Premium Essay

Philosophy

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By crickett
Words 2667
Pages 11
Philosophy
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Discussed in this paper will be the most prominent individuals in each time period and their ideas, starting with the “Pre-Socratic” philosophers and ending in the era of post modernism.
The time period in ancient Greece between the end of the seventh century B.C. and the middle of the fourth century B.C. is what is known as the “Pre-Socratic Era”. The thinkers known as the “Pre-Socratic Philosophers” used the four basic elements (water, earth, fire, and air) as their foundations for their ideas. Thales and most of the other Pre-Socratic philosophers limited themselves mostly to inquiring the nature of existence, being, and the world. They were mostly Materialists, believing that all things are composed of material and nothing else, and were mainly concerned with trying to establish the single underlying substance of which the world is made up. They used this idea of “Monism” without resorting to supernatural or mythological explanations. To these men even the commonest of phenomena like lightning, water freezing to ice, and natural disasters would have appeared miraculous. Empedocles, first of the pluralists, who proposed that reality, is composed of an irreducible plurality of elements. He also documented the first theory of evolution. Democritus developed the extremely influential idea of Atomism (that all of reality is actually composed of tiny, indivisible and indestructible building blocks known as atoms, which form different combinations and shapes within the surrounding void).
Another issue the Pre-Socratics wrestled with was change and how things appear to change from one form to another. Heraclitus, for example, proposed an on-going process of perpetual change. He said that change is the key feature in...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Philosophy

...RUNNING HEAD: PHILOSOPHY 1 Thinking Critically: Philosophies of Life Michele Brown Eastern Nazarene College East Meets West Western Philosophy and Globalization CP 290 August 15, 2013 PHILOSOPHY 2 For centuries philosophers have been examining the significance of life. Throughout the content of this paper I will specifically look at the following philosophies, stoicism, existentialism, hedonism, and Buddhism. These philosophies if adopted may contribute to ones’ own answer when determining the significance of their own life. The thinkers have established clear characteristics to each of these philosophies. I will discuss some of these attributes and share my view on what philosophy I identify most with and why. I am planning to additionally share what I do not like about the other beliefs. The philosophy that most resembles my thinking is stoicism. I believe in God our only one true creator. According to a true stoic......

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Metaphysics Do you know what is real and what is not real? I think depending on the person and what their beliefs are. There are people who are capable of contacting the unloving. This does not mean just because one person believes everyone else has too. I am a spiritual person and I believe that the people that have passed on in our lives try to contact me. I know there is a God, but that doesn’t mean everyone else does. I am thinking do we really know? I am in the process of reading a book titled Angel Therapy by Doreen Virtue. I am at the starting point in reading the book and I am finding this book has really interesting points. “Is this life real or are we dreaming? I wondered if what we’re doing is dreaming and if our dreams are actually our reality. The physical world of course is real, we feel pain and love. There are plenty of people today who are not happy. Will they ever find their happiness? Every living soul can find love and happiness. The spiritual world is just as real as this world, we just can’t see it. There are many unexplained things that happen to not believe in the spiritual world. One example is, one night a few months ago I was sitting in my living room, all of a sudden I hear tapping on my table next to me. I just kept hearing it. Finally I said to the spirit “please stop tapping, if you are not going to show yourself, Please stop. The tapping stopped after I spoke those words. I know that I did not...

Words: 1341 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Surname Instructor Course Date Survey of Mexican Philosophical Thought The philosophy of the Mexicans is a production of philosophers from ancestries from Mexico, residing either within or outside the country. The general philosophy surfaced with the introduction of the first school by the Spanish conquerors, with teaching and publications on philosophical treaties. As such, it is critical to deny that these thinkers got education from the European schools, making it quite impossible for Hispanic thinkers to express the sense of racism in their works. In addition, Hispanic-American thought intellectuals rarely produce original profiles because there elements originate from the elements and motifs originally designed for the European thought. Meanwhile, philosophy and religion plays a critical role in ancient civilization, culture creation, and preservation in the sense that they not only bind, but also influence the societal structure, statutes, and personal lives. This paper documents the Mayan culture taking into consideration their civilization, ideologies, as well as their rituals. Civilization Factors contributing to culture creation and preservation extend from geographical to a number of patterns. The origin of the Mayan culture from the central part of America gives the perfect example of socio-cultural effects, which even after several years, continue to exist. The review of Mayan gods, as well as their conquest by the Spanish holds......

Words: 634 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Department of Philosophy / Programs / Undergraduate Program / What is Philosophy? What is Philosophy? Quite literally, the term "philosophy" means, "love of wisdom." In a broad sense, philosophy is an activity people undertake when they seek to understand fundamental truths about themselves, the world in which they live, and their relationships to the world and to each other. As an academic discipline philosophy is much the same. Those who study philosophy are perpetually engaged in asking, answering, and arguing for their answers to life’s most basic questions. To make such a pursuit more systematic academic philosophy is traditionally divided into major areas of study. Metaphysics At its core the study of metaphysics is the study of the nature of reality, of what exists in the world, what it is like, and how it is ordered. In metaphysics philosophers wrestle with such questions as: Is there a God? What is truth? What is a person? What makes a person the same through time? Is the world strictly composed of matter? Do people have minds? If so, how is the mind related to the body? Do people have free wills? What is it for one event to cause another? Epistemology Epistemology is the study of knowledge. It is primarily concerned with what we can know about the world and how we can know it. Typical questions of concern in epistemology are: What is knowledge? Do we know anything at all? How do we know what we know? Can we be justified in claiming...

Words: 557 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Philosophy

...shouldn’t been seen as a lack of faith, but as a positive creed (Brooks, 1). In other words, atheism doesn’t correspond with faith, instead it is viewed as a positive ideological way of life. Then, Phil Zuckerman claims that secular morality is built around individual reason, individual choice, and individual responsibility (Zuckerman, 1). In my opinion, I think that secular people don’t believe in faith nor do they have any. Therefore, how can secularism be seen as a positive creed, if in order to have creed, you must have faith. As Brooks continues his article, he also mentions the several tasks a person would have to perform to live secularism. First, he says that secular people build their own moral philosophies. I believe that if secular people build their own philosophies, then that alone gives them their meaning to life. I think that people that believe in God do find their meaning of life through God’s purpose and plan for their life. Whereas atheist search for their meaning of life by exploring different theories. This is connected to the next point that Brooks mentions in his article. He says that “secular people have to choose their own communities and come up with their own practices to make them meaningful” (Brooks, 2). Meanwhile, I agree with the claim that Brooks makes when he states that religious people are motivated by their love for God and their desire to please him. Secularists have to come up with their own purpose that will enforce sacrifice. I......

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...HZT4U1 Mrs. Faria February 13, 2014 Philosophy Reflection Essay What is Philosophy? Philosophy is more than simply a school subject, it is a worldview that involves complex and contemplative ways of thinking. It can also be considered as a hypothesis, the love of wisdom, law, equation, and major part of it, science and religion. As Socrates once said " philosophy is a quest for wisdom- an unrelenting devotion to uncover the truth about what matters most in one's life." As mentioned above, Philosophy according to Socrates is a process of proving the truth and validity of certain visual ideas. Philosophy branches out. To understand Philosophy, we need to know what makes someone a philosopher, which helps to determine analytic philosophy. Along with this, we need to understand the method of philosophy which leads us to the true value of philosophy. The study of philosophy is a discipline that develops analytic thought and, ultimately, autonomy. To understand philosophy, and how it leads up to autonomy through analytic thought, we must understand what makes someone a philosopher. in the article " What makes someone a philosophy" by Mark Warnock, she helps to define the subject. Warnock clearly defines a philosopher through her articles. She says "Professional recognition is unimportant: what matters is that a philosopher is someone who thinks at a high level of generality, has 'explanatory ambition' and most importantly, provides arguments in support of his or her views.......

Words: 1215 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Philosophy

...Philosophy LueAnn Wolaridge PHL/215 February 03, 2010 Steve Elder Philosophy According to Moore, Philosophy means “to love wisdom,” the tract on which one travels seeking answers to questions of knowledge, existence, moral judgment, and society. One cannot define philosophy in one compact, single minded definition. Philosophy is to broad and thought provoking field of study to seek one concrete definition. Philosophy in my mind is an attempt to understand how we all connect in the universe. Philosophers ask questions that make one go “umm.” Because there are no wrong answers in philosophy. Each answer can provoke question after question and still not present the answer one seeks. Take the question “if a tree falls in the woods and no one is there to hear it do it make a sound?” First thought would be to say yes it does make a sound. But philosophers may argue the question, how do we know it makes a sound, it was not heard. “What is sound?” “Is sound produced only if one can hear it?” “Does falling produce sound or did the tree produce sound?” Philosophical questions are speculative, which give philosophers the road to examine different avenue of study at once. Philosophy tends to overlap other areas of study from physic, art, science, to any other subject that one can name. Any subject can be study philosophically when the right questions are asked. Questions are categorized in different areas of study. Epistemology deals with the questions......

Words: 579 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Philosophy

...Intro to Philosophy Wendy Broussard-Murray Aiuonline Intro to Philosophy Mere Assertion – A belief that what you think is true just because you want it to be, but you have nothing solid to prove it to be correct. It is basically ones opinion. Example: Brenden did not steal the IPod because he is not a thief. Circular Reasoning – (begging the question) A question that is never really answered or proved. Example: Perry Marshall claims, “DNA is not merely a molecule with a pattern; it is a code… and an information storage mechanism. All codes are created by a conscious mind; there is no natural process known to science that creates coded information. Therefore, DNA is designed by a mind.” (Perry, 2014) Ad Hominem – The attack on a person’s character distracting you from the real issue. Example: Don’t believe what Larry says about raising children. He is the head of pro-abortion campaign. Red Herring – During a disagreement, one person goes on a tangent, bring up a different side of the disagreement that distracts everyone from what is really going on, usually not going back to the original disagreement. Example: A person is reading a book and is lead to believe a specific character is guilty, when in fact the person is innocent. Pseudo-questions – A question that has no real answer because it makes no sense. Example: “Do you support the right to possess a hand gun as set forth by our constitution?” (Gracyk, 2012) False Cause – It is assumed that there is......

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Thinking about Philosophy ! The word philosophy refers to both a discipline and a mindset. At its essence, philosophy implies the mindset of critical thinking, a quest to find out the truth and the discipline to have a good argument. Derived from the Greek words Philos - loving and Sophia - meaning wisdom and the the love of wisdom. Philosophy can be broken down into many categories. Included in theses subsets are metaphysics, ethics, epistemology, aesthetics and logic. Metaphysics encompasses the why and how of reality and being. Ethics incorporates morality moral systems. Epistemology explains ways of individual knowing. Aesthetics lends elements of beauty and the arts. Lastly, logic contributes the attributes of logic and reasoning. Philosophers pursue fundamental questions - questions that make sense but cannot be answered by relying on common sense or scientific procedures. Pythagoras defines philosophy as “too modest to wish to be called wise, he said he was not a wise man, but only a lover of wisdom”. According to Descartes, philosophy is the highest wisdom that could be achieved by logic; it taught the reason how to set about obtaining knowledge of as yet unknown truths. Frances Bacon described philosophy as the universal science, from which all other sciences grew like branches of a tree. Philosophers do not do experiments, they use priori - truths derived from a direct intuitive understanding of the truth. Many people misuse the word Philosophy. You will......

Words: 883 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Philosophy

...Emerson’s Unifying Philosophy Throughout human existence, scholars have earnestly pursued knowledge and the attainment of truth. Historical figures such as Plato, Descartes, and Emerson sought answers to daunting questions of: ‘What is truth?’; ‘What is reality?’; ‘How is wisdom acquired?’ Many scholars believe these philosophers presented conflicting viewpoints: Plato encouraging skepticism among all previous historical, cultural, and personal perspectives; Descartes questioning definitions of reality and his very existence; Emerson encouraging self-trust and confidence in one’s ideals, opinions, and convictions. Surprisingly, reconciliation can be reached from these three differing hypotheses. Emerson’s thesis merely expounds from Descartes and Plato’s philosophies. He builds from Descartes’ search for self-identity and reconciles Plato’s skepticism with his views of self-trust and unconformity among scholars. Throughout “Mediations I and II”, Descartes disputes definitions of reality and identity, establishing a precursor to Emerson’s philosophy. Initially, Descartes questions all notions of being. In “Mediation I”, Descartes begins his argument explaining the senses which perceive reality can be deceptive and “it is wiser not to trust entirely to any thing by which we have once been deceived” (Descartes 59). But, he then continues to reason; “opinions [are] in some measure doubtful…and at the same time highly probable, so that there is much more reason to believe......

Words: 1008 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Philosophy Yogi Robin PHL/215 Dr. Isaac Mwase December 5, 2013 Why study philosophy: Philosophy can help people open their minds to view the world in a different what they are used to. Therefore, giving people different ways on how to handle and resolve issues one may have. This can help a problem by finding a different way then what was using before. Thus leaving, it open to learning how to use their minds in more ways than one. Philosophy can help you think on questions, and then answer them with words of different meaning. Philosophy can used in many different fields because people learn to think and rethink the way one use their words. To have an idea, then define one thinking path to find and another answer. Philosophy challenges them with critical thinking to find the truth behind the truth. It can help with the way one life is going. Help change it into a positive outlook if they just see everything negatively. Philosophy from what I am getting out of it is someone may see a subject one way which can be different and someone else can understand the subject total the opposite. However if someone else can help think, find and new look at in a different point of view. Closed minds only see what’s in front of them not what is up ahead. Aristotle who was born in the (384-322 B.C.E) time period is to be one of many great philosophers before his time. Aristotle work in zoology and how he grouped different animals together because they were different but still......

Words: 554 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Mid-Term Reflection paper My main moral philosophy is to treat others the same you want to be treated, also known as the golden rule. I think if everyone followed this rule there would be less problems in the world today. The definition of morality is principles of right and wrong in conduct. So by following the golden rule you are being moral to the best of your knowledge. To not follow the golden rule a person is being immoral. Moral philosophy begins with your parents, but as a person gets older they should have a set of morals that they learn on their own and apply it everyday of their life. Morality is like your duty of life; it is what you ought to do. Many people get most of their morality based on religious teachings. They use their religion as a guide for their own moral philosophy. My own morality isn’t based on religion a whole lot simply because I am not a very religious person. On the other hand for people that are religious I think religious teachings are a good set of values to base their own moral philosophy on. Half of my morality is probably based on cultural determinants. This is because I am surrounded by people all day every day and I watch how people interact with each other. Also culture has a big impact on everybody because it is a broad group of people acting in the same way, usually. If such a big group of people has the same morals it has a big impact on any individual. I think your own morality allows you to judge the moral......

Words: 944 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Fate or Free Will? Unit 4 Individual Project Grislen Dominguez Professor Stephen Ripley Introduction to Philosophy – PHIL201 March 10, 2013 Scientists, philosophers, and sociologists struggle to find the answers to the following questions, what is freedom? How free is the individual within a society? How much of human behavior is determined by environment and genetics? (M.U.S.E, 2010). In my perspective, freedom is the ability for a human being to act as desired, in other words having self-determination and no restrains. In society, individual’s rights are protected by the first amendment of the constitution, which gives freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and so on. However, there are laws that humans must abide by to prevent consequences. Human behavior has been influenced by the environment and genetics to a certain degree, however, every individual is a unique mind or as I call “a different world”, it all depends on an individual perspectives and reactions to certain circumstances. Socrates: What is the definition of determinism? Grislen: Determinism consist that every event has a cause; therefore if human actions are to be considered events, then, all choices made are determined by cause and not free will. Nothing in life is predetermined, the choices we make in life is the only one that can alter our future. Socrates: What is the definition of free will? Grislen: The philosophical term of “free will” consists...

Words: 901 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Philosophy

...Lexi Fatheree KINE 1311 Doctor Ballard 24 September 2014 Philosophy Paper Introductioin: Who am I? Well I am still trying to figure that out myself. I am only nineteen and there are so many things that I have yet to experience. There are so many people that I have yet to meet. But I am taking things day by day, one at a time. I have thought long and hard as to what my philosophy on life is. And that philosophy is “Never Be Satisfied.” Coming from a family of nothing but athletes, this phrase is used in my household a lot; almost every day, actually. It is something that I live by in athletics and in life as well. However, growing up I never fully understood what “never be satisfied,” meant. My Philosophy: The moment I started high school was when I truly began to think about what never being satisfied meant. I already knew how the phrase fit into my life athletically, but athletics was not my entire life. It took me a few years, but I finally realized what “never be satisfied” really meant. To never be satisfied means to never stop growing as a person. Never stop growing emotionally, mentally, and spiritually. Different experiences have affected me positively and negatively, but they have also made me grow as a person. Mentally and emotionally, I have been tested and pushed past my breaking point, but it was an experience that I would never trade for any other. The knowledge I have acquired throughout the years has helped my outlook on the people that surround me and...

Words: 1337 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Philosophy

...Nietzsche v. Bowden In this paper I will analyze the ethical theories of Nietzsche and Bowden and apply them to the recent case involving Volkswagen and its use of “defeat” devices to cheat diesel emissions tests. In order to effectively analyze whether or not the actions of Volkswagen were ethical, I will first discuss Nietzsche’s view of morality, followed by Bowden’s application of care ethics. In Beyond Good and Evil Friedrich Nietzsche presents his critique of morality, as well as the concept of “Master and Slave Morality.” He rejects the idea that the morality of an action is determined based on the consequences of the action because he claims that it is impossible for man to know the true consequences of an action. Although one might be able to predict the immediate consequences of an action, it is impossible to know how that action will cause other consequences further into the future. For example, if I were to steal some medicine for my sick mother, this action might seem ethical or “good” considering the immediate consequences. However, what else might happen as a result of this action further into the future? What if in the process of my theft, I accidentally left the back door to the pharmacy unlocked and the pharmacy was cleaned out, and as a result the insurance company was refusing to cover the pharmacy’s losses. To make matters even worse imagine that the family that owned the pharmacy had to declare bankruptcy which led to the family being unable to pay for...

Words: 1263 - Pages: 6