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Photosynthesis and Respiration

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‘Photosynthesis and Respiration’

Running Head: Photosynthesis and Respiration 1

Photosynthesis and Respiration

The process in which carbon dioxide is transformed into organic compounds from sunlight is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis, a natural process, offers every aerobic being on earth oxygen and also assists in maintaining a natural percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere (Cloud, David 2011). Human beings would not exist without this process. Photosynthesis also occurs in algae, plants, and certain bacteria. In contrast, respiration takes glucose (sugar), along with other organic compounds oxidizing them to develop carbon dioxide. Respiration is the metabolic reaction in organic cells, biochemical energy into adenosine triphosphate/ATP. Each cycle depends on the other, in order for the ‘complete cycle’ to transpire. When it comes to receiving energy from the foods we eat, photosynthesis stores the energy and respiration releases it. Both cycles are important to ensure continuous life on earth. Photosynthesis and respiration are connected between plants and animals based on the reactants and products of both pathways by the usage of autotrophs and heterotrophs. An autotroph are organisms the have the ability to manufacture their own food (“Autotroph vs. Heterotroph” n.d.). Heterotroph organisms are essential in respiration and are not an element in photosynthesis. When it comes to the autotroph, this is done by the using the available substances, in their environment, with light (photosynthesis) or chemical energy (chemosynthesis). Energy is transferred from sunlight to ATP/adenosine phosphate by energy being extracted from the ATP molecule. While in the cell, a reaction removes one of the phosphate
Running Head: Photosynthesis and Respiration 2
Photosynthesis and Respiration groups, leaving behind ATP/adenosine diphosphate (Bergman, Jerry PhD. 1999). Once the conversion is made from ATP to ADP, the ADP is recycled in the mitochondria is revitalized and is then again ATP. When sugar is fragmented to create carbon dioxide and is then respired into gas, is respiration. The hydrogen in sugar is combined with oxygen to form water. The release energy is momentarily stored in the ATP. In order for cells to be provided energy, they must pass over the cell membrane. This would include fats and sugars. Aerobic respiration makes large amounts of ATP, oxygen is still a necessity. In anaerobic conditions, organisms have the capability to metabolize glucose for the production of ATP (“The Pathways of Respiration” n.d.). This process is accomplished by utilizing fermentation. Fermenting organisms generate pyruvate by glycolysis. This is where their ATP is obtained. Fermentation occurs in a number of organisms as well as humans. Some organisms can ferment in the while in the presence of oxygen. Light reaction is the chemical reaction that happens in the first and second stage of photosynthesis. There are three stages of photosynthesis, the absorption of light energy, conversion of light energy, and the storage of energy (“Energy and Living Things” n.d.). Using cellular methods, the energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy. Photosynthesis and respiration are also included in the cellular methods. Enzymes catalyst, increase the progression of practically all the chemical reactions in cells. If enzymatic catalysts are not present, biochemical reactions have the tendency to be sluggish and would not function under mild conditions of pressure and/or temperature (“The
Running Head: Photosynthesis and Respiration 3
Photosynthesis and Respiration
Central Role of Enzymes As Biological Catalysts” n.d.). The three main steps of the cycle of enzyme substrate interactions are enzyme substrate, enzyme product, and the transition state. Enzyme activity can be controlled or regulated by the cell in two ways. The first is by controlling the synthesis of the enzyme or genetic control, and the second is, controlling the activity of the enzyme or feedback inhibition (“Microbial Genetics” n.d.). Genetic control of enzyme activity is the controlling transcription of the mRNA necessary for the enzyme’s synthesis. The induction or repression of enzyme synthesis by regulatory proteins that can adhere to DNA and do one of two things, enhance or block the function of RNA polymerase. This is the enzyme that is required for transcription. In regards to feedback inhibition, enzyme activity can be controlled by competitive and non-competitive inhibition. With non-competitive inhibition, the end product of the metabolic pathway will then bind to allosteric site on the enzyme. The end result of an enzymatic reaction is a competitive inhibition. The end product also has the ability to react with enzyme’s active site and prohibits the enzyme from binding to its customary substrate.


“Autotroph vs. Heterotroph”. (n.d.). Retrieved from: Bergman, Jerry PhD. “ATP: The Perfect Energy Currency for the Cell”. (1999). Retrieved from:
Cloud, David. “Relationship Between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration”. (2011).
Retrieved from:
“Energy and Living Things”. (n.d.). Retrieved from: “Microbial Genetics”. (n.d.). Retrieved from: “The Central Role of Enzymes As Biological Catalysts”. (n.d.). Retrieved from: “The Pathways of Respiration”. (n.d.). Retrieved from:

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