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Philippine Literature

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Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines. Most of the notable literature of the Philippines was written during the Spanish period and the first half of the 20th century in Spanish language. Philippine literature is written in Spanish, English,Tagalog, and/or other native Philippine languages. Contents [hide] * 1 Early works * 2 Classical literature in Spanish (19th Century) * 2.1 Poetry and metrical romances * 2.2 Prose * 2.3 Dramas * 2.4 Religious drama * 2.5 Secular dramas * 3 Modern literature (20th and 21st century) * 4 Notable Philippine literary authors * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links |
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[edit]Early works
Doctrina Christiana, Manila, 1593, is the first book printed in the Philippines.
Tomas Pinpin wrote and printed in 1610 Librong Pagaaralan nang mga Tagalog nang Uicang Castilla, 119 pages designed to help fellow Filipinos to learn the Spanish language in a simple way. He is also credited with the first news publication made in the Philippines, "Successos Felices",
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[edit]Classical literature in Spanish (19th Century)
On December 1, 1846, La Esperanza, the first daily newspaper, was published in the country. Other early newspapers were La Estrella (1847), Diario de Manila (1848) and Boletin Oficial de Filipinas (1852). The first provincial newspaper was El Eco de Vigan (1884), which was issued in Ilocos. In Cebu City "El Boletín de Cebú" (The Bulletin of Cebu), was published in 1890.
On 1863, the Spanish government introduced a system of free public education that had an important effect on the ability of the population to read in Spanish and further in the rise of an educated class called theIlustrado (meaning, well-informed). Spanish became the social language of urban places and the true lingua franca of the archipelago. A good number of Spanish newspapers were published until the end of the 1940s, the most influential of them being El Renacimiento, printed in Manila by members of the Guerrero de Ermita family.
Some members of the ilustrado group, while residing or studying in Spain, decided to start a literary production in Spanish with the aim of serving the autonomy and/or independence projects. Members of this group included Pedro Alejandro Paterno, who wrote the novel Nínay (first novel written by a Filipino); the Philippine national hero, José Rizal, who wrote excellent poetry and two famous novels in Spanish: Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not), and El Filibusterismo.
A potent tool in promoting Filipino nationalism in Spanish was the foundation of La Solidaridad (more fondly called La Sol by the members of the propaganda movement) in 15 February 1885. With the help of this organ, Filipino national heroes like José Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, etc. were able to voice out their sentiments.
[edit]Poetry and metrical romances * Ladino Poems – Were natives of first Tagalog versifiers who saw print: highly literate in both Spanish and the vernacular. * Corridos – Were widely read during the Spanish period that filled the populace's need for entertainment as well as edifying reading matter in their leisure moments. * Awit – like corridos, these were also widely read during the Spanish period as entertaining, edifying, reading manner in their leisure time. It is also a fabrication of the writers imagination although the characters and the setting may be European. The structure is rendered dodecasyllabic quatrains.
On December 1, 1846, La Esperanza, the first daily newspaper, was published in the country. Other early newspapers were La Estrella (1847), Diario de Manila (1848) and Boletin Oficial de Filipinas (1852). The first provincial newspaper was El Eco de Vigan (1884), which was issued in Ilocos. In Cebu City "El Boletín de Cebú" (The Bulletin of Cebu), was published in 1890.
On 1863, the Spanish government introduced a system of free public education that had an important effect on the ability of the population to read in Spanish and further in the rise of an educated class called the Ilustrado (meaning, well-informed). Spanish became the social language of urban places and the true lingua franca of the archipelago. A good number of Spanish newspapers were published until the end of the 1940s, the most influential of them being El Renacimiento, printed in Manila by members of the Guerrero de Ermita family.
Some members of the ilustrado group, while residing or studying in Spain, decided to start a literary production in Spanish with the aim of serving the autonomy and/or independence projects. Members of this group included Pedro Alejandro Paterno, who wrote the novel Nínay (first novel written by a Filipino); the Philippine national hero, José Rizal, who wrote excellent poetry and two famous novels in Spanish: Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not), and El Filibusterismo.
A potent tool in promoting Filipino nationalism in Spanish was the foundation of La Solidaridad (more fondly called La Sol by the members of the propaganda movement) in 15 February 1885. With the help of this organ, Filipino national heroes like José Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Marcelo H. del Pilar, etc. were able to voice out their sentiments.
[edit]Prose
The prose works of the Spanish Period consisted mostly of didatic pieces and translations of religious writings in foreign languages.
[edit]Dramas
[edit]Religious drama * The Panunuluyan– Literally, seeking entrance, the Tagalog version of the Mexican Las Posadas. Held on the eve of Christmas, it dramatizes Joseph's and Mary's search for Bethlehem. * Cenaculo – Was the dramatization of the passion and death of Jesus Christ. * Salubong – An Easter play that dramatizes the meeting of the Risen Christ and His Mother. * Moriones – Refers to the participants dressed roman soldiers, their identities hidden behind colorful, sometimes grotesque, wooden masks. * The Santacruzan – Performed during the month of May which have the devotion for the Holy Cross. It depicts St. Elena's search for the cross on which Christ died. * Pangangaluwa – An interesting socio-religious practice on All Saint's Day which literally means for The Soul.
[edit]Secular dramas
These were generally held during the nine nights of vigil and prayers after someone's death, on the first death anniversary when the family members put away their mourning clothes. * The Karagatan – comes from the legendary practice of testing the mettle of young men vying for a maiden's hand. The maiden's ring would be dropped into sea and whoever retrieves it would have the girl's hand in marriage. * The Duplo – A forerunner of the balagtasan. The performances consist of two teams; One composed of young women calledDupleras or Belyakas; and the other, of young men called Dupleros or Belyakos. * The Comedia – It is about a courtly love between, a prince and a princess of different religions. It is about a Christian-Muslim relationship.
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[edit]Modern literature (20th and 21st century)
The greatest portion of Spanish literature was written during the American period, most often as an expression of pro-Hispanic nationalism, by those who had been educated in Spanish or had lived in the Spanish-speaking society of the big cities, and whose principles entered in conflict with the American cultural trends. Such period of Spanish literary production—i.e., between the independence of Spain in 1898 and well ahead into the decade of the 1940s—is known as Edad de Oro del Castellano en Filipinas. Some prominent writers of this era were Wenceslao Retana and Claro Mayo Recto, both in drama and essay; Antonio M. Abad andGuillermo Gomez Wyndham, in the narrative; Fernando María Guerrero and Manuel Bernabé, both in poetry. The predominant literary style was the so-called "Modernismo", a mixture of elements from the French Parnassien and Symboliste schools, as promoted by some Latin American and Peninsular Spanish writers (e.g. the Nicaraguan Rubén Darío, the Mexican Amado Nervo, the SpaniardFrancisco Villaespesa, and the Peruvian José Santos Chocano as major models).
Apart from the works in Spanish, the only remarkable and valuable Filipino writer writing in the English language is Nick Joaquin.[citation needed]

Spanish Colony 1565 - 1898
Ferdinand Magellan set out from Spain in 1519 on the first voyage to circumnavigate the globe with five ships and a complement of 264 crew. Three years later in 1522, only the one ship, the Victoria, returned to Spain with 18 men.
The Philippines were the death of Magellan. The expedition sighted the island of Samar on March 16, 1521. Magellan was welcomed by two Rajas, Kolambu and Siagu. He named the islands the Archipelago of San Lazaro, erected a cross and claimed the lands for Spain. The friendly Rajas took Magellan to Cebu to meet Raja Humabon. Humabon and 800 Cebuanos were baptized as Christians. Magellan agreed to help Raja Humabon put down Lapu-Lapu, a rebellious datu on the nearby island of Mactan. In a battle between Spanish soldiers and Lapu-Lapu's warriors, Magellan was killed on April 27, 1521.
Disputes over women caused relations between Raja Humabon and the remaining Spaniards to deteriorate. The Cebuanos killed 27 Spaniards in a skirmish and the Spaniards, deciding to resume their explorations, departed Cebu.
For all its losses, the voyage was a huge financial success. The Victoria's 26 ton cargo of cloves sold for 41,000 ducats. This returned the 20,000 ducats the venture had cost plus a 105 percent profit. Four more expeditions followed between 1525 and 1542. The commander of the fourth expedition, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, named the islands after Philip, heir to the Spanish throne (r. Philip II 1556-1598).
The Philippines was not formally organized as a Spanish colony until 1565 when Philip II appointed Miguel Lopez de Legazpi the first Governor-General. Legazpi selected Manila for the capital of the colony in 1571 because of its fine natural harbour and the rich lands surrounding the city that could supply it with produce.
The Spanish did not develop the trade potential of the Philippine's agricultural or mineral resources. The colony was administered from Mexico and its commerce centered on the galleon trade between Canton and Acapulco in which Manila functioned secondarily as an entrepot. Smaller Chinese junks brought silk and porcelain from Canton to Manila where the cargoes were re-loaded on galleons bound for Acapulco and the Spanish colonies in the Americas. The Chinese goods were paid for in Mexican silver.
Spanish rule had two lasting effects on Philippine society; the near universal conversion of the population to Roman Catholicism and the creation of a landed elite. Although under the direct order of Philip II that the conversion of the Philippines to Christianity was not to be accomplished by force, the monastic orders of the Augustinians, Dominicans, Franciscans, Recollects and Jesuits set to their missionary duties with purpose. Unable to extirpate the indigenous pagan beliefs by coercion and fear, Philippine Catholicism incorporates a deep substrate of native customs and ritual.
While the missionaries spread through the colony to found their parishes and estates in the barangays, the officials of the civil administration preferred to stay in Manila and govern indirectly through the traditional barangay datu or village chief. Although the traditional kinship organization of the barangay had maintained the communal use of land, the Spanish governors brought with them their feudal notions of land tenure with "encomienderos" and subordinate vassals. The traditional village chiefs became a class of landed nobility wielding considerable local authority. The creation of a priviledged landed-holding elite on whom most of the rural population was dependent as landless tenants introduced a class division in Philippine society that has been the perennial source of social discontent and political strife ever since.
In most villages, the priest and the local "principale" or "notable" represented between them Spanish authority. The "friarocracy" of the religious orders and the oligarchy of the landholders were the twin pillars of colonial society whose main interests were in keeping their positions of authority and priviledge.
The Spanish hold on the Philippines first began to weaken in 1762 when the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years' War. In support of the British invasion, the long persecuted Chinese merchant community rose in revolt against the Spanish authority. The Treaty of Paris returned Manila to Spain at the end of the War but with increasing diversion of the China trade to Britain and, even more importantly, with an irretrievable loss of prestige and respect in the eyes of its Filipino subjects.
Spain had governed the colony for two hundred years in almost complete isolation from the outside world. The royal monopolies prohibited foreign ships from trading in the Philippines. After the Seven Years' War, in collusion with local merchants and officials, foreign ships and merchants could ever more easily circumvent the monopolies and enter the Philippine trade.
The colonial government had always operated at a financial loss that was sustained by subsidies from the galleon trade with Mexico. Increased competition with foreign traders finally brought the galleon trade with Acapulco to an end in 1815. After its recognition of Mexican independence in 1821, Spain was forced to govern the colony directly from Madrid and to find new sources of revenue to pay for the colonial administration.

Chapter 4 The Period of Enlightenment (1872-1898)

Historical Background
After 300 years of passivity under Spanish rule ,the Filipino spirit reawaken d when the 3priests GOMez ,BURgos and Zamora were guillotined without sufficient evidence of guilt.Thisoccurredonthe17 th of February.ThiswasbuttressedwiththespiritofliberalismwhenthePhilippinesopeneditsdoorstoworldtradeandwiththecomingofaliberalleaderinthepersonofGovernorCarlosMariadelaTorre.TheSpaniardswereunabletosuppressthetideofrebellionamongtheFilipinos.TheoncereligiousspirittransformeditselfintooneofnationalismandtheFilipinosdemandedchangesinthegovernmentandinthechurch.

The
Propaganda Mov eme nt
(1872(1872--1896)1896)
Thismovementwasspearheadedmostlybytheintellectualmiddle-classlikeJoseRizal,MarcelodelPilar,GracianoLopezJaena,AntonioLuna,MarianoPonce,JoseMa.PanganibanandPedroPaterno.Theobjectivesofthismovementweretoseekreformsandchangeslikethefollowing:1.To get equal treatment for the Filipinos and the Spaniards underthe law.2.To make the Philippines a colony of Spain.3.To restore Filipino representation in the Spanish Cortes.4.To Filipinize the parishes.5.To give the Filipinos freedom of speech, of the press, assemblyand for redress of grievances.

Hig h lig h ts Of
The
PropagandaMov eme nt
TherewerethreeprincipalleadersofthePropagandamovement.TheywereJoseP.Rizal,MarceloH.delPilarandGracianoLopezJaena.Herearehighlightsaboutthemandwhattheyhavedoneforourcountry:
D
r. Jos e P. Rizal
Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado y Alonzo deRealonda was born on June 19, 1861 at Calamba,Laguna. His first teacher was his mother TeodoraAlonzo.He studied at the Ateneo de Manila, startedmedicine at UST and finished at the UniversidadCentral Madrid.He also studied at the University of Berlin,Leipzig and Heidelberg. He died by musketry inthe hands of the Spaniards on December 30, 1896on charges of sedition and rebellion against theSpaniards. His pen-name was Laong Laan andDimasalang.

Chapter 1 Introduction to the Study of Literature Definition of Literature:The word literature is derived from the Latin term litera which means letter .It has been defined differently by various writers. Some loosely interpret literature as any printed matter written within a book, amagazine or a pamphlet. Others define literature as a faithful reproduction ofman

s manifold experiences blended into one harmonious expression. Because literature deals with ideas, thoughts and emotions of man, literature can be said to be the story of man. Man

s loves, grieve, thoughts, dreams and aspirations coached in beautiful language is literature .In order to know the history of a nation

s spirit, one must read its literature. Hence it is, that to understand the real spirit of a nation, one must

trace the little rills as they course along down the ages, broadening and deepening into thegreat ocean of thought which men of the present source are presently exploring.

Brother Azurin, said that

literature expresses the feelings of people to society, to the government, to his surroundings, to his fellowmen and to his Divine Creator.

The expression of one

s feelings, according to him, may be through love, sorrow, happiness, hatred, anger, pity, contempt, or revenge.For Webster, literature is anything that is printed, as long as it is related tothe ideas and feelings of people, whether it is true, or just a product of one

simagination. In PANITIKING PILIPINO written by Atienza, Ramos, Salazar and Nazal, it says that

true literature is a piece of written work which is undying. It expresses the feelings and emotions of people in response to his everyday efforts to live, to be happy n his environment and, after struggles, to reach his Creator.

Why We Need to Study Philippine Literature We can enumerate many reasons for studying literature. Here are but a few: We study literature so that we can better appreciate our literary heritage. We cannot appreciate something that we donot understand. Through a study of our literature, we can trace the rich heritage of ideas handed down to us from our forefathers. Then we can understand ourselves better and take pride in being a Filipino.Like other races of the world, we need to understand that we have a great and noble tradition which can serve as the means to assimilate other cultures.Through such a study, we will realize our literary limitations conditioned by certain historical factors and we can take steps to overcome them.

Above all, as Filipinos, who truly love and take pride in our own culture, we have to manifest our deep concern for our own literature and this we can do by studying the literature of our country. Of Philippine Literature in English and Time Frames It can be said that Philippine literature in English has achieved a stature that is, in a way, phenomenalsince the inception of English in our culture. Our written literature, whichis about four hundred years old, is one of slow and evolutionary growth. Our writers strove to express their sentiments while struggling with a foreign medium.The great mass of literature in English that we have today is, indeed, a tributeto what our writers have achieved in the short span of time. What they have written can compare with some of the best works in the world.Much is still to be achieved. Our writers have yet to write their OPUS MAGNUMS.Meanwhile, history and literature are slowly unfolding before us and we are as witnesses in the assembly lines to an evolving literary life.Time frames may not be necessary in a study of literature, but since literatureand history are inescapably related it has become facilitative to map up a system which will aid us in delineating certain time boundaries.These time boundaries are not exactly well-defined; very often, time frames blend into another in a seeming continuum. For a systematic discussion of the traditions, customs, and feelings of our people that can be traced in our literature,we shall adopt certain delimitations. These time frames are: Time Frames ofPhilippine Literature in English Different opinions prevail regarding the stages that mark the development of Philippine literature in English. Let us take the following time frames for purpose of discussion: 1. The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-19102. Period of Imitation: 1910-19253. Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-19414. Japanese Period: 1941-19455. The Rebirth of Freedom: 1946-19706. Period of Activism: 1970-19727. Period of the New Society: 1972-19818. Period of the Third Republic: 1981-19859. Contemporary Period: 1986Literature and History Literature and history are closely interrelated. In discovering the history of a race, the feelings, aspirations, customs and traditions of a people are sure to be included . . . and these feelings, aspirations, customs and traditions that are written is literature . History can also be writtenand this too, is literature. Events that can be written down are part of true literature. Literature, therefore, is part of history.

Literature and history, however, also have differences. Literature may be figments of the imagination or events devoid of truth that have been written down, while history is made up of events that really happened. Literary Compositions that Have Influenced the World. Among them are: 1. The Bible or the Sacred Writings 2. Koran 3. The Iliad and the Odyssey 4. The Mahab-harata 5. Canterbury Tales6. Uncle Tom

s Cabin 7. The Divine Comedy8. El Cid Compeador9. The Song of Roland10. The Book of the Dead11. The Book of the Days12. One Thousand and One Nights or The Arabian NightsGeneral Types of LiteratureLiterature can generally be divided into two types; prose and poetry .Prose consists of those written within the common flow of conversation in sentences and paragraphs, while poetry refers to those expressions in verse, with measure and rhyme, line and stanza and has a more melodious tone. I. PROSE There aremany types of prose. These include the following: a. Novels. A long narrative divided into chapters and events are taken from true-to-life stories. Example: WITHOUT SEEING THE DAWN by Stevan Javellanab. Short story. This is a narrative involving one or more characters, one plot and one single impression.Example: THE LAUGHTER OF MY FATHER by Carlos Bulosanc. Plays. This is presented on a stage, is divided into acts and each act has many scenes.Example: THIRTEEN PLAYS by Wilfredo M. Guerrero d. Legends. These are fictitiousnarratives, usually about origins. Example: THE BIKOL LEGEND by Pio Duran e.Fables. These are also fictitious and they deal with animals and inanimate things who speak and act like people and their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes. Example: THE MONKEY AND THE TURTLEf. Anecdotes. These are merely products of the writer

s imagination and the main aim is to bring out lessons to the reader.Example: THE MOTH AND THE LAMPg. Essay. This expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or event. The best example of this is the Editorial page of a newspaper.

h. Biography. This deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his autobiography or that of others.Example: CAYETANO ARELLANO by Socorro O. Albert i. News. This is a report of everyday events in society, government, science and industry, and accidents, happening nationally or not. j. Oration. This is a formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. It appeals to the intellect, to the willor to the emotions of the audience. II. POETRY There are three types of poetryand these are the following:A. Narrative Poetry. This form describes important events in life either real orimaginary.The different varieties are:1. Epic. This is an extended narrative about heroic exploits often under supernatural control.Example: THE HARVEST SONG OF ALIGUYON translated in English by Amador T. Daguio2. Metrical Tale. This is a narrative which is written in verse and can be classified either as a ballad or a metrical romance.Examples: BAYANI NG BUKID by Al Perez HERO OF THE FIELDS by Al Perez 3. Ballads.Of the narrative poems, this is considered the shortest and simplest. It has asimple structure and tells of a single incident. There are also variations of these: love ballads, war ballads, and sea ballads, humorous, moral, and historicalor mythical ballads. In the early time, this referred to a song accompanying adance. B. Lyric Poetry. Originalaly, this refers to that kind of poetry meantto be sung to the accompaniment of a lyre, but now, this applies to any type ofpoetry that expresses emotions and feelings of the poet. They are usually short,simple and easy to understand.1. Folksongs (Awiting Bayan). These are short poems intended to be sung. The common theme is love, despair, grief, doubt, joy, hope and sorrow. Example: CHIT-CHIRIT-CHIT 2. Sonnets. This is a lyric poem of 14 lines dealing with an emotion, a feeling, or an idea. These are two types: the Italian and the Shakespearean.Example: SANTANG BUDS by Alfonso P. Santos3. Elegy. This is a lyric poem which expresses feelings of grief and melancholy,and whose theme is death.Example: THE LOVER

S DEATH by Ricaredo Demetillo 4. Ode. This is a poem of a noble feeling, expressed with dignity, with no definite number of syllables or definite number of lines in a stanza. 5. Psalms (Dalit). This is a song praising God or the Virgin Mary and containinga philosophy of life.6. Awit (Song). These have measures of twelve syllables (dodecasyllabic) and slowly sung to the accompaniment of a guitar or banduria. Example: FLORANTE AT LAURA by Franciso Balagtas 7. Corridos (Kuridos). These have measures of eight syllables (octosyllabic) and recited to a martial beat. Example: IBONG ADARNAC. Dramatic Poetry 1. Comedy. The word comedy comes from the Greek term

komos

meaning festivity or revelry. This form usually is light and written with the purpose of amusing, and usually has a happy ending. 2. Melodrama. This is usually used in musical plays with the opera. Today, thisis related to tragedy just as the farce is to comedy. It arouses immediate and intense emotion and is usually sad but there is a happy ending for the principalcharacter. 3. Tragedy. This involves the hero struggling mightily against dynamic forces; he meets death or ruin without success and satisfaction obtained by the protagonist in a comedy.4. Farce. This is an exaggerated comedy. It seeks to arouse mirth by laughable lines; situations are too ridiculous to be true; the characters seem to be caricatures and the motives undignified and absurd. 5. Social Poems. This form is either purely comic or tragic and it pictures thelife of today. It may aim to bring about changes in the social conditions. Exercises1. Deals with ideas, thoughts, and emotions of man. It is said to be the story of man.2. Literature as a faithful reproduction of man

s manifold _______ blended into one harmonious expression.3-5. Three reasons why do we need to study Philippine Literature.6. Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe of the US. This depicted the sad fate of slaves; this became the basis of democracy later on. 7. This was written by Confucius of China. This became the basis of Roman Calendar.8. This deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his autobiography or that of others.

Chapter 2

The Pre Spanish Period The variety and abundance of Philippine literature evolved even before thecolonial periods. Some parts of the Philippine literature are influenced by some Asiancountries that first traded with the Filipinos long time ago. Folk tales, epics, poems andmarathon chants existed in most ethno linguistic groups that were passed on fromgenerations to generations through word of mouth. Literary works Filipinos are oral because of the reason that written literature is inaccessible. Even though Filipinos hadtheir own system of writing, it cannot be preserved in durable materials. They startedwriting on clays, barks of trees and other natural resources available in the Pre ColonialPeriod.
INDIGENOUS SPIRITUAL BELIEFS
Belief in indigenous spiritual beliefs is pervasive in the olden times. This religionis also known as animism . The term animism applies to the belief that within allcreatures and all objects there exists a soul or personality. It is thus a spiritual belief, andmany scholars have offered the idea that animism was the first spiritual concept of humankind, and that it underlies all further religious thought. Filipinos believed that thereare gods and goddesses of every thing in nature.Animism gave birth to folk narratives, riddles, proverbs, songs, ritual chants andepics. These literatures are community-bound and rose from the experiences andobservations of the community’s people. Yet, this literary works were used more of entertainment than that of information.

FOLK TALES
Filipino folktales ( kwentong bayan ) sprung and spread in the olden days.. Filipinofolktales are stories that form part of the oral tradition in the Philippines. They have been passed on generation to generation by word of mouth rather than by writing, and thestories have been modified by continuous retellings before they were written down andrecorded in the modern times. Folktales in general include legends, fables, jokes, tallstories and fairy tales. Many of the folktales in the Philippines involve mythical creaturesand magical transformations.Folktales in the Philippines are thought to show the tradition of the Philippines. Folktalescan be classified into four major groups:
1. PHILIPPINE MYTHS are about the creation of the universe, God ( Bathala or
Maykapal
), and the origin of man, supernatural beings and native Filipino heroes.Example: How the World Began (A popular Bukidnon Folk Tale)
2. FILIPINO LEGENDS ( alamat ) relate the origin of local phenomena, places, plants,animals, things and names. Legends are stories that tell the origin of certain things, places, etc.Myths and legends served to explain natural phenomena and people’s belief sothat the members of their communities would understand mysterious things in their environment and probably become less fearful of them.
Examples: How did Kanlaon Volcano came to be; why is the Philippines made up of somany islands
3. FILIPINO FABLES are stories about animals and inanimate beings that are made tospeak and act like rational beings. Filipino fables tell moral lessons to people.
4. FANTASY STORIES are stories about the unseen world or the underworld and withodd, magical and supernatural characters.
CHANTS
Chants also refer to folk songs. Folk songs help express the feeling and reactionsof Filipinos in their daily life. Folk songs touches all aspects of life, be it love, lullaby,game, hunting, hailing, sailing, etc. The continuous celebrations gave birth to these folk songs.
RIDDLES
Riddles also impart in the development of literature in Pre – Spanish Period .Riddles express “talinghaga” , or Metaphor in English. It shows some resemblance between two different objects. Riddles are used to entertain people. The custom, thought,everyday life, and native environment of the Filipinos are pictured by means of riddles.Answering riddles is a native game of the mind common in the Philippines. One goodexample of a tagalog riddle is, “”s "ornament to the language," "words of our ancestors,"and "wisdom of experience," salawikain, as is called in Tagalog, are sayings that arestepped in traditional Filipino culture and wisdom.Here are some examples:Kung sino ang pumutak ay siyang nanganak.He who cackled is the guilty party.Magsama-sama at malakas, magwatak-watak at babagsak.United we are strong, divided we fall.Matibay ang walis, palibhasa'y magkabigkis.A broom is sturdy because its strands are tightly bound
.
EPIC
The most substantial of Pre-Spanish Literature is the Epic. It is one of the mostimportant literary works in Pre Spanish Period. An epic is a long narrative poem tellingheroic deeds and supernatural events that happened long time ago. Epics are tales of loveand adventures of native heroes possessing powers of gods, battling against monsters andtriumphs over big armies. Usually, an epic hero is portrayed as a man of strength, ideal,courage and wisdom. The legendary adventure of the epic hero is full of obstacles put up by supernatural forces or by people with supernatural powers. To be able to be victor of the battle, the epic hero is aided with friendly supernatural beings. On the epic hero’squest, he learns some life values. The verses of an epic were chanted or sung while being passed from generation to generation before being written on paper. Due to continuousretells, a lot of Philippine epics survived and have been recorded in places least colonized by Spanish and Americans.Some of the famous epics are: Indarapatra and Sulayman; Handiong; Ibalon; Biag niLam-ang and Bantugan.To show one example of an epic, here is the summary of Biag ni Lam- Ang:
BIAG NI LAM-ANG Nine months before Lam-ang was born to a noble family, his father Don Juan left for themountains to defeat an evil tribe of Igorots. Unfortunately, he was beheaded, and his headwas displayed at the center of the village as a prize. When Lam-ang's mother Ina Namongan gave birth to him, she was surprised that he could talk immediately after birth.He selected his own name, chose his own sponsor, and asked for his father’s presence.Lam-ang promised to find out what happened to his father by going up the mountainshimself. There, helped by a good tribe of Igorots, he encountered the evil tribe and killedevery one of them in vengeance, using just a single spear. When he returned home, hewas so tired that he wanted to bathe. He dipped into the Amburayan River, which wasinstantly inundated with mud and blood. So filthy was the water that the fish in the river crawled out and died on its shores. The following day, he told his mother Ina Namonganthat he wanted to marry. Using his supernatural abilities, he predicted he would wed awoman named Ines Kannoyan in a place called Calanutian. Accompanied by his pets, arooster and a dog, he journeyed to meet her. On the way, he encountered a man called Sumarang with very big eyes. They fought and Lam-ang won, killing Sumarang. The beautiful Ines Kannoyan had a multitude of suitors, and they crowded her house inCalanutian. So many were they that Lam-ang had to step on their heads and walk througha window just to enter the house. Lam-ang’s rooster flapped its wings, and the long housetoppled. This amazed everybody, especially Ines. Then, Lam-ang’s dog barked and thelong house rose again. Ines Kannoyan was so immediately impressed by his strength thatshe agreed to marry him. Nevertheless, her parents were skeptical: they needed a dowryfrom his parents in return for Ines Kannoyan’s hand. Lam-ang agreed to return in a week to bring his mother as well as wealth and goods. Back in his town, Lam-ang prepared agilded house filled with fruit, jewels, statues, and other amenities. When he sailed back toCalanutian, Ines Kannoyan’s family was stunned. The wedding was held on the spot.After the wedding Lam-ang was tasked to catch some fish in the Amburayan River andwhen he dove into the water he went straight into the mouth of the Berkakan, a river monster. His wife was deeply anguished. The old diver Lacay Marcos was fetched to getthe bones of Lam-ang excreted by the Berkakan. When the bones were retrieved, the petsof Lam-ang performed magics and Lam-ang was again brought to life.

GENERALIZATION
Even before the colonization of the Spaniards, Filipinos already had teir ownliterature. A few of them were preserved because the materials where they kept writtenliterature are easily to be destroyed. It has been proven that the indigenous spiritual belief gave birth to different forms of literary works like the chant, riddles, folk tales and thefolk epic. These literary works are used more for entertainment than information. Theearly Filipinos used to tell their experiences to lessen their fear of objects. Early Filipinoshanded down these folktales orally, from generation to generation. Early Filipinos wantedto express their feelings through literature. They sung chants to show celebration. Theepic is one of the most substantial in the Pre Spanish Period. Myths and legendscontinually spread through word of mouth.With all the information, we have proven that the without these ancient literature,the modern literature today will be weak. And the true Filipino literature can be seenthrough these works

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