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Phrases

In: English and Literature

Submitted By Men4ica
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Functions of phrases – Улогата на фразите Зборовите се комбинираат едни со други, за да се формира фраза, а фразите се една од основните шеми по која се гради реченицата. Фразата претставува група од зборови која што функционира како една единица, и не вклучува глагол во неа. Фразите можат да имаат различни улоги во една реченица. Тие може да функционираат како предмет, подмет, додаток, надополнувач, и прилошка фраза. Фразата претставува продолжение на на еден од зборовите во неа, којшто се нарекува глава на реченицата. На пример, зборот “creatures” (суштества) е главен збор во фразата “the strange green creatures with huge heads” (чудните зелени суштества со огромни глави). Секоја фраза се состои од најмалце два збора. (big dog големо куче) Фразите можат да се формираат и со многу повеќе зборови (that lovley old pub by the bridge over the river прекрасната стара кафеана до мостот преку реката). Некаде дури може да се забележат фрази од само еден збор.
Фраза во рамките на друга фраза
Подолгите фрази се составени од помали фрази. На пример:
-That lovely old pub (by (the bridge (over (the river). river the river over the river the bridge over the river…итн.
Фразите можат да имаат повеќе различни функции, и тоа: глаголски фрази, придавски фрази, предлошки фрази, прилошки фрази.
Не постојат некои правила кои укажуваат што ја и што не ја сочинува фразата. Поимот не е толку конкретно дефиниран како на пример, дел-реченицата. За разлика од реченицата и дел-реченицата, фразата немора да има подмет и предикат.Она што може да се каже за фразата е дака таа има централна точка, позната како глава. Како на пример, во фразата “the dog on the roof” (кучето на покривот), главениот збор е “dog” (куче).
Verb phrases – Глаголски фрази
Глаголската фраза е група на зборови во која спаѓа глаголот и неговите додатоци, предметот и други зборови кои функционираат синтактички како глагол. Во англискиот јазик глаголската фраза се комбинира со именка или со именска фраза која дејствува како предмет за формирање на проста реченица.
Исто така глаголска фраза е онаа која се состои од главниот глагол и неговиот помошен глагол, не вклучувајќи предмет, сврзници и други зборови.
1. Глаголски фрази формирани од глагол и помошен глагол
Постојат три помошни глаголи во англискиот јазик: to be, to do, to have. Тие се јавуваат во повеќе форми (во зависност од лицето, времето итн.)
-I was at the house. [was е главен глагол] ( Бев во куќата)
-I was working at the house. [was e помошен глагол, working e главен] (Работев во куќата.) “was working" е глаголска фраза
2. Глаголски фрази со модални глаголи
Постојат десет основни модални глаголи: can, could, shall, should, will, would, may, might, must and ought to. Mодалните глаголи не се менуваат по време, лице итн. Тие се неменливи и ја задржуваат својата форма. Примери:
-Who can tell me the answer? – I can! (Кој може да ми го каже одговорот? – Јас можам.
3. Исто така,мораме да спомнеме дека постојат фрази формирани од глагол и партицип – глагол и герунд, и глагол и инфинитив. Примери:
-Singing very softly, the boy lulled his baby brother to sleep. (Глагол и партицип)
-Waiting for his grades drove him crazy. (Герунд и глагол)
-To live in Boston eventually is his main goal in life. (Инфинитив и глагол)

Adjective phrases – Придавски фрази Група на зборови во која што придавката се смета за главен збор, се нарекува придавска фраза. Придавката во вакви фрази може да биде придружувана од други зборови. Придавската фраза може да стои пред именката (атрибутивна позиција). Таа исто така може да стои и после сврзувачки глагол, како што е “be” (предикативна позиција). Примери:
-He was wearing a dark brown suit. (Овде придавска фраза е “a dark brown”, и таа го модифицира глаголот “suit”.)
-The fish tasted awfully funny. (Овде придавска фраза е “awfully funny”. Се наоѓа после сврзувачкиот глагол “tasted”.
Помошниот глагол не мора да има предмет, и не може да биде модифициран со прилог. Зборот или фразата која следи после овој вид на глагол обично објаснува нешто во врска со подметот во реченицата.
-Тhe fish tasted awful. (Рибата беше ужасна.) NOT awfully
Овде придавката “ужасно” ја опишува именката риба, а не глаголот.
Имајте во предвид дека придавката во придавска фраза може да биде модифицирана со прилог. Кога се модифицира со прилог, прилогот стои пред придавката. Придавката може да биде модифицирана и со други определувачи како членот, присвојни придавки и демонстративни придавки. Пример:
-My cute little daughter. (Moјата слатка мала ќерка) Се состои од присвојна придавка (my) и две нормални придавки (cute little) Понекогаш, идеата што е искажана преку придавка може да биде искажана и преку именска фраза. На пример:
- Brutus is an honorable man. Brutus is a man of honour.
(Брутус е чесен човек.)

Adverb phrase - Прилошка фраза Прилошката фраза се состои од еден или повеќе зборови. Прилогот е главен дел во фразата, така што тој може да стои сам, или пак може да биде модифициран со други зборови. Примери:
-We usually go on holiday in August. (adverb) обично
-Тime goes very quickly. (adverb phrase) многу брзо
-Тhe day passed quickly enough. (adverb phrase) доволно брзо
Прилошката фраза се состои од еден прилог, или од прилог придружен со други зборови кои стојат пред него, или после него. Прилошките фрази имаат многу различни значења. На пример:
-We walked very carefully across the street. многу претпазливо (прилог за начин)
Улогата на прилошките фрази:
Прилошка фраза + глагол Прилошките фрази најчесто се користат за да го опишат глаголот, на пример: Children grow up very quickly. (многу брзо – растат) (прилог за начин)
Прилошка фраза + глаголот “сум” Се потребуваат прилошки фрази со глаголот “сум”, на пр.: I am upstairs. (Јас сум на втори спрат) – каде сум? (прилог за место)
Прилошка фраза + придавка/прилог Се употребуваат за да определување на придавка или прилог, на пример: That’s quite a tree. (Тоа е прилично дрво) (
Прилошка фраза + определувачи Се користи прилошка фраза за модифицирање на зборови, како што се: all (сите), some (некои), half (половина), many (многу) итн. На пример:
-Оnly half of my friends could come to my party.
-Само половина од моите пријатели можеа да дојдат на мојата забава. (Се определува зборот “половина” со прилогот “само”.
Prepositional phrase – Предлошка фраза Предлошката фраза е онаа фраза која започнува со предлог а завршува со именка, или заменка, како на пример:
-I am from Paris. Јас сум од Парис. (from = од предлог ) Именката во предлошката фраза може да биде секој друг збор што игра форма на именка, како на пример:
-from her неа, што претставува заменка;
-from sleeping спиење, што претставува герунд, и др.
Зборовите кои следат после предлогот, се нарекуваат предмети на предлогот. Често ќе пронајдеме определувачи во предметот на секој предлог , кои што заедно всушност ќе произлезат во предлошка фраза. На пример:
-with John (со Џон) Овде нема определувачи.
-with the wonderful John (со прекрасниот Џон) со определувалите “the” и “wonderful” , предлогот на предметот претставува предлошка фраза.
Предлошките фрази имаат улога и на придавки и прилози. Еве неколку примери со објаснување.
Предлошки фрази кои имаат улога на придавки:
-Please read the message from Lee. (фразата ја опишува именката “message” – порака )
-The man on the radio has a boring voice. (Фразата ја опишува именката “man” – човек)
Предлошки фрази кои имаат улога на прилози:
-Before the war, Lee played football for Chelsea. (фразата го опишува глаголот “played” – играше. Тоа е прилог за време (before – пред) ни објаснува кога тој играл фудбал.

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...Secrets to Academic Success was written by Elana Peled, Ed.D. She is the founder of Academic Success for All. She started writing to help people who struggle to achieve academic success. This book reveals the powerful secrets that underlie academic success. The second secret is the learning creativity. It is about that every single person on the planet has the capacity to be creative. Our creativity is involved in how we make sense of the world and is intimately connected with our ability to learn. Based on my analysis in her writing style, she had written this chapter in grammatical correct English. One of the most important factors is that sentences were not formed by words alone but by structural units. The author had conformed her words, phrases, and sentences to specific pattern determined by the syntactic rules of the language. She utilized different types of sentences, passive voice, relative clause, and pronoun to emphasize some facts, attract our attention, and make effective writing. The author used a variety of sentence types at varying lengths to express more strong statements, reasonable ideas, interesting and dynamic energy....

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