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Philip Morris International

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Textual Analysis

Philip Morris International

The move structure is expository with clearly defined sections for respectively situation, problem, solution and evaluation. Line 2 briefly states the situation and stipulate that litigations are inefficiency and unavailing, whereas lines 5 - 9 elaborate on the matter and describe the problem. The solution is diminutive stated in line 13, and bluntly claim their solution to be correct and de jure. The evaluation starts in line 13 and reaches a interim conclusion in line 15, and the remainder of the text can be seen as an elaborative evaluation of the litigations, and ends abruptly in line 52 without an actual conclusion. The move structure is rather unusual, as the evaluation constitutes the vast majority, hence the textual analysis will primarily revolve around the lines 1 - 15, and incorporate the evaluation as supplementary information.

The media text embraces all of the appeal forms to a certain degree, and uses argumentative discourse to persuade the reader. The primary appeal form is undeniably logos, which also aligns with the previously defined expository move structure. With the primary focus on logos, PMI undertake a historical approach to persuade the reader of litigation being insufficient as a means of control. An example of logos is found in line 38 - 44, where PMI elaborate on past and ongoing litigations. PMI utilize repetitions and enumerations of the countries implicated, which substantiate and emphasize PMI’s claim that litigations are tedious and futile. Additionally, repetition of countries involved is also an example of epiphora, as they are mentioned at the end of successive phrases.

PMI have through their extensive use of logos tried to achieve a percieved role of expertise, hence eliminating the need to include an expert to validate the claims. However, the idea of including an expert is to authenticate the information and facts declared by an unbiased third party. This self-proclaimed entitlement causes the reader to question the validity and credibility of the information, as there are no documentation or reference. One might argue that PMI’s
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Textual Analysis

Philip Morris International

attempt to enhance their perceived persona through extensive logos have backfired, and the overall trustworthiness is consequently being disputed and questioned.

Ethos is also present in the text, e.g. Line 13 - 15, where PMI states that they strive towards a common goal and aim for the best suitable solution for all parties involved, which is eunoia. PMI furthermore attempt to establish a “us vs. them”-frame, e.g. seen in lines 13 - 14, which will increase the readers consensus and acceptance of the text and its intended purpose, as a sense of belonging is established between the sender and receiver. This can be seen as pathos, as PMI explicitly express their emotions towards the subject at hand.

There is an array of speech acts present in the text, but the most predominant speech act is representative, as seen in line 13, where PMI proclaim that litigation is not the correct procedure, but instead regulation, and it is obvious that PMI genuinely believe this to be the true. When a text has an abundance of representatives, the dominant appeal form should be logos, which indeed was the case as previously mentioned, and thereby substantiate postulation. Indirect expressive speech acts are also present in the text, e.g. in line 5 - 6, where PMI indirectly convey their disapproval of thousands of lawsuits against tobacco companies by pointing out that they the smokers - merely have won a handful. Additionally are indirect directive speech acts present in the text, e.g. line 2, where PMI states their dismissive perception of litigation and thereby indirectly implore the readers not to commence future lawsuits against them.

The framework, cooperative principle, in the text have been identified as being tolerable and concise, yet border lining inadequacy and paucity. Based on the Gricean maxims, the reader is presented with carefully quantified amount of information on the matter of litigations, but the actual argumentation falls short, consequently resulting in reduced quality. Furthermore, the vast
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Textual Analysis

Philip Morris International

majority of the text revolves around cases, but in a superfluous manner that merely skims the surface, and in truth does not constitute any major insight seen from the readers’ perspective. Therefore, one can argue that PMI fail to embrace the cooperative principles, which cause the reader to question credibility of the text, and PMI as a whole. There are also a wide array of inductive topois, as PMI generalize and define their reality and perception of the world, but fail to use adequate argumentation to validate their claims. The style and formality of the text is suitable for the pressumed readers.

Chain of three are used numerous times in the text, amongst line 15, where PMI attempt to shed a negative light upon litigations through the use of three words with negative connotations, which is an example of dysphemism, the opposite of euphemism. A fallcy of reasoning is that there are no facts and figures mentioned in text, thereby not substantiating their claims, as previously mentioned.

The perspective of the text is receiver orientated, as PMI strive to affect the public’s perception of litigations as a means of control. Tobacco companies are notoriously known and perceived as immoral multinational businesses exploiting consumers for a profit, as they become addicted to the nicotine, yet societies condone the industries to flourish and grown. This is furthermore substantiated by the fact that smoking is now scientifically proven to be harmful and potentially lethal. This might be one of the primary reasons for the high amount of lawsuits against not only PMI, but also the industry as a whole.

Throughout the text, PMI strive to defend and justify their industry as a whole, but especially themselves. The vast majority of the text revolves around their almost impeccable track records in terms of litigations in a global context. Furthermore, PMI exert themselves to remove focus and

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Textual Analysis

Philip Morris International

responsibility from themselves and onto the respective governments. One might therefore argue that the text function is to vindicate PMI through an informative text function approach.

Litigation is one of the only actions the public can embark on in order to stand up against tobacco companies, who are earning billions of dollars each year on products that reduce life expectancy and generally harmful. However, PMI proclaim that they are merely following the laws and regulations, and they cannot be held accountable for any consequences caused by their products. By doing so, PMI attempt to shift the focus from themselves onto the governments, thereby holding them responsible and use them as a scapegoat.

The argumentation and foundation is sound, as no one can dispute the validity of laws and regulations, but the framework and the actual argumentation are flawed. The text therefore comes across as self-righteous and self-absorbed, which undermines the validity of the text, and thereby not achieving its intended purpose of being informative.

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