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Philosophy Idealism

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Philosophy Idealism
The study of philosophy idealism is an interesting subject that contains views from different philosophers. It begins with the thought that discusses the theory of mind over matter versus matter over mind. This train of thought also includes the theory of perception versus reality.
Idealism came into existence through the study of metaphysics. Metaphysics is the study of existence within the mind. The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were the most noted times of discussion about idealism (Moore & Bruder, 2011). Idealism argues against other philosophical theories including materialism, realism, rationalism, and skepticism. Idealism’s most common argument is versus the theory of materialism (Lennon, 2008).
The argument between idealism and materialism focuses on the two thoughts of mind over matter or matter over mind. There were many philosophers during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries who presented their views regarding Idealism. David Hume, George Berkeley. Immanuel Kant and Georg Hegel were very influential philosophers during that time frame. The differences between the ideas of perception and reality were discussed frequently by these philosophers (Walker, 2010).
The work of previous philosophers influenced future philosophers. The ideas of each philosopher helped in the advancement of the knowledge to attain what we know today about various topics of interest in the different fields derived from the basis of philosophy. Math, science, medicine, physics are just some of the fields of interest that evolved through the history of philosophy.
David Hume’s belief was that nothing is ever present to the mind but perception. He also believed that the connection between perceptions is because of cause and effect. His belief includes the thought that some relations are already present in the content of perception as well as between perceptions (Inukai, 2010). Hume’s theory of perception is relative to our sense perception. Impressions in our mind are the cause of our belief according to Hume. The effect of the impressions from our perception gives us the justification for belief according to Hume (Moore & Bruder, 2011).
George Berkeley and Immanuel Kant were strongly influenced by the work of David Hume. Berkeley expands on Hume’s work. He agrees with Hume that an idea not conceived by the mind cannot exist (Lennon, 2008). Berkeley’s view of idealism includes the theory that for all material objects to exist, they must first be perceived in the mind as an idea first. His belief is that sensible things cannot exist by themselves. They have to be perceived by the mind first as an idea. Berkeley also believes that if ideas are perceived by the mind to be true then there is no proof that these ideas should be doubted. The sense perception of pain is an idea that forms in our mind. The fact that the same sense perception allows us to feel pain does not mean the pain does not exist.
Berkeley believes that knowledge consists of ideas formed in our mind through our sensory perception and perceived by us to be true. His thoughts on sensible things include that their existence continues through the perceiving mind of God. He believes that God is a separate mind independent of our perceiving mind. This explanation is used to define the sensible things that exist that we do not perceive in our minds, but we cannot completely doubt.
Immanuel Kant is another philosopher that expands on the work of David Hume. Kant’s views are slightly different from Berkeley in that Kant believes that experience or knowledge is gained from information received from our sense perceptions (Walker, 2010). He agrees in part with Hume’s theory. Kant believed Hume correct in that knowledge begins with experience, but Kant did not agree with Hume that knowledge is derived from experience. Kant is said to believe that knowledge is known from experienceable objects. Experienceable objects are the only way the mind can process experience to apply to knowledge. These experiences have to be related by cause and effect and must be subject to the principle of cognition. He argues that the mind categorizes objects of experience to make it possible to have knowledge of experience (Moore & Bruder, 2011).
Georg Hegel believed in the idea of absolute idealism. Absolute idealism is the attempt to achieve a complete and the unified conception of all reality. This allows the conception to give meaning to every aspect in relationship to the sum total. Hegel believed you had to understand the truth not just as substance but as subject too. Hegel also believes that everything and every field of human inquiry belong solely to the philosopher. He pursues a systematic philosophy.
Although Kant’s philosophy evolved into the fields of morality and ethics, Hegel’s philosophy has evolved into music and science (McCumber, 2002). Hegel intentionally or not, turned the skepticism of epistemology into metaphysical idealism through the theory of absolute idealism. Hegel did this by explaining that we can have knowledge only through the world of experience, He further explains that we cannot have knowledge of things that are referred as being in themselves, meaning things that are from within the mind. Reality would be the impression of absolute thought or consciousness. This consciousness becomes aware of itself and then it becomes infinite (Moore & Bruder, 2011).
Through the works of these philosophers and other in the work of metaphysics even the epistemology skeptics had to concede some points of metaphysics. The foundation of metaphysic proved in some ways that through ideas of the mind that knowledge can be produced through perception. Metaphysics helped in the discovering the field of music using the idea that the mind could perceive impressions that allow our mind to develop, write, and perform music. Individuals without previous knowledge of playing the piano could later learn to play using the sense perception of hearing. This enabled to perceive sound, thus enabling the individual to play keys on a piano to produce the sounds the individual perceives to sound good.
Metaphysics also helped in the discovering the fields of science and psychology. The ideas formed in the mind about how the mind and body works led to the knowledge of how the mind and the body work. In fact, metaphysic also helped discovering the fields of math and physics. These fields came from ideas and thought perceived from the mind and turned into reality. This enhanced the relationship between epistemology and metaphysics. If the ideas between these two different views of philosophy had not been debated or argued, these fields may have never been discovered.

References
Inukai, Y. (2010). Hume on Relations: Are They Real?. Canadian Journal Of Philosophy, 40(2), 185-209.
Lennon, T. M. (2008). The historical consistency of Berkeley's idealism. British Journal For The History Philosophy, 16(1), 101-124. doi:10.1080/09608780701789319
McCumber, J. (2002). THE TEMPORAL TURN IN GERMAN IDEALISM: HEGEL AND AFTER. Research In Phenomenology, 3244.
Moore, B. N., & Bruder, K. (2011). Philosophy: The Power of Ideas (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill
Walker, R. S. (2010). Kant on the Number of Worlds. British Journal For The History Of Philosophy, 18(5), 821-843. doi:10.1080/09608788.2010.524759

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