Phobias and Addictions

In: Psychology

Submitted By angeleyes13
Words 1560
Pages 7
Phobias and Addictions
Lisa Draxler
PSY/300-GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
July 12, 2010
Carlton Bowden

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to explore how phobias can be developed through classical conditioning, explore how addictions can be developed through operant conditioning, to distinguish between classical and operant conditioning, and to explain what extinction means and how it is achieved in both classical and operant conditioning.

*



.



Phobias and Addictions are two very emotional learning difficulties. Phobias are defined as being an enduring, abnormal, and unfounded fear of a specific thing or situation that compels one to avoid it, regardless of the awareness and reassurance that it is not dangerous. Addictions are defined as conditions of being consistently or compulsively occupied with or involved in something.
Classical Conditioning is defined as a process of behavior variation by which one comes to respond in a preferred manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been repetitively presented along with an unconditioned stimulus that elicits the desired response. (Dictionary.com, 2010)
Fear of heights, spiders, closed spaces (claustrophobia) and other specific or simple phobias are sometimes caused by a type of learning known as classical conditioning. (DeLuca, 2009) Precise phobias or simple phobias are thought to be caused or predisposed by genetics and/ or childhood disturbance. These phobias can be learned through the learning type of classical conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov is quite known for his theory of classical conditioning. He is well known for his experiment of the dogs that salivated to the ring of a bell regardless if there was dog food present. The dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of the bell. It is believed that some fears and…...

Similar Documents

Phobia

... thoughts about the dog fear so she will be able to confront that fear. Sally needs to make sure to take it slow and know that will time and practice the phobia will be controlled. Conclusion People who face a phobia can lose many opportunities because they are trying to avoid dogs or their phobias. These kinds of phobias are a psychological disorder and there are many ways to treat them. When it comes to phobias the individuals fear is either irrational or excessive. Many individuals believe their phobias are harmless but the fear is uncontrollable. When a individual is exposed to his or her phobia, the experience can cause anxiety, fear and even can cause a panic attack. Individuals having this experience are very unpleasant and the individual will go to the extreme lengths to void the phobia at any cost. There are many steps that an individual can do to overcome their phobia. Just like Sally they can start off with baby steps and work towards facing the fear head on. The most important thing for an individual to remember is any individual with a phobia can respond well to treatment if the person has an open mind to it. Phobias are treatable. . References Biotechnology Encyclopedia. (2011). Addictions. Retrieved June 16, 2011, from http://www.edinformatics.com/biotechnology/addiction.htm. Cervone, D., & Pervin, L. A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research (11th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cherry, K. (2011). What is extinction. Retrieved......

Words: 1375 - Pages: 6

Addiction

...Weston Lampe Theory of Addiction Monday October 1, 2012 Disease Model The oldest and possibly most talked about theory of addiction in the disease model. The disease model basically states that substance addiction is similar to any other disease in that it is genetic, progressive, and often times fatal. The symptoms of substance abuse such as alcoholism are similar for everyone who suffers, and they are easily recognizable. One problem with the disease model is that it is not backed by any strong scientific research. You cannot give someone an X-ray or a CT scan to see if they suffer from drug addiction. Another problem is that if it was a disease then one would assume that some sort of medicinal or therapeutic device would have been developed that can help cure the disease. No such device has been created or is even close to being introduced. The disease model has had serious implications when it comes to treating substance abuse. Alcoholics Anonymous (commonly referred to as AA) was created by psychiatrists specifically to treat substance abuse as a disease. AA is a long process in which participants use self-help methods in order to battle the disease for their entire life. It was founded in the United States in 1935 and has since exploded worldwide and is as prevalent as ever. I believe that substance abuse as a disease makes sense because it seems to be so natural. Alcoholism is commonly passed down through generations and is very common, similar to...

Words: 416 - Pages: 2

Phobia

...Phobic disorder affects women more than men. Having a phobic disorder can be a burden on someone’s life. Anxiety disorders come in many different categories. Panic disorder, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Agoraphobia, and Phobic disorders are all defined as anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders consist of a mental problem characterized mainly by anxiety. Many people suffer from anxiety disorders and have not been diagnosed or have no clue they have this disorder. It is said that over 30 percent of people experience symptoms of anxiety disorders, women suffer from this disorder more than men. Phobic disorder is a very common mental disorder of our time. How we develop them is based on the individual itself, from a traumatic event during a person’s childhood, to the perception of something that was brought to their attention. Depending on the person that is suffering from a phobia will determine the level of help, if needed, to overcome a phobia. Phobias are the extreme fear of a specific object, situation, or activity. Having a phobia can determine whether a person is able to live a normal life. Some phobias are extreme and some are very mild. Most extreme phobias alter a person’s life dramatically for example the fear of the color red. If someone were to think of how many red things we encounter on a daily basis, being afraid of that color would confine you to your home, and also harm you. On the other hand, common phobias like the fear of heights wouldn’t...

Words: 1110 - Pages: 5

Phobia

...English 1101 I Search Paper December 5, 2011 You and a friend are walking in the woods. Your friend sees a trail that leads to a flowing river with cool, refreshing rapids. Your friend suggests that you jump in the river with him. You suddenly feel your heart pound a million beats per minute, sweat begins to run down your neck, you feel slightly faint than before, and then you instantly run away. You are running and find yourself lost in the woods with nowhere to go. You began to think, “if only I would have stayed by the river with my friend” but by that time you are too far away to even try to find your way back. As you stand in the middle of the forest watching the sun go down your mind wanders off into thoughts about last summer. You see the water cover your brother’s head as your mom pulls you away saying “baby he’s gone we have to save you!” You fight your mom trying to reach for your brother but you get pulled away instead. You begin to hear what seems like your alarm clock. You wake up and realize that you just had a terrible nightmare but what happened seemed so real. It scared you so much and you can’t even begin to think about going near water again. The story you just read is not true, but it does describe the experience of phobias. A phobia is the sensation of extreme fear when it’s not justified by the presence of any real danger or threat, or by any rational cause, and when it is accompanied by a systematic avoidance of the situations that leads to it...

Words: 469 - Pages: 2

Addiction

...The nation’s problem with addiction cannot be ignored as it affects almost every American. Alcohol abuse costs the country 185 billion dollars, along with forty billion dollars spent every year on drug war. Addiction is certainly an epidemic that is plaguing our society today, and the issue must be directly addressed rather than ignored. Addicts are people who are among every one of us, living in a society or as a nation to deal with social problems such as addiction. However, each one of us as individuals can make positive difference – addict or not – by attempting to take responsibility for our own personal transformations. It is individuals who make a society or a nation. Hence, perhaps our attempt to see an addiction-free society could be achieved by each one of us first experiencing it in our individual lives. If every citizen makes it their responsibility to understand addiction and provide support, instead of judgment, for those suffering, the nation would benefit in many ways. There are several reasons such as physical, psychological or sociological, attributed to the problem of addiction, but addiction is a fundamental human trait. It touches on the search for meaning that tends to define what it is to be human in the first place. While many of us apparently struggle to find a meaning for our lives in a materialistic society, “it is addicts among us who are most in rebellion against the materialism in our society” (Seeburger). While several methods, from...

Words: 786 - Pages: 4

Explaining Phobia

...Explaining phobia Fear can often be a temporary emotion experienced while riding a roller coaster, watching a scary movie, and attending a haunted hay ride. Within these experiences fear is often expected by the individual and often the fear is temporary. However, some individuals do not experience fear in a temporary manner, he or she will develop a phobia. A phobia is an irrational and excessive fear of an object or situation (Cherry, 2012). The individual experiences an intense fear of something but he or she does not understand why the fear is occurring. The fear disrupts the well-being of the individual by causing the intense fear he or she will be harmed or endangered. Sigmund Freud who often provided details to understand the anxieties of the mind by his analysis of his cases studies (Cervone & Pervin, 2010). One such case is the analysis of Little Hans who was young child who suffered from an extreme fear of horses biting him and the fear of leaving his home (Cervone & Pervin, 2010). Freud suggested the case of little Hans produced the most compelling evidence for the positive Oedipus complex and suggested the Oedipus complex is a universal phenomenon (Lachmann, 2010). Freud did not analyze Little Hans personality but uniquely corresponded with Hans’s father about the young child’s phobias and conducted therapy through Hans’s father (Garber, 2001). Freud and Hans’s father would discuss the difficulties Little Hans experienced and Freud would instruct Hans’s...

Words: 1676 - Pages: 7

Addiction

...Addiction, what is it? Is it something that we feel or is it really a choice? For years in my personal life I have seen addiction take over my whole family through drugs and alcohol. It has destroyed many of people and it has helped many of people at the same time. When the word “addiction” is said it is manly used in a negative way, but it can also be positive as well. So is it or is it not a choice? In the beginning of any addiction it always starts off as choice or “something you want to do”. You want to drink, you want to do drugs, you want to have sex, etc. As time goes on though those so called “choices” that you once had start to become more addictive and more addictive until you are at a point where you don’t feel like or want to do something for your own pleasure, but you need it, you need to drink, you need to smoke, you need to have sex, etc. That once choice of addiction you had now becomes a disease, a uncontrollable need physically and mentally. So what now? Should you keep on believing that this once called “choice” that you had can be controlled or is it indeed an actual disease that is uncontrollable and that you may need help for (that’s even if you want the help)? The cure for addiction is totally up to the addict, but it is in fact that through time the addictions that a person once wanted are now addictions that a person needs every day, every minute, and every second and that is why addiction is not choice. In Alice M. Young’s research paper...

Words: 1341 - Pages: 6

Addiction

...Addiction in Adolescents Amar Khan Liberty University Abstract There are numerous reasons for addiction in adolescences. Numerous adolescents that battle to meet their own levels and society's measures as they attempt to shut out the difficulties of their high school years (Feldman, 2014, p. 349). These difficulties stretch out a long ways past dealing with an overflowing calendar. With bodies that are obviously changing, allurements of sex, alcohol, different medications, intellectual advances that make the world appear to be progressively unpredictable, social systems that are in consistent flux, and tilting feelings, adolescents end up in a time of life that orders excitement, uneasiness, happiness, and hopelessness, in some cases in equivalent measure (Feldman, 2014). Relationship between Abuse and Addiction Substance abuse and addition have an exceptionally slight distinction between them. Substance abuse signifies utilizing an illicit substance or utilizing a lawful substance as a part of the wrong way (Vranken, 2011). While addiction starts as abuse, or utilizing a substance, for example, marijuana or cocaine. You can abuse a medication or alcohol without having dependence. For example, just on the grounds that somebody smoked pot a couple times doesn't imply that they have a fixation, yet it does imply that they're misapplying a medication and that could prompt an addiction. Then again, for some adolescents, alcohol utilization turns into a tendency that...

Words: 1052 - Pages: 5

Addiction

...Addiction (Temptation: Confessions of a Marriage Counselor) Sci/163 Jihanne Pompee 8/17/2015 The movie Temptation: Confessions of a Marriage Counselor has been out since 2013. I have watched this Movie one time the year it came out, and never wanted to watch it again because it was a sad movie that I couldn't watch it again. This is the second time I will be watching this movie because I felt like this was the best movie to write about, addiction it a hard thing to deal with because you don't know how to stop it. I want to give all the information to show how this movie has shown me how people act. The main character her name is Judith, Judith was married to her childhood sweetheart named Brice. She felt like her marriage life was just so boring. Judith was working as a therapist at a matchmaking agency owned by Janice, which is her boss. While Judith is working there, she meets this guy named Harley, which is a wealthy man. He tries to do everything to get with her, but she refused it. Judith was so tempted to sleep with him, but she knew she was married. Judith wanted the fantasies that were always on her mind about Harley, but she didn't want to mess up her marriage, she did, though. When Judith finally slept with Harley, she felt hurt, but she like it. She was addicted to the Sex and drug. She felt like she was free and was able to do everything that her husband was not able to give her, and she was able to live her life how she wanted it. Judith's mother was...

Words: 529 - Pages: 3

Phobia

...What if I dropped a big hairy tarantula down your shirt or took you on a plane so high up in the air that the cars and people look like little ants? What if I turned off the lights and left you alone in the darkness. Will you panic? Shriek? Even collapse? Think of your worst fear. Imagine it . Is it painful for you ? Do you want it to go away? Good morning/afternoon Miss Bosnjak and fellow classmates that scaring you isn’t just a fear. It is stronger than a fear. It is a phobia. What is a phobia? A phobia is a fancy name for fear. This isn’t just a normal kind of fear like hearing thunder or passing by a growling dog. A phobia is a very strong fear that doesn’t go away. If you have a phobia that means you will be afraid of something every time you see it or experience it. Phobias can affect peoples lives. People with agoraphobia may have troubles leaving the house, meeting new people and having a job. Depression is very common in people who have an anxiety disorder. Depression may also cause them to do suicide. Here is the top three common phobias: 1. Arachnophobia: Fear of spiders ( a-rack-no-phobia) 2.Claustrophobia: Fear of enclosed spaces 3.Necrophobia: Fear of dead things and dead itself Here is the top three uncommon phobia: 1. Ambulophobia: Fear of working 2.Barophobia: Fear of gravity 3.Levophobia: Fear of objects to the left Phobias have three categories: Simple or situational phobia Animal phobias. Animal phobias are fears caused...

Words: 600 - Pages: 3

Phobia

...Irene Torres September 22, 2015 HS-121-1642 Phobia Essay Acrophobia The Phobia I picked to write about is Acrophobia. Acrophobia is one of the most common phobias and is an extreme abnormal excessive and persistent fear of heights. People that suffer from this phobia experience severe anxiety which may include heart racing, shortness of breath, muscle tension, sweating, trembling and intense fear. The person who suffers from this phobia doesn’t just need to experience being in a high location but can experience this phobia in different activities which can include being in a elevator or getting on a ride at a amusement park, going up a ladder even being on a bridge or just the thought of being in a situation where they know that this might be coming up or someone might ask to get on a ride with them or go in a elevator or climb up the ladder to get something. All this can trigger this phobia and the result is to panic. This phobia can easily curtail everyday activities and the main theories used to explain this phobia is that the fear became uncontrollable after a traumatic incident in early childhood. There are different types of methods that they say could help with this phobia. The usual is medication, behavior therapy or relaxation techniques. They say people suffering from a phobia are aware of the inappropriateness if their fears. People suffering from different phobias supposedly have the capacity to accurately control the levels of danger and know that...

Words: 465 - Pages: 2

Addiction

...CONTENT Computer addiction is a condition where some young age or teenagers are addict in playing a computer every day that they cannot skip one day if they cannot play a computer. Although addiction is usually used to describe substances, addiction can also be used to describe pathological Internet use. Experts on Internet addiction have described this syndrome as an individual being intensely working on the Internet, prolonged use of the Internet, uncontrollable use of the Internet, unable to use the Internet with efficient time, not being interested in the outside world, not spending time with people from the outside world, and an increase in their loneliness and dejection. However, not all people who spend hours each day on the computer are considered addicted. There are many uses for computers and the internet and in many cases, an individual may spend 6 or more hours in a day on the computer but still not be considered an addict. Each individual situation is different and therefore, there is no set number of hours that is (or is not) considered a potential for computer addiction. OBJECTIVES To study the conducted survey to determine the Computer Addiction due to the no work in their house or no hobbies to do and only for fun. Validity This validity survey of some question that refers to Computer Addiction for the Young Age and Teenagers, to know how many users are interacted with the computer. RATIONALLY OF THE PROBLEM Computer addiction increases the number of...

Words: 478 - Pages: 2

Addiction

...Reference Database: “Addiction” by Nancy A. Piotrowski, Ph.D Addiction is when the human body becomes dependent on a substance. Prolonged use of any psychoactive drug will determine a persons dependency. The addiction can affect a person psychologically and physiologically; this will show in an addicts tolerance and withdrawal symptoms from a drug. Tolerance will involve the biological system such as the human body, changes in the body after a drug is present, and environmental or behavioral conditioning. The way the human body processes a drug is by absorbing a drug through the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream it will be delivered to different organs and they will metabolize the drug and eliminate it from the body. After frequent use of a drug, the way the body processes a drug may change. When this occurs the body is able to rid itself of the drug more efficiently. This leads to reduced effects from the drug than when it was initially consumed. When this happens an increase to the dose will be required to get the desired effect. Many changes will occur in the body once a drug is present. It will change the sensitivity in specific areas of the body where the drug has an impact. For instance, there may be a direct or indirect impact on different areas of the brain. A direct impact may lead to a change in the brains receptors. When there is an indirect impact it will show in tissue tolerance and functional tolerance. Environmental and behavioral...

Words: 2696 - Pages: 11

Addiction

...Addiction is the compulsion to do something. There are two major types of addiction mental/psychological and physical/chemical. I) Physical dependency ~ Is when a person has a chemical addiction to something normally to induce pleasure. Often the substance has withdrawal effects. After some time the substance is used to relieve the anxiety caused by the absence of the chemical. People explain that coming off the “high” makes them feel so low that they want more just to feel normal. A) Alcohol ~Approximately 14 million Americans (7.4%) suffer from alcohol abuse or addiction. Alcoholism can: 1) Reduce life expectancy by 10 to 15 years. 2) Destroy brain cells, possibly leading to brain damage. 3) Hinders the ability to retrieve, consolidate, and process information. 4) Can affect cognitive abilities. 5) Interfere with the oxygen supply of the brain causing a blackout when totally drunk. 6) Inflame or cause cancer in the mouth, esophagus, and stomach. 7) Produce irregular heartbeats, high-blood pressure, and heart attacks. 8) Harm vision. 9) Damage sexual function. 10) Can cause skin and pancreatic disorders, weaken the bones and muscles. Most alcoholics struggle with it their entire life. Even one drink can cause an alcoholic to become addicted even if they have been sober for twenty years. B) Nicotine ~ This addictive drug found in tobacco gives a person pleasure and euphoria by increasing the levels of dopamine within the reward...

Words: 613 - Pages: 3

Phobia Speech

...How would you feel if I dropped a big hairy Tarantula down the back of your neck? What would you do if I took you in a plane until cars and trucks below looked like ants? Would you scream, yell or cry? Would you be left feeling nauseas, or unable to move. Would you hyperventilate and suffer a serious heart attack right there siting on your chair? If you would, you may have a phobia. A phobia is an extreme or irrational fear. Everybody suffers from some kind of fear, everybody in the WORLD suffers from some kind of fear. Except Chuck Norris, he doesn’t have fears, fears have Chuck Norris. Most fears start fron scary events/thing that occur in the sufferers childhood. For example, About 100 years ago, my Great Nana Letty at the age 8 was locked in a school cupboard by the teacher. She was left overnight. .. haha. After that day till the day she died she suffered from a common but serious fear of being in cramped places- Claustrophobia. A specific phobia is a extreme fear of a specific thing. There are around 530 documented specific phobias. Lots of you may have heard about the more common phobias like Arachnophobia, the fear of spiders or Claustrophobia, the fear of being trapped in small places But there are also many ridiculously outrageous phobias for example; the fear of chicken or knowledge or even Gynophobia, the fear of chins. According to a highly experienced New Zealand medical doctor, Dr Frances Pitsilis, 10% of people in our nation suffer from specific...

Words: 892 - Pages: 4