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Philosophy

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By werwer0519
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Philo. 5 Finally Essay Questions
1. Ethical relativism is the theory that there are no universally valid moral principles, that all moral principles are valid relative to culture or individual choice. Thus it means what's right for you may not be what's right for me. So most probably, ethical relativist would have tons of different opinions among the 19 people and me. Some might think to protect themselves are the truths, thus they would kill Freddy. Some might regard that we are friends, so we could not betrayed each other, thus, as a result, people would not kill Freddy, and instead, all of the persons in the caves would be drowned. In Philosophy, egoism is the theory that one's self is, or should be, the motivation and the goal of one's own action. It advises us to love ourselves first even if it means hurting others. So in this case, if there are ethical egoists in the group, for these people, whom love themselves greater than anyone else, would blow Freddy out decidedly. Because if and only if they kill Freddy, thus it makes them sure for surviving from the rising tide. The definition of utilitarianism is that a doctrine that the useful is the good and that the determining consideration of right conduct should be the usefulness of its consequences. Also we can understand this meaning as a theory that the aim of action should be the largest possible balance of pleasure over pain or the greatest happiness of the greatest number. So in this case, utilitarian would mostly kill Freddy, since to kill Freddy could save the rest of the group, which brings a useful consequence, because as long as people are alive, they would bring the world a lot of benefit. Also the action, killing Freddy, would bring a greater amount of happiness than if they would not kill him. Because people who survived from that situation must be happy, thus logically, 19 people's happiness is greater than it of one person. Virtue ethicist is the theory that emphasizing on which rules people should follow and instead focus on helping people develop good character traits, such as kindness and generosity. These character traits will, in turn, allow a person to make the correct decisions later on in life. Thus in our case, virtue ethicists would probably be drowned with Freddy, because they might insist on that as long as they died with Freddy, their kindness or spiritual beliefs would be developed. Thus they would fulfill their meanings of life. For the moral objectivists, they would judge firstly the action of saving Freddy is right or wrong, if the action is right, then they would thought it is a good action which they need and obligatory for them to do. So for these people, typically, once an action is good and they would have a good evil motivation to finish it. So as long as they did not think kill Freddy is a good action, thus they would not kill him. Apparently, for these different ethical theories, they probably came out different consequences of being drowned with Freddy or killing him. It is also sort of difficult to judge if they would sway their decision once Freddy was volunteer to be blown up. The ethical relativism may still kill him because of protecting themselves are the highest truths. Egoism, of course, would let him die since they love themselves first. Utilitarian might deal with this little different, if Freddy was a very useful guy, such as a scientist, or talented artist. They would think that even if they were alive, they would be still not as useful as Freddy, so probably they would choose to be drowned with Freddy. Virtue ethicists and the moral objectivists would still insist their former view that die with Freddy.

I would not stop the treatment of maintaining Ms. Pevenski's life, even she was in persistent vegetative state. It is not a simply question that the cost of keeping her alive is expensive or not. It is a right, an ultimate right that we have as human beings is the right-to-life. It is an inalienable right that can never be taken away, not even by the person who possesses it. Even although, medically, people who were in PVS have no hope of regaining consciousness, but they are still human beings. Some may argue that if people have the right to live, they must also have the right to die. But it is a weak statement, because death is not a right, it is the end of all rights and a fate that none of us can escape. Like Pevenski's husband and children said that she was a fighter and had expressed the wish to have her life extended as long as possible. To maintain the life of Pevenski is not only fair to herself, but also a comfort to her families. They would feel sad once they know the news that Pevenski was in PVS, but as they insisted that she was a fighter. So Pevenski's unfortunate situation would also bring braves to both the husband ann children. In other words, to maintain her life, they would positively confront with any difficulties in the process of keeping her alive. Personally, euthanasia is an option for Pevenski's husband and children. But it still depends on them. That is to say to keep Pevenski's alive is based on the understanding of whom Pevenski is. What I mean here, is her husband and children most likely know the personality of Pevenski, thus like they said, she was a fighter, which indicate that Pevenski have a strong attitude "will to live". "will to live" is a legal document that gives medical proxy over to a trusted individual who knows what means of life support and medical treatment a patient considers ethical. So that, as the closest relatives of Pevenski, her husband and children have the right and duty to decide to euthanize her or keep maintaining her life.

What if any significant differences are there between these defendants or their crimes that might warrant different sentences? Do you feel that all, none, or some of the defendants are deserving of the death penalty? On what basis?

Apparently, these 3 cases have their own special feature. Earl Ellis Green, convicted of killing Riverside Police Officer Ryan Bonaminio, ought to be ordered the death penalty, because he's anti-society action should be brought up to the overt act. Moussaoui deemed "nonsense" for that the US judicial system regard him as the terrorism. Moussaoui was trying to argue that his ability to defend himself is maximin limited by the US government, which he called "you are undermining my position". Through this argument, Moussaoui was looking for some fair justices. The last case was about continuing execute the mental retardation's crimes or retreat this type of things as some specials. Personally, Green and Moussaoui deserved their conviction. Like the articles said that Green was actual shooting the police officer, and a large numbers of strong evidence supporting the justice system to suspected Moussaoui as the terrorism. But the situation of the last case need to rediscuss strictly. Some would say mental retardation could not be unexecuted or an excuse for them to behave crimes. Personally, I would say people who is mental retard do not even know the standard of the right or wrong, thus certain organization could not execute these kind of people as same as the normal people, like Green and Moussaoui. Just like Smith mentioned in the article, "killing a man like Johnny, who still draws with crayons and probably believes in Santa Claus[...] There is no societal retribution in killing a person with the mind of a 6-year-old who cannot understand why what he did was wrong and who does not even understanding the meaning of the word 'execution.'". But this does not simply mean we could forgive the crimes these people involved. Conversely, this situation, somehow, warn us, especially the rule-makers reformulate some brief laws to judge or justified the standards of dealing with these events. In general, all of the crimes they ever did was based on both the law and moral. As long as they fit both sides, thus the US justice system would gave us a fair and correct judge ment.

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