disintegrant in Sodium Salicylate tablets. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 2(3). pp.......

Words: 3350 - Pages: 14

Pharmacology Brochure

...What is Sertraline and what is it indicated for?Sertraline is a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI). It is indicated for a variety of conditions which include:Major Depressive DisorderPanic DisorderObsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)Social Anxiety (Social Phobia)Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) * Unlabeled Use(s): * *Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) | | | Talk to your doctor todayContact UsPhone: 1-800-123-4567 Email: zoloft@gmail.com Web: www.zoloft.com | | | 123 Depression HwySad City, USA | | | | | | Are your dishes piling up in the | Sink? | Pharmacology 103] | | Maybe Sertraline can help…How Does Sertraline Work?It Inhibits neuronal uptake of serotonin in the CNS, thus potentiating the activity of serotonin. Therapeutic Effect(s): * Antidepressant action. * Decreased incidence of panic attacks. * Decreased obsessive and compulsive behavior. * Decreased feelings of intense fear, helplessness, or horror. * Decreased social anxiety. * Decrease in premenstrual dysphoria. | | | Some Adverse Effects Include:Some side effects can be life threatening. If you have any of the following seek medical attention immediately-Blurred Vision -Seizures-Fever, sweating, confusion-Fast or irregular heart beat-Abnormal bleeding or bruising-Hallucinations-Suicidal thoughtsIMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: Suicidality...

Words: 379 - Pages: 2

Pharmacology Case Study

...University of Phoenix Material Pharmacology Case Study Analysis Worksheet Read the University of Phoenix Material: Pharmacology Case Study. Write a 350 word response to each of the following questions. The use of your textbooks or scholarly sources is recommended. Format any references consistent with APA guidelines. 1. What are two interventions that would help this couple take the correct medications at the correct times and on the correct days? An intervention that would help the couple with medications is one of the grown children can move closer to their parents. The child can monitor the couple more to ensure medication is taken correctly and at the right times. Another intervention to assist the couple is to have the medication measured out for the entire week. The family can do that. The insulin can be premeasured in the syringes and labeled with the time it is to be taken. The pills can be put in a medicine container or egg box that is labeled for the different days of the week. The process would start over on Sunday. Having a medication calendar can assist the family in taking the right amounts. The family can have a bell that goes off during the day when it is time to take medicines. Education is the key for the family to know and understand the importance of medication management. The grandchild and other children should learn about all the medication both parents take and what time it is taken. The process needs to be a team's effort, not just the...

Words: 1643 - Pages: 7