# Physics Formulae and Priciples

In: Science

Submitted By djah
Words 9820
Pages 40
Physics
PHYSICS FORMULAE AND PRINCIPLES

Fundamental quantities and SI units

The standard units were set up by the international system of units, SI

The fundamental quantities, there symbols and there SI units a listed below

Quantity symbol SI unit & unit symbol

Length l metre (m)

Mass m kilogram (k g)

Time t second (s)

Temperature T Kelvin (k)

Current I Ampere (A)

Amt. substance mol mole 6.02 x 10 23 (molecules)

Luminous intensity - candela (c d)

MULTIPLES AND SUBMULTIPLES

Multiples are larger than the base units and submultiples are smaller than the base units

Multiples Symbol Prefix Meaning Example

Deca d 10 1 0 Decameter

Hecto h 102 100 Hectometer

Kilo k 103 1 000 Kilogram

Mega M 106 1 000 000 Megawatt

Giga G 109 1 000 000 000…...

### Similar Documents

Free Essay

#### Physics in Greece

...universe was the principal of change and that nothing remains in the same state indefinitely. This observation made him one of the first scholars in ancient physics to address the role of time in the universe, one of the most important concepts even in the modern history of physics. The early physicist Leucippus (first half of 5th century BCE) adamantly opposed the idea of direct divine intervention in the universe, instead proposing that natural phenomena had a natural cause. Leucippus and his student, Democritus, were the first to develop the theory of atomism – the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms. Aristotle (384–322 BCE) During the classical period in Greece (6th, 5th and 4th centuries BCE) and in Hellenistic times, natural philosophy slowly developed into an exciting and contentious field of study. Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 BCE – 322 BCE), a student of Plato, promoted the concept that observation of physical phenomena could ultimately lead to the discovery of the natural laws governing them. Aristotle's writings cover physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology. He wrote the first work which refers to that line of study as "Physics" (Aristotle's Physics). Aristotle attempted to explain ideas such as motion (and gravity) with the theory of four elements. Aristotle believed that all matter was......

Words: 1006 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

#### Physics

...Roger Truong Week 4 Physics Notes Experiment 1 * Rise and fall is pressure in the sound wave makes the flame move * The rise and fall in pressure makes the click sound * The rise and fall in the disturbance to what brings the sound to your ear * The square waves to what makes the flame move and bring the sound to your ear * The air molecules don’t move the disturbance does * For a 0.5 Hz your hear a click and the flame moves and resets * For 100 Hz the flame remains displaced and doesn’t recover * The transition from a click to a tone is between 20 and 50 Hz Reflection * Change in direction of a wave at an interference between two media wave returns into media from which it originated form. Wave Refraction * Change in direction of a wave when it passes from one medium to another caused by the different speeds of a wave * When water moves into different depths Wave Diffraction * Bending waves when they encounter an obstacle Absorption of waves * Reduction of energy in wave consumed by medium which it travels. * The main cause of absorption is Viscosity Interference * Two or more waves form coming together to make up a new wave Resonance * Tendency of a system to oscillate at a large amplitude at certain frequencies * Tendency to magnify a sound * The difference between an acoustic and electric guitar Wave Motion in Space and Time * Wave Motion in Space * Horizontal......

Words: 323 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

#### Physics

...Formulate Fermat’s Priciple, discuss it’s physical significance and give its analytical expression. Fermat’s principle originally stated that of all the geometrically possible optical paths that light could take between two points P and Q in a medium, the actual path is that of least time. In other words, the propagation time has a minimum value on the real path. The modern formulation of this principle is that of all the geometrically possible optical paths that light could take between two arbitrary points P and Q in a medium, the actual optical path is that of a stationary value. By “stationary” we mean a minimum or maximum value. According to the propagation time is proportional to the optical path length, so there is no contradiction between the two statements. It is just that the modern formulation is more general. If the refractive index is a function of position, , then the optical path length is defined as , where C is the curve that connects arbitrary P and Q. Fermat’s principle states that the real curve corresponds to a stationary value of the optical path length integral, that is . Note that, once found, the actual optical path length stays the same for any pair of points. Hence if light propagates from P to Q on , it will take the same path from Q to P. This is what the principle of reversibility of light rays states. Now we can see that it results as a direct consequence of Fermat’s principle. 11. Use Fermat’s Priciple to demonstrate the...

Words: 7639 - Pages: 31

Free Essay

#### Physics

...Assignment in Physics... 1. Definition of Science, Major branches of science 2. Scientific Method 3. Definition of Physics and its major branches 4. Notable Physicist and their contribution 5. Importance of Physics in our everyday life and in our society. (Write the references) Short bond paper, written or computerized (font: Times New Roman/font size: 12) Reading assign. Measurement Diff. system of measurement fundamentals and derive quantities scientific notation rules in significant figures conversion of units http://www.hep.man.ac.uk/babarph/babarphysics/physicists.html ) I.1 Science The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. I.2 The Branches of Science The Physical Sciences * Physics: The study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. Physicists study such subjects as gravity, light, and time. Albert Einstein, a famous physicist, developed the Theory of Relativity. * Chemistry: The science that deals with the composition, properties, reactions, and the structure of matter. The chemist Louis Pasteur, for example, discovered pasteurization, which is the process of heating liquids such as milk and orange juice to kill harmful germs. * Astronomy: The study of the universe beyond the Earth's atmosphere. The Earth Sciences * Geology: The science of the origin, history, and structure...

Words: 1431 - Pages: 6

#### Physics

...A SIMULATION TO RIPPLE WHILE YOU WORK Objective: To examine reflection, interference, and diffraction in two dimensions and relate to the waves on a spring demo Everybody has at some time thrown a pebble into a puddle and observed the ripples spreading across the surface. Some of us don’t stop until the puddle has been completely filled with every loose piece of debris in the vicinity. Now let’s dive in a bit deeper into the physics. Select the Wave Interference simulation from the Sound and Waves folder 1) Before you change any settings a. What is the shape of the pulse? b. How can you explain this? Consider the wave velocity. REFLECTION: 2) Increase the amplitude to maximum. 3) Turn off the water and add a vertical wall (bottom right button) across the entire width of the tank. 4) Turn on the water for just a couple of drips. 5) Observe the wave reflection from the barrier a. What is the shape of the reflection? b. In what ways does it differ from the incident (incoming) wave? c. Compare this result to what you learned about reflected pulses from the wave on a spring demo? INTERFERENCE: 6) Allow the faucet to run. Feel free to adjust the frequency. a. Think back to the wave on a spring demo when multiple waves tried to occupy the spring at the same time (interference). What do you think the particularly bright and dark spots represent? 7) Show the graph and observe the last couple of waves in front of the wall. a. Once again, considering the......

Words: 665 - Pages: 3

#### Physics

...Professor PHYS 2010 October 21, 2014 Physics in Our Daily Activities Physics is a very important science that can almost be found anywhere in our lives. Many people find this statement hard to believe because they are not able to see the basic aspects of physics all around them. I personally think that unless the person is a physicist or at least someone who had some physics classes, chances are this person or someone is not going to understand how much physics affects our daily life. The significant effect of physics on us today can be easily seen when looking at our reliance on modern technology. Many of the technologies that are changing the world around us are based on physics principles. Physics is more than a subject we study in class, it is also a powerful tool that can help us to gain a better understanding of the everyday world. Physics can be seen in a lot of simple games that we play all the time. One of my favorite games that I almost play on a daily basis is pool. The physics associated with pool is mainly about the collisions between the pool balls. When two pool balls hit each other or collide the collision between them is known to be an elastic collision. According to Billiards in the Classroom, "elastic collisions are collisions in which both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved. The total system kinetic energy before the collision equals the total system kinetic energy after the collision." Therefore, we can assume that the collisions that......

Words: 1480 - Pages: 6

#### Physics

...NAME Cyber Intro to Conceptual Physics PHET Magnetism Lab Go to http://phet.colorado.edu Click Play with Sims and on electricity section Select the simulation “Magnets and Electromagnets.” Part I: Bar Magnet – Select the Bar Magnet Tab 1. Move the compass slowly along a semicircular path above the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 2. What do you suppose the compass needles drawn all over the screen tell you? 3. Move the compass along a semicircular path below the bar magnet until you’ve put it on the opposite side of the bar magnet. Describe what happens to the compass needle. 4. How many complete rotations does the compass needle make when the compass is moved once around the bar magnet? 5. Click on the “Show Field Meter” box to the right. What happens to the magnetic field reading as you move the meter closer to the bar magnet? 6. Click on the “Show planet Earth” box to the right. What type of magnetic pole (north or south) is at the geographical north pole of the Earth (Near Canada)? PART II: Electromagnet –Select the Electromagnet Tab: 7. Click on the electromagnet tab. Place the compass on the left side of the coil so that the compass center lies along the axis of the coil. (The y-component of the magnetic field is zero along the axis of the coil.) Move the compass along a semicircular path above the coil......

Words: 490 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

#### Useful Formulae

...USEFUL FORMULAE - FLUID MECHANICS GENERAL CONSERVATION LAWS FOR STATIONARY, FINITE CONTROL VOLUMES Mass conservation: 0=∀ ∂ρ + ∂t out flows ∑ (ρVA) out − in flows ∑ (ρVA ) in Energy conservation:  V2 ∂ρ  u + gz +  2  +W = ∀   Q ∂t     +   V2  ρVA  u + gz + ∑   2 out flows      −   out   V2  ρVA  u + gz + ∑  2 in flows        in Linear momentum conservation: ∑F = ∀ ∂ρ V + ∂t out flows ∑ (ρVA V ) out − in flows ∑ (ρVA V ) in Angular momentum conservation: ∑T = ∀ ∂ρ (r × V ) + ∂t out flows ∑ (ρVA (r × V )) out − in flows ∑ (ρVA (r × V )) in Steady incompressible fluid flow in systems with one inlet and one outlet: Conservation law Mass Energy Linear Momentum Angular Momentum Equation (p ) (  ∑ F = m (V − V ) 1   m1 = m2 or ρ1V1 A1 = ρ 2V2 A2   ρ + 1 V1 2 + gz1 − p 2 ρ + 1 V2 2 + gz 2 + u1 − u 2 +q + w=0 2 2 2 )  ∑ T = m (r Vθ 2 ,2 − r1Vθ ,1 ) 1 DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS AND PHYSICAL SIMILARITY Dynamic similarity requirement for flow systems governed by Π-groups Π 1 and Π 2 : (Π 1 )M = (Π 1 )P and (Π 2 )M =(Π 2 )P Useful dimensionless groups in fluid dynamics: Name Euler number, Eu Reynolds number, Re Π-group p ρV 2 ρVL µ Interpretation pressure/inertia forces inertia/viscous forces 1 Froude number, Fr Weber number, We Mach number, M Force coefficient: F ρV 2......

Words: 395 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

#### Physics

...Introductory Physics I Elementary Mechanics by Robert G. Brown Duke University Physics Department Durham, NC 27708-0305 rgb@phy.duke.edu Copyright Notice Copyright Robert G. Brown 1993, 2007, 2013 Notice This physics textbook is designed to support my personal teaching activities at Duke University, in particular teaching its Physics 141/142, 151/152, or 161/162 series (Introductory Physics for life science majors, engineers, or potential physics majors, respectively). It is freely available in its entirety in a downloadable PDF form or to be read online at: http://www.phy.duke.edu/∼rgb/Class/intro physics 1.php It is also available in an inexpensive (really!) print version via Lulu press here: http://www.lulu.com/shop/product-21186588.html where readers/users can voluntarily help support or reward the author by purchasing either this paper copy or one of the even more inexpensive electronic copies. By making the book available in these various media at a cost ranging from free to cheap, I enable the text can be used by students all over the world where each student can pay (or not) according to their means. Nevertheless, I am hoping that students who truly ﬁnd this work useful will purchase a copy through Lulu or a bookseller (when the latter option becomes available), if only to help subsidize me while I continue to write inexpensive textbooks in physics or other subjects. This textbook is organized for ease of presentation and ease of learning. In particular, they......

Words: 224073 - Pages: 897

#### Physics

...Introduction In this project questions relating to Thermal Physics and Kinetic theory will be discussed and also diagrams to further explain them will be attached. Section B of the Physics syllabus will be completed by the end of this project. Bibliography https://www.google.com/search?q=Laboratory+thermometer&rlz=1C1CHWA_enLC632LC632&oq=Laboratory+thermometer&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i59j69i60&sourceid=chrome&es_sm=93&ie=UTF-8#q=explain+the+design+of+a+laboratory+thermometer https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicate_glass#Silicate_glass http://www.livescience.com/39994-kelvin.html 1. Thermal energy transfer by: * Conduction is the flow of heat energy through materials and substances in direct contact with each other. A conductor is a material that permits heat energy to flow freely within it. The better the conductor the more rapidly heat will be transferred. Conduction takes place when heat is supplied to a substance, the particles in that substance gain more energy and vibrate more. These particles then bump into neighboring particles and some of their energy is transferred to them. This process continues and energy is eventually transferred from the hotter end to the colder end of the object. * Thermal convection is transferred from hot places to cold places by convection. Convection occurs when warmer areas of gas or liquid rises to cooler areas of that gas or liquid. The cooler gas or liquid replaces the warmer areas......

Words: 1957 - Pages: 8

#### Physics

...No. Information on Every Subject 1. Unit Name: Physics I 2. Code: FHSP1014 3. Classification: Major 4. Credit Value: 4 5. Trimester/Year Offered: 1/1 6. Pre-requisite (if any): No 7. Mode of Delivery: Lecture, Tutorial, Practical 8. Assessment System and Breakdown of Marks: Continuous assessment: 50% - Theoretical Assessment (Tests/Quizzes/Case Studies) (30%) - Practical Assessment (Lab reports/Lab tests) (20%) Final Examination 9. 10. 50% Academic Staff Teaching Unit: Objective of Unit: The aims of this course are to enable students to: • appreciate the important role of physics in biology. • elucidate the basic principles in introductory physics enveloping mechanics, motion, properties of matter and heat. • resolve and interpret quantitative and qualitative problems in an analytical manner. • acquire an overall perspective of the inter-relationship between the various topics covered and their applications to the real world. • acquire laboratory skills including the proper handling and use of laboratory apparatus and materials. 11. Learning Outcome of Unit: At the end of the course, students will be able to: 1. Identify and practice the use of units and dimensional analysis, uncertainty significant figures and vectors analysis. 2. Apply and solve problems related to translational and rotational kinematics and dynamics in one and two dimensions. 3. Apply and solve problems related to......

Words: 765 - Pages: 4

#### Physics

...Physics Lab 4 Part 1: Friction Parabola Track 3a. Kinetic energy is the highest when the skate board has reached its lowest point. 3b. Kinetic energy is the lowest when in the middle of the drop. 4a. Potential energy is the highest when the skate board has reached the highest point. 4b. Potential energy is lowest when in the middle of the drop. 5a. Total energy is the highest when potential energy is at its highest point. 6. The value of thermal energy is 0 only when potential energy is highest. David Del Rio Physics PH 2530 Lab 4 Energy 04/06/2015 Part 1: Loop Track 8. When a skateboarder moves, what happens to the kinetic and potential energy? Conservative (closed) or non-conservative (open) system? - Kinetic energy rises as the skateboarder moves downward. -potential energy rises as the skateboarder moves up. - Non-Conservative 9. Where is the skateboarder at on the ramp when he reaches the maximum point of potential energy? 4546.93 11. m = 76./kg The skateboarders mass = 76 kg 12a. calculated mass = 76 kg 12b. Actual mass 75 kg 12c. Comparison = .98% 13. When the coefficient is adjusted half way the kinetic energy decreases to 0 as to the potential energy decreases and finally stabilizes. - This is a closed system. Part 2: Friction Parabola Track 2a. kinetic energy is highest when the skaters’ board is at the lowest point 2b. in the middle of the drop the kinetic energy is highest. 3a. potential energy is the highest when the......

Words: 457 - Pages: 2

#### Physics

...the gravitational force on it is nearly constant. As a result, an object in free fall accelerates downward at a constant rate. This acceleration is usually represented with the symbol g. Physics students measure the acceleration due to gravity using a wide variety of timing methods. In this experiment, you will have the advantage of using a very precise timer connected to the calculator and a Photogate. The Photogate has a beam of infrared light that travels from one side to the other. It can detect whenever this beam is blocked. You will drop a piece of clear plastic with evenly spaced black bars on it, called a Picket Fence. As the Picket Fence passes through the Photogate, the LabPro or CBL 2 interface will measure the time from the leading edge of one bar blocking the beam until the leading edge of the next bar blocks the beam. This timing continues as all eight bars pass through the Photogate. From these measured times, the program will calculate the velocities and accelerations for this motion and graphs will be plotted. Picket fen ce Figure 1 OBJECTIVE • Measure the acceleration of a freely falling body (g) to better than 0.5% precision using a Picket Fence and a Photogate. MATERIALS LabPro or CBL 2 interface TI Graphing Calculator DataGate program Physics with Calculators Vernier Photogate Picket Fence clamp or ring stand to secure Photogate Modified from and reported with permission of the publisher Copyright (2000), Vernier......

Words: 2335 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

#### Mathe Formulae

...1 SOME IMPORTANT MATHEMATICAL FORMULAE Circle : Area = π r2; Circumference = 2 π r. Square : Area = x2 ; Perimeter = 4x. Rectangle: Area = xy ; Perimeter = 2(x+y). 1 Triangle : Area = (base)(height) ; Perimeter = a+b+c. 2 3 2 Area of equilateral triangle = a . 4 4 Sphere : Surface Area = 4 π r2 ; Volume = π r3. 3 2 3 Cube : Surface Area = 6a ; Volume = a . 1 Cone : Curved Surface Area = π rl ; Volume = π r2 h 3 π r l + π r2 Total surface area = . Cuboid : Total surface area = 2 (ab + bh + lh); Volume = lbh. Cylinder : Curved surface area = 2 π rh; Volume = π r2 h Total surface area (open) = 2 π rh; Total surface area (closed) = 2 π rh+2 π r2 . SOME BASIC ALGEBRAIC FORMULAE: 1.(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab+ b2 . 2. (a - b)2 = a2 - 2ab+ b2 . 3.(a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b). 4. (a - b)3 = a3 - b3 - 3ab(a - b). 2 2 2 2 5.(a + b + c) = a + b + c +2ab+2bc +2ca. 6.(a + b + c)3 = a3 + b3 + c3+3a2b+3a2c + 3b2c +3b2a +3c2a +3c2a+6abc. 7.a2 - b2 = (a + b)(a – b ) . 8.a3 – b3 = (a – b) (a2 + ab + b2 ). 9.a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 - ab + b2 ). 10.(a + b)2 + (a - b)2 = 4ab. 11.(a + b)2 - (a - b)2 = 2(a2 + b2 ). 12.If a + b +c =0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3 abc . INDICES AND SURDS m n mn (ab)m = a m b m am 1. am an = am + n 2. = a m − n . 3. (a ) = a . 4. . an m am −m = 1 a 5.   = . 6. a 0 = 1, a ≠ 0 . 7. a . 8. a x = a y ⇒ x = y m am b b 9. a x = b x ⇒ a = b 10. a ± 2 b = x ± y , where x + y = a and xy = b. S B......

Words: 2819 - Pages: 12

Free Essay