Free Essay

Philosophy Paper

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By chivas443
Words 1495
Pages 6
Meditations on First Philosophy
1. Reconstruct the 3 stages of doubt as motivated by Descartes’s epistemological constraint? Descartes’ epistemological constraint is “if I know that P then that P cannot be doubted.” According to Descartes “undermining the foundations will cause whatever has been built upon them to crumble of its own accord (pg.14)” which is a big part of Descartes’ beliefs. This method leads to the first stage of doubt which is the fallinist argument, the argument against the senses. “I have noticed that the senses are sometimes deceptive (pg.14). “The senses aren’t always correct. However the senses don not deceive you when you are next “To the fire, wearing my winter dressing gown (pg. 14).” Your senses aren’t always deceiving you in this situation unless you were crazy or maybe have mental problems. This rejoinder leads to the second stage of doubt, which is the dream argument. This argument explains how “there are no definitive signs by which to distinguish being awake from being asleep (pg. 14).” Sometimes in our dreams we feel pain and pleasure the same way as in reality. Sometimes we can’t even tell the difference between dreams and reality. However in a dream or reality the limitation is arithmetic and geometric. Whether you’re awake or asleep “two plus three makes five and a square does not have more than four sides (pg. 15).” So this concludes the math and geometry is always right whether in a dream or reality. This leads to the third stage of doubt, which is the voluntarist argument. One that “Namely that there exist a God (pg. 15).” Does good exist or does he deceive us? “But perhaps god has not willed that I be deceived in this way, for he is said to be supremely good (pg. 15-16).” However he is said to be omnipotent as well. Which leaves the question do I exist? This is also known as skepticism.

2.How does Descartes’s establish that he is estentially a “thinking thing”?
Descartes essentially establishes the fact the he is essentially a “thinking thing”, by proving his existence. “I am, I exist is necessarily true every time I utter it or conceive it in my mind (pg. 18).” So Descartes’ proves he does exist in the phrase “I exist” is protected from the three stages of doubt. In order to doubt we must exist. What isn’t essential to our existence is the body. I cannot doubt that I exist, but I can doubt that my actual body exists. Therefore I’m not Identical to my body, so my existence is not to my body.

3. According to Descartes’s, what is the nature of the mind such that the errors can occur?
What is known as the substantial view, that the mind is a single entity, having its base in the brain but distinct from it. Descartes proposed two arguments against reference and resemblance, the dream and the demon.Knowing that the context of our dreams are often life-like, he hypothesized that humans can only believe that they are awake. He reasoned that our very own experience may very well be controlled by an evil demon of sorts. This demon, or genius, is powerful enough to control anybody.

4. Reconstruct Descartes’s proof of existence
5. Reconstruct Descartes’s of Dualism

Writing Assignment II: Empircism

1.What does Berkeley mean by that “esse is percipi”- and how does he argue for this claim? What Berkeley means by that “ esse is percipi” is that if X exists then someone can conceive of X or in other words to be (exist) is to be perceived. Primary qualities exist regardless if anyone has ideas about them. In contrast, Secondary qualities do not exist unless someone has ideas about them. Matter is made up of primary qualities. Therefore matter exists regardless whether or not anybody has ideas of it. If primary qualities exist then someone can perceive primary qualities. No one can perceive primary qualities without the idea of some secondary quality. The argument from the Rejection of Abstract Ideas is that matter exists independently of perception. If X exists then someone can conceive of X. So material existence is not possible because material existence relies on abstract ideas. The argument from Ignorance of Material Substance is if I know that “P” then I have ideas of “P”. By definition matter is not a perceivable substance and I cannot therefore I have no ideas about material substance so I cannot know of material substance. What Berkeley means when saying “When we do utmost to conceive the existence of external bodies, we are all the while only contemplating our own ideas” is that given his constraint any ideas he has of perception we cannot think of matter without ideas of perception. If you believe in Berkeley’s constraint then you must believe in the anti materialist .

2. Reconstruct Berekely’s first proof of gods existence According to Berkeley ideas do not possess any cause or power. “All our ideas, sensations, or the things we perceive, by whatsoever names they may be distinguished, are visibly in active (pg. 34 Berkeley).” An example of an in active idea can be ice. There is no proof that ice causes coldness. In order for ideas to exist something must exist to cause them. But according to Berkeley, ideas cannot be the cause of other ideas. The only clear notion we have is the will. The sort of power exercised by my will. Is when I manipulate things inside my head? Therefore the only cause or power is my will. However in an earthquake I cannot will it and someone else like me cannot will it. Then something else must be able to will it. Therefore God exist and he can create “real things.” Which are ideas created by God. Ideas caused by God are objective and can be seen by everyone.

3. What does hume mean by the “association of ideas”?
What Hume means by Association of Ideas is that it’s the basic rules that connect impressions and ideas. Impressions are more vivid than ideas. Furthermore, according to Hume impressions are the basis of ideas. Impressions come before ideas. Therefore you can’t have an idea before an impression. For example in order to think of a pink elephant you have to have seen a elephant and also seen the color pink to imagine it. There are according to Hume three principles of Association which are resemblance, contiguity, and cause and effect. Resemblance is identifying a new idea and being able to name it because new impression resembles an idea you already had in your head. For example if a new type of shoe comes out you knows it’s a shoe because you know what a shoe looks like since you’ve seen shoes and have an idea of them. Contiguity is a way of associating through similarities (comparisons). Such as to the left of, next to, before or after. For instance me saying I’m going to dance and then doing it. What Hume means by Cause and effect is that if A is the cause of B than A must perceive B in time or if A is the cause of B then A is temporally prior to B. For Example, the domino effect , pushing the first domino is the cause and the effect is the rest of the dominos falling because the first domino caused the rest of them to fall.

5. How does Hume’s conception of causation lead to his skepticism?
The problem explains making inductive inferences. Hume notices that we tend to believe that things behave in a regular manner; i.e., that patterns in the behavior of objects will persist into the future, and throughout the unobserved present. Hume had to explain the perception of causality as internally formed, rather than an event observed as an external force. He did this by explaining causality as a formed association, learned through habit.

1 . reconstruct lockes theory of physical individuation and identity
2. reconstruct lockes theory of organic individuation and identity
3. reconstruct lockes theory of personal individuation and identity
4. what does Locke mean by “person”?

5. explain the “wonderful mistake” that Butler attributes to Locke
Butler accuses Locke of a wonderful mistake. Which is that he failed to recognize that the relation of consciousness presupposes identity, and thus cannot constitute it.

6. What is Butler’s argument for his own substantialist theory of personal identity?
Locke begins by stating that there are three substances that exist: God, material substance, and finite intelligences,

7. What does Reid mean that, the conviction in one’s own personal identity “is indispensely necessary to all exercise of reason”?
8. Reconstruct the “ brave officer’s paradox” to show how, according to Reid, Locke winds up having to say that, “a man may be, and at the same time not be, the person that did a particular action”
9.Reconnect Hume’s TWO argument that there is no such thing as personal identity

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Personal Philosophy Paper

...Personal Philosophy of Nursing 12-5-09 A philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language (Wikipedia,2009) and nursing philosophy is a conceptual model put in place to serve as guide for nurses or references for nurses during their thoughts, observation, analysis, and practices (Seedhouse,2009). My personal philosophy of nursing is founded on the believe that nursing is a combination of the art of caring and a broad scientific knowledge base to provide care, promote wellness, and improve the lives of patients it is in accord with the model of (Chitty, &Black, 2007). Nursing as a profession is based on human connections and its practice is strengthened by knowledge, skills, and science. Highlighting my personal nursing values, and believes have contributed to the development of my own practice. Nursing philosophies like the profession haves evolved over the years expanding nursing practice. While diverse each nursing philosophy is geared toward promoting health, educating patients and families while striving to eliminate pain and suffering. However my personal philosophy is based not only on caring for the patient but also in cooperating the patient and collaborating with the other members of the health care team to develop and implement the plan of care to achieve maximum results....

Words: 510 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Educational Philosophy Paper

...Educational Philosophy Paper Beliefs about Teaching and Learning A teacher should know student’s psychology and should be dedicated toward the job. She should have sufficient knowledge about her subject and set challenging tasks for students. Final and most important teaching is such a vast field of study that a teacher should also keep on learning. On the other hand, a student learns best when learning is authentic. To enhance student learning, the school’s environment should be based on students’ s emotional and educational needs. A teacher should maintain positive relationship with the student and seek different methods to help the students to learn. Students usually learn best when they know they can. Beliefs about Students Each student has different needs. To make the students learn teachers need to engage them actively in learning. Teachers need to teach them from their point of view that is how they can learn better? We need to use different instructional methods. Beliefs about Knowledge The area of knowledge is very vast so a teacher must have the knowledge of whatever she will teach. Knowledge comes from information. So as many as sources a teacher has for information, she will have better knowledge of her field. But knowledge does not end if one has enough knowledge about something but also the way she delivers knowledge. Beliefs about What is Worth Knowing It makes worth...

Words: 1021 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Guide to Writing Philosophy Paper

...HARVARD COLLEGE Writing Center WRITING CENTER BRIEF GUIDE SERIES A Brief Guide to Writing the Philosophy Paper The Challenges of Philosophical Writing The aim of the assignments in your philosophy classes is to get you doing philosophy. But what is philosophy, and how is it to be done? The answer is complicated. Philosophers are often motivated by one or more of what we might call the “Big Questions,” such as: How should we live? Is there free will? How do we know anything? or, What is truth? While philosophers do not agree among themselves on either the range of proper philosophical questions or the proper methods of answering them, they do agree that merely expressing one’s personal opinions on controversial topics like these is not doing philosophy. Rather, philosophers insist on the method of first attaining clarity about the exact question being asked, and then providing answers supported by clear, logically structured arguments. An ideal philosophical argument should lead the reader in undeniable logical steps from obviously true premises to an unobvious conclusion. A negative argument is an objection that tries to show that a claim, theory, or argument is mistaken; if it does so successfully, we say that it refutes it. A positive argument tries to support a claim or theory, for example, the view that there is genuine free will, or the view that we should never eat animals. Positive philosophical arguments about the Big Questions that are ideal are extremely hard to......

Words: 4785 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Kant vs Nietzsche Philosophy Paper

...Kant vs. Nietzsche One of the most fundamental questions in philosophy is what the most important thing we are looking for is and what effects it has on our lives. There are different views related to such a fundamental question. The treatment of people is the question of morality. We are going to take a look at positions taken by great German philosophers Kant and Nietzsche on the question of morality and the way people should be treated, based on their arguments presented in theories developed by them. Kant’s philosophy is based on the assumption that there is a metaphysical dimension which implies that there are some absolute things that do exist outside of human beings and which are the ends in themselves (not intended to promote an achievement of any other end). Kant calls these abstract absolute things the categorical imperative. The categorical imperative in his view is something that is not dependent on anything else and, therefore, should be something that we should strive for. The concept of the categorical imperative is important because we can use it to determine whether our actions are being moral through the application of the universal law, which implies the categorical imperative. The universal law says that we should never act except in such a way that we can also will that our maxim should become a universal law. The whole system of Kant’s morality is based on the assumption that there is an autonomous will, which is the source of moral action and......

Words: 2047 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Philosopher Paper, Introduction to Philosophy

...Laura Galan (DRAFT) Introduction to Philosophy Philosopher Paper - Chuang-Tzu "The Chinese philosopher Chuang Tzu (ca. 369-ca. 286 BC), also known as Chuang Chou, was the most brilliant of the early Taoists and the greatest prose writer of his time." http://www.bookrags.com/biography/chuang-tzu/ "Not much is known of the life of Chuang Tzu. The Shih Chi (Historical Records, written about 100 BC) tells us that he was a contemporary of King Hui of Liang (370-319) and King Hsüan of Ch'i (319-301). Thus Chuang Tzu seems to have been a contemporary of Mencius (372-289), but neither was mentioned by the other in his extant writings. The Shih Chi also says that Chuang Tzu was born in Meng on the border of Shantung and Honan and that he held a petty official post for a time in Ch'iyüan. However, he seems to have lived most of his life as a recluse, "to be intoxicated in the wonder and the power of Nature." http://www.bookrags.com/biography/chuang-tzu/ It is said that Chuang Tzu did not desire material things and had little interest in occupying positions of high status. He rather cared, enjoyed and was mystified by dwelling in natures surroundings as well as the personal freedoms that it offered. He cared little for anything relating to positions of higher office. "When Chuang Tzu was about to die, his disciples expressed a wish to give him a splendid funeral. But Chuang Tzu said, With the heavens and earth itself for my coffin and shell; with the sun, moon, and...

Words: 2745 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Philosophy 103- Paper 1

...Evan Anderson 1/28/2015 Philosophy: What is philosophy? Well, that is an incredible difficult question to answer. Part of the reason is it is so hard to answer is because many famous philosophers, the ones who actually “do” the activity in question, don’t agree on one set definition and even go as far as to disagree with each other when putting fourth their own definitions. So how can we have a set answer to that question? Well this means that we are going to have to have a very broad definition. It has to be very wide because it has to encompass many famous philosophers’ ideas and teachings. To be a philosopher is to create and conceptualize ideas about how to live life the right way. When thinking about a philosopher we all tend to gravitate towards an image of an old Greek man with a large white beard, bald head and in robes. However, while there were a lot of ferry talented philosophers who were old and Greek, anyone can be a philosopher and we should encourage people to try. It would be ignorant for anyone who considers themselves to be a philosopher to not listen to everyone’s ideas. In Phaedo, Plato states that “Ordinary people seem not to realize that those who really apply themselves in the right way to philosophy are directly and of their own accord preparing themselves for dying and death. If this is true, and they have actually been looking forward to death all their lives, it would of course be absurd to be troubled when the thing comes for which they......

Words: 1235 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Philosophy Matrix Metaphysics, Moral, Social, Political Paper

...Philosophy Matrix Metaphysics, Moral, Social, Political Paper Metaphysics, Morals, Social, and the Political philosophy's are four major philosophical areas of inquiry. Learning about the historical development of each school of thought, who the main contributors were, and what the primary issues are in each field. Increases the knowledge and understanding of the culture and its philosophy. Study of Existence Metaphysics is the focus of the nature of existence, reality, and who we are. Metaphysics has new meaning in an age of ever changing and globally interconnectedness. The questions and how we answer them are now first and foremost in whether or not humanity can survive and flourish on this planet in a healthy and civilized manner (Metaphysics, 2011). Principal and Cause According to Aristotle there are four different kinds of cause, it is important to note that he claims that one and the same thing can be a cause in more than one sense. As he puts it, “form, mover, and telos often coincide”. And in De Animahe is perfectly explicit that the soul, which is the form or essence of a living thing, “is a cause in three of the ways we have distinguished” efficient, formal, and final (Cohen, 2011). Right From Wrong Learning right from wrong is something we pick up early in life. If someone were to say lying is wrong, then it may be attributed as a wrongness to an act lying. Whether lying has that property is an objective matter, thereby the statement is......

Words: 588 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Philosophy Paper

...Philosophy 101 PAPER # 1 The book The Republic by Plato, was written in Athens around 380 B.C. Around that time Plato wasn’t so happy with the conditions in Athens. This book is focused on the conception of justice and what it is to be just. This theory has been presented differently by each of the characters in the book, which are Cephalus, Polymarchus, Thrasymachus, and Glaucon. However, Socrates is the one who is given a challenge: to prove that justice is good and desirable. The book starts off with Cephalus giving his own conception of justice, which he believes to be “justice is nothing more than honoring legal obligations and being honest”. However, Socrate’s counterexample is “returning a weapon to a madman”. You owe the madman a weapon therefor you are being just and giving him back what he owns, yet this would also be considered an unjust act because you are landing back a weapon to a crazy man that might lead to him taking one’s life away. Polymarchus , Cephalus’ son then takes over with another idea of justice “justice means you owe a friend’s help and your enemies harm”. Polymarchus and his father share a similarity on their suggestions. Socrates, on the other hand reveals another counterexample and points out that sometimes we often are mistaken about who we call friends and who we call enemies because “we are not always friends with the most virtous individuals , nor are our enemies the scum of our society.” This all leads to Thrasymachus getting......

Words: 733 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Philosophy Paper

...Philosophy Paper My name is Jim Smith, and I was born December 23th, 1976 in San Angelo, Texas. My experiences have played an intricate part to my perspectives and beliefs on how I live my life. I am person who defines my existence by my ability to better those people around me. I enrich my life by what I do to enrich those around me. My life experiences that have brought me to these beliefs originate from the events that have taken place in my life, and most importantly what I have taken from them. The keys events that have shaped me are broken into four time periods are will be labeled as the childhood, teenage years, early adulthood, and today. We will take a look at some of the events that occurred, and what I have taken from them that define me. I grew up in and around central Texas. I am the oldest of four children, with a 17 year gap between the first and second set of siblings. My eldest sister and I are close in age separated by only 18 months. We lived in modest homes growing up, and did not have a lot of typical financial benefits. My parents did open us up to many different experiences. My father changed employment fields several times during my childhood, causing us to move around a lot, and live in may different settings. He was not ever completely satisfied with his line of work, and did not stay with anything very long. He worked in offshore drilling, for the IRS, horse ranching, owned a small grocery store, and is now a school......

Words: 788 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Philosophy Paper

...Philosophy Paper What should really be blamed for terrorist incidents? The article written by Deepa Kumar and the debate between Ben Affleck and Sam Harris mainly discuss the issue of Islamophobia, whether it is justified or not by the liberals. The article depicts how the author critiqued the trend against Islamic religion due to the terrorists and warfare in four ways. The author stated that the Islamic religion should not be blamed for violence just because of a few terrorists. All the religions have a similar history of violence, so that even a barbaric history could not be the reason to claim the whole religion is violent and evil. Otherwise, all the religions should be classified as inherently violent. Furthermore, the author stressed that there should be no distinguishment among different religions. The intrinsic value for all religions is similar, which is to give people belief. Neither the Catholicism nor the West is superior because the strong power of the western countries and desires to gain resources according to the author. The aim of the author is to point out the Islamophobia is not justified, and it accounts to the discrimination and racism towards Islam and Muslims. Similar views can be found in the debate, although the debate is more focused on the recent ISIS issue rather that the Iraq war. Ben Affleck holds the view that the terrorist activities should be only associated with few extremists in the religion, and it is nothing to do with the religion......

Words: 1199 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Philosophy Paper

...The most interesting part about being on the wound care specialty rotation was learning about the hyperbaric oxygen therapy chamber. The nurse was very kind in explaining everything about the purpose of the chamber. The therapy involved breathing 100% oxygen in a pressurized room or “chamber”. This therapy is like scuba diving is subject to decompression sickness if not done correctly. The oxygen therapy also treats serious infections and aids in helping heal wounds that won’t heal as a result of disease conditions like diabetes. It helps to heal the wounds by killing off the germs associated with that wound. The therapy also helps promote angiogenesis. There are extreme risks associated with this therapy such as risk of fire since there is 100 % oxygen involved. There is also risk of combustion. There is static electricity, but for it to be harmful it must have three sources, oxygen, fuel source, and an ignition source. The RN told me there were only two fires in the US ever. Also, the patients entering the hyperbaric chamber must only be wearing pure cotton (usually scrubs that the facility provides) because it must not have any type of ignition source on it and the patient must not have any batteries on them or have used lotion on their bodies that morning. These are questions in the admission process that must be asked every session. The session usually lasts about two hours long. As for the rest of the day, we got to take vital signs and assist in...

Words: 255 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Philosophy Paper

...Philosophy 220 The Life You Can Save “Acting Now to End World Poverty” I will first explain Peter Singer’s argument on how he wants us to donate to the developing countries where 1.4 billion people live in extreme poverty around the world. Peter Singer argues that people who live in developed nations like the United States should act now to end world poverty. Peter Singer’s argument is that there are 1.4 billion people in the world who live in extreme poverty and barely making it to meet their most basic human needs such as food, house, and water. Based on his research the poorest people live on $1.25 a day. He argues that our obligation to the poorest people in the world is not only to donate an amount of $200 but also to donate as much as we can; but not to the point of sacrifice our own child’s life to save a child in the developing countries. Children die in the poorest countries because of the lack of sanitation and no safe drinking water from diseases such as measles, malaria, and diarrhea. In developed nations these diseases are almost never fatal. Then, why children die from diseases that are curable? The answer is that their parents can’t afford to health care. Children are malnourished and are the most vulnerable from these diseases. Peter says we spent money on things we take for granted and we don’t even noticed if they were there or not. He adds that the life you can save of a child in a developing country by donating $200 is not just enough as you might......

Words: 1450 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Philosophy Paper

...UCOR 2500-01 12-7-15 Ideals of Living The ancient philosophers present differing views on how a life should be lived. Both Socrates and Confucius prescribe a way to live the best life, but their reasons for doing so vary. Socratic philosophy is based on the pursuit of wisdom leading to the separation of the soul from the body. Confucian philosophy describes the path to become an exemplary person, which draw on the lessons of history and community. In comparing their beliefs, we can learn life lessons that are of benefit in the here and now and others that are more esoteric. In the Socratic philosophy of soul and body separation, Socrates maintains that the separation of the soul and body is the end goal of a philosopher’s life. He goes so far as to say that a philosopher ought to welcome death, as it is the culmination of one’s life. He is then asked why suicide is not an option, if a philosopher welcomes death. Socrates rebuts by saying that we are the possessions of our creators, “…would you not be angry if one of your possessions killed itself when you had not given any sign that you wished it to die.” (P. 99) Socrates continues to expand his philosophy by supporting why a philosopher would welcome death. He states that in death, “…I should go first to other wise and good gods, and then to the men who have died and are better than men are here. Be assured, that as it is, I expect to join the company of good men.” (P. 100) Socrates argues that a philosopher who......

Words: 1736 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Philosophy Paper

...PHILOSOPHY ESSAY PHIL 201 JUNE 9, 2015 BRITTANY MICHELLE HUGGINS LIBERTY UNIVERSITY ONLINE In this life sometimes we dream so clearly, that is it hard to distinguish what was real, and what was not. Sometimes we dream of things that could not possibly happen. But then sometimes we dream of a love one who has passed on before us, or dream about something that could be happening in real life. It takes us to another place. How do we know that what we believe to be real life is not a dream? In the movie, The Matrix Mr. Anderson, a computer programmer/hacker also known as Neo questions if the life he lives is real, or if they are all being programmed somewhere by a machine. Neo meets Morpheus who shows him that people are under a computer program called The Matrix. Cypher has been shown this as well but tries to forget what he has seen and move on with his life. This task is not so easy. We see also in “The Allegory of the Cave” that the task to forget what you have seen, and lived for so long is a lie. Socrates presents to Glaucon a scenario of men who could only see shadows and that what they saw was their life. Just like in The Matrix, people believed that their day to day life, was all there was, and all that was happening. The men in the scenario think that it is their only reality, just as the people in The Matrix. Then one day in Plato’s excerpt, one man see’s real like just like, Neo. At first it id hard to believe. Then you start to think that,......

Words: 650 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Paper on Philosophy

...‘A belief in miracles leads to the concept of a God who favours some but not all of his creation’. Discuss. A miracle is either a “violation of the laws of nature,” or “divinely caused,” and Christians argued with the latter definition, further suggesting that miracles are revelations. Both approaches leads us to believe that God favors some but not others because miracles are “infrequent,” and seemingly arbitrary, which questions his worthiness of worship. A belief in miracles leads to a partisan creator as it is evident that miracles are not prominent in nature. This is because, in order to be a miracle, they must be infrequent by nature. This is extracted from the etymology of miracles, such as the Latin “miraculum,” meaning an object of wonder. Biblical miracles and miracles in nature appear to be arbitrary. For example, Jeanne Fretel (who had tuberculosis) says that she was healed at Lourdes despite her doctors reporting that there was no possible way she could have healed naturally. However, this seems to be arbitrary as God saved this woman but let thousands of Jews die in the Holocaust. There are also examples in the Bible, like turning water into wine, which seems arbitrary. There are contradictions to his favouritism, however, which suggests that he may not favour people after all. For example, He signed the covenant with the Israelites (which seems to favour Jews) but did not intervene in the Holocaust. Another example is his bias towards Joshua in Joshua 10...

Words: 556 - Pages: 3