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Philosophy of Science

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PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

Religious tradition
• Religious traditions make it their task to impart a definite doctrine, and to preserve it, pure and unchanged. • It is the task of a school to hand on the tradition, the doctrine of its founder, its first master, to the next generation in its inviolate form.

Religious tradition
• A school of this kind never admits a new idea. • New ideas are heresies, and lead to schisms. • But the heretic claims, as a rule, that his is the true doctrine of the founder. • All changes of doctrine, if any, are surreptitious changes.

Religious tradition
• School founded by Pythagoras had the character of religious order, with a characteristic way of life and a secret doctrine. • A member of that school was drowned at sea because he revealed certain secret doctrines.

Critical Tradition
• School of Thales (Ionians) allowed or encouraged critical discussion between various schools and within one and the same school. • Thales seems to have been able to tolerate criticism and what is more, he seems to have created the tradition that we ought to tolerate criticism.

Critical Tradition
• This tradition leads to the realization that our attempts to see and find the truth are not final, but open to improvement. Criticism and critical discussion are our only means of getting nearer to the truth.

Critical Tradition
• Philosophy may be defined as a search for truth that involves following arguments and evidence, without recourse to authority, wherever they may lead, frequently arriving at unforeseen conclusions. • Walter Kaufman

Pre-scientific view of the world
• Everything is conventional: the world picture saturates all explanation of events which, if not the production of human volition and action, are then the product of animate forces like witchcraft and magic, or capricious spirits. There are no iron laws of nature...

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